Oil Well Testing Handbook

Oil Well Testing Handbook

1st Edition - December 19, 2003

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  • Author: Amanat Chaudhry
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780750677066
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080479798

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Description

Oil Well Testing Handbook is a valuable addition to any reservoir engineer's library, containing the basics of well testing methods as well as all of the latest developments in the field. Not only are "evergreen" subjects, such as layered reservoirs, naturally fractured reservoirs, and wellbore effects, covered in depth, but newer developments, such as well testing for horizontal wells, are covered in full chapters.

Key Features

  • Covers real-life examples and cases
  • The most up-to-date information on oil well testing available
  • The perfect reference for the engineer or textbook for the petroleum engineering student

Readership

Drilling Engineers, Petroleum Engineers, Reservoir Engineers, Wellsite Engineers, Geologists, Geophysicists, and Technical Managers. Also: Students and professors in petroleum engineering departments

Table of Contents

  • CHAPTER 1
    Introduction
    1.1 Role of Oil Well Tests and Information in Petroleum Industry
    1.2 History of Oil Well Testing
    1.3 Uses of Oil Well Tests
    1.4 Oil Well Data Acquisition, Analysis and Management
    Efficient Oil Well Test Analysis Programs
    1.5 Selecting Oil Wells for Optimum Stimulation Treatment
    1.6 Reservoir System Characterization Process
    Most Common Oil Well Test Interpretation Methods
    1.7 Scopes and Objective
    1.8 Orginization
    1.9 Units Systems and Conversions
    References for Additional Reading

    CHAPTER 2
    Fundamentals of Reservoir Oil Flow Analysis
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Basic Fluid Flow Equations in Oil Reservoir
    Steady-State Flow Equations and Their Practical Applications
    Ideal Steady-State Flow Equations - Radial Flow
    Pseudo-Steady-State Flow Equations
    Flow Equations for Different Flow Regimes
    Time to Reach Pseudo-Steady State
    Unsteady-State (Transient) Flow Equations
    Radial Diffusivity Equation
    Various Dimensional Flow Geometry
    2.3 Dimensionless Form of Flow Equations, Groups and Variables
    2.4 Analytical Solutions of Fluid Flow Equations
    Bounded (Finite) Cylindrical Reservoir
    Infinite-Acting Reservoir With Line Source Well
    Pseudo-Steady State Flow
    Wellbore Storage Effects and Solutions
    Flow Analysis in Generalized Reservoir Geometry
    Wellbore Damage Analysis and Stimulation
    Time and Radius of Investigation Equations
    2.5 Application of Superposition Techniques
    Effects of More Than One Well
    Rate Change Effects
    Pressure Change Effects
    Simulation Boundary Effects
    Use of Horner's Approximation
    2.6 Numerical Models and Their Applications
    Purpose and Objective of Reservoir Simulation
    Reservoir Model Development Process
    Selection of Numerical Simulation Models and Applications
    2.7 Formulation and Numerical Solutions of Reservoir Simulation Equations
    Single Phase Flow
    Three Phase Oil-Gas-Water Flow
    Two-Phase Oil-Gas Flow in Fractured Reservoir
    2.8 Steady State and Semi-Steady State Pressure Distribution Calculations
    2.9 Pressure Distribution Calculations Unsteady-State Conditions
    Infinite External Boundary Conditions
    Finite External Boundary Conditions
    2.10 Unsteady-State Pressure Distribution Calculations in Directional Well
    2.11 Summary
    References for Additional Readings

    CHAPTER 3
    Transient Well Testing Methods For Horizontal Oil Wells
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Flow Equations for Horizontal Oil Wells
    Steady State Flow Equations and Solutions
    Unsteady State Equations and Solutions
    Calculating Effective Wellbore Radius for Horizontal Oil Well
    Effect of Formation Damage on Horizontal Well Productivity
    Investigating Effect of Sv and b on Horizontal Well Productivity Ratio
    Pseudo-Steady State Equations and Solutions
    Shape Related Skin Factor for Vertical and Fractured Oil Wells
    Shape Factors for Horizontal Oil Wells
    Calculation of Skin Factor for Horizontal Oil Wells
    Pseudo-Steady State Productivity Calculation Methods
    3.3 Horizontal Oil Well Performance During Transient State
    3.4 Transient Well Testing Techniques in Horizontal Oil Wells
    Early Time Radial Flow Equation
    Intermediate Time Linear Flow Equation
    Late Time Radial Flow Equation
    Late Time Linear Flow Equation
    Possible Flow Regimes and Analytical Solutions
    3.5 Flow Time Equations and Solutions
    3.6 Pressure Response Equations and Methods of Analysis
    Under Condition of Pressure Drawdown Test
    Under Condition of Pressure Buildup Test
    3.7 Horizontal Well Pressure and Normalized Pressure Derivative
    3.8 Effects of Wellbore Storage
    3.9 Summary
    References for Additional Reading

    CHAPTER 4
    Pressure Drawdown Testing Techniques For Oil Wells
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Pressure Time History for Constant Rate Drawdown Test
    4.3 Transient Analysis - Infinite Acting Reservoirs
    4.4 Late Transient Analysis - Bounded (Developed) Reservoirs
    4.5 Semi-Steady State Analysis - Reservoir Limit Test
    4.6 Two-Rate Flow Test Analysis
    When Initial Pressure is Not Known
    When Initial Pressure is Known
    4.7 Variable Rate Flow Tests
    Modified Variable Rate Case
    Transient Case
    Average Reservoir Pressure Calculations
    Semi-Steady State Case
    4.8 Multi-Rate Flow Test Analysis
    Multi-Rate, Single Phase Test
    Multi Rate, Multi-Phase Test
    4.9 Drawdown Rate Normalization Equations and Solutions
    Analysis Methods, Their Applications and Limitations
    Drawdown Rate Normalization Equations and Solutions
    4.10 Summary
    References for AdditionalReading

    CHAPTER 5
    Pressure Buildup Analysis Techniques For Oil Wells
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Ideal Pressure Buildup Test
    5.3 Actual Buildup Test - Infinite Reservoir
    5.4 Pressure Buildup Test Analysis - Infinite Acting Reservoir
    Effects and Duration of After-Flow Test
    Calculating Flow Capacity and Formation Permeability
    Estimating Skin Factor
    Pressure Drop Due to Skin
    Determining Effective Wellbore Radius
    Flow Efficiency and Damage Ratio
    Estimating Skin Effects of Incompletely Perforated Interval
    Determining Skin Effects in a Partially Completed Damaged Well
    Estimating Reservoir Size from Two Pressure Buildup Tests
    Typical Shapes of Buildup Curves
    5.5 Pressure Buildup Testing Methods for Finite (Bounded) Reservoir
    Horner and MBH Method
    Miller-Dyes-Hutchinson (MDH) Method
    Extended Muskat Method
    Slider's Technique for Analyzing Buildup Test
    5.6 Multiphase Buildup Test Analysis
    5.7 Afterflow Analysis Using Russell's Techniques
    5.8 Pressure Buildup Tests Proceeded by Two Different Flow Rates
    5.9 Variable Rate Pressure Buildup Analysis
    5.10 Multiphase Multirate Buildup Test Analysis
    5.11 Rate Normalization Techniques and Procedures - Pressure Buildup Data
    Analysis Methods, Their Uses and Limitations
    Buildup Rate Normalization Equations and Solutions
    Normalized Pressure Modified MDH Plot Analysis
    Normalized Pressure Squarer Root Time plot
    Average Reservoir Pressure Equation
    5.12 Summary
    References for AdditionaReading

    CHAPTER 6
    Original and Average Reservoir Pressure Estimation Methods
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Original Reservoir Pressure in Infinite Reservoirs
    6.3 Estimating Average and Initial Pressure
    Horner and MBH Method
    MDH Method
    Dietz Method
    Ramey and Cobb Methods
    Modified Muskat Method
    Arps and Smith Method
    6.4 Estimating Constant Pressure at Aquifer in Water Drive Reservoirs
    Boundary and Average Pressure Estimating Methods
    6.5 Summary
    References for Additional Reading

    CHAPTER 7
    Well Testing Methods for Naturally Fractured Oil Reservoirs
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Identification of Natural Fractures
    7.3 Characteristics of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
    7.4 Typical Pressure Drawdown Behavior Curve Shapes
    7.5 Pressure Buildup Behavior Characteristics
    7.6 Well Test Interpretation Methods, Uses and Limitations
    Pseudo Steady-State Model
    Transient State Model
    Pressure Gradient Models
    Type Curve Matching Technique
    Pressure Derivative Method
    7.7 Buildup Analysis Techniques For Tight Reservoir Matrix
    7.8 Interpretation of Interference Tests in Matrix and Fractured Reservoirs
    Uses of Interference Tests
    Dimensionless Fracture Pressure Solution
    Dimensionless Matrix Pressure Solution
    Interference Test Analysis Using Type Curve Match Equations
    7.9 Horizontal Well Pressure Behavior Curve Shapes
    Identification of Various Flow Periods
    Well Test Analysis Equations and Solutions
    7.9 Horizontal Well Production Forecasting for Dual Porosity Reservoir
    7.10 Summary
    References for Additional Reading

    CHAPTER 8
    Fundamentals of Type Curve Matching Methods For Oil Wells
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Application to Conventional Tests
    Ramey's Type Curves
    Earlougher and Kersch Type Curves
    McKinley's Type Curves
    8.3 Fracture Type Curve Matching Techniques
    Type Curves - Vertical Fractured Oil Wells
    8.4 Types Curves - Horizontal Fractured Oil Wells
    Using Pressure Drawdown Data
    Estimation of Upper Limit of Permeability Thickness Product
    8.5 Summary
    References for Additional Reading

    CHAPTER 9
    Flow Regime Identification and Analysis Using Special Methods
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Fracture Linear Flow Period
    9.3 Bilinear Flow
    9.4 Formation Linear Flow
    9.5 Pseudo-Radial Flow
    9.6 Type Curve Matching Methods - Field Case Studies
    Case 1 - Bilinear Flow Type of Analysis
    Case 2 - Pressure Data Partially Match Curve for the Pseudo-Radial Flow Period
    Case 3 - Pressure Exhibit a Half Slope Line on a Log-Log Plot
    Case 4 - Pressure Data Partially Falling in the Pseudo-Radial Flow Period
    9.7 Summary
    References for Additional Reading


    CHAPTER 10
    Applications of Pressure Derivative in Oil Well Test Analysis
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Determining Pressure Derivative Functions
    10.3 Log-Log Pressure and Pressure Derivative Diagnostic Plots
    10.4 Pressure Derivative Trends For Other Common Flow Regimes
    10.5 Pressure Derivative Applications to Well Test Analysis
    10.6 Pressure derivative Analysis Methods
    Pressure Buildup Test Data Matching Procedure
    Pressure Drawdown Test Data Matching Procedures
    10.7 Fractured Reservoir Systems
    Pseudo-State Interporosity Flow
    Transient Interporosity Flow
    10.8 Summary
    References for Additional Reading

    CHAPTER 11
    Massive Hydraulic Fractured Oil Well Behavior Analysis
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Methods of Evaluating MHF Fractured Oil Wells
    11.3 Analyzing Infinite Flow Capacity Fractures
    11.4 Analyzing Finite Flow Capacity Fractures
    Constant Wellbore Pressure Case
    Constant Rate Case
    11.5 Estimating Formation Characteristics - Finite Conductivity Vertical Fractures
    Curve Matching Procedures
    Conventional Method of Analysis
    11.6 Pretreatment Testing of Hydraulically Fractured Candidate
    Horner Analysis
    Linear Flow Analysis - High Conductivity Fractures
    Type Curve Analysis
    Bilinear Flow Analysis - Low Conductivity Fractures
    11.7 Summary
    References for Additional Reading


    CHAPTER 12
    Drill-Stem Testing Methods
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 DST Equipment and Operational Procedures
    Basics of DST Operations
    DST Pressure Behavior
    12.3 Recommended Flow and Shut-in Time for Drill-Stem Tests
    12.4 Trouble Shooting DST Pressure Charts 444
    DST Charts for Barrier Detection
    12.5 Checking Validity and Consistency of Reported DST Data
    12.6 Estimating Average Flow Rate
    12.7 DST Analysis Methods, Uses and Their Limitations
    Horner's Plot Method
    Type Curve Matching Methods
    Correa and Ramey's Method
    Drill-Stem Buildup Test Analysis With Limited Data
    12.8 Wireline Formation Test Data Evaluation
    Open-Hole Formation Test
    Closed-Hole Formation Test
    Empirical Interpretation Charts for Formation Tester Results
    Reservoir Rock's Porosity Distribution System Analysis
    Matrix Pore Volume Calculation
    Fracture Pore Volume Calculation
    Partitioning Coefficient Estimation
    Well Skin Effects
    12.9 Summary
    References for Additional Reading

    CHAPTER 13
    Oil Well Potential Evaluation and IPR Relationships
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Classification and Identifying Values of Permeability-Thickness Product
    13.3 Isochronal and Flow After-Flow Tests
    13.4 Wellbore Restriction Analysis
    Procedure and Method of Analysis Well Test
    Effect of Changing Completion Zone on Well IPR
    13.5 Factors Affecting IPR Curves
    13.6 Criteria for Identifying Type of Drives
    13.7 Classifications to Predict IPR Curves
    13.8 Basic Assumptions to Predict IPR Curves
    13.9 Well Inflow Performance Calculation Methods for Vertical Oil Wells
    From Limited Information
    Single Phase Liquid and Two Phase Flow
    When Flow Efficiency Not Equal to One
    Two Phase Flow Producing Water
    13.10 Inflow Performance (IPR) Relationship
    Solution Gas Drive - Vertical and Horizontal Oil Wells
    13.11 Development Procedure for Preparation of Future IPR Curves
    IPR Calculating for Future Conditions
    13.12 Summary
    References for Additional Reading

    CHAPTER 14
    Interference and Pulse Testing and Analysis Methods
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Interference Test Analysis Techniques
    Interference Test Analysis by Type Curve Matching
    14.3 Analysis of Pulse Test Pressure Response
    Characteristics of Pressure Response
    Pulse Test Responses With Flow and Shut-in Time
    Pulse Test Analysis Methods
    Horizontal Pulse Test Analysis
    14.4 Vertical Pulse Test Design and Analysis Methods
    Vertical Pulse Test Design Calculations
    14.5 Design and Analysis of Unequal Pulses
    Pulse Test Designing Methods
    Pulse Test Analysis Methods
    14.6 Summary
    References for Additional Reading


    CHAPTER 15
    Injection Well Transient Testing and Analysis
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Injectivity Test Analysis Methods
    Under Steady State Conditions
    Waterflood Reservoir With M.R =1
    Liquid Filled Unit-Mobility-Ratio Reservoirs
    15.3 Pressure Fall-off Test Analysis Methods
    Liquid Filled Unit-Mobility-Ratio Reservoirs
    Prior to Reservoir Fillup (Unit Mobility Ratio)
    Prior to Reservoir Fillup (Non Unit Mobility Ratio)
    15.4 Two Rate Injection Test Analysis
    15.5 Step Rate Injectivity Testing Techniques
    Estimation of Formation Fracture Pressure
    15.6 Summary
    References for Additional Reading

    CHAPTER 16
    Well Testing Methods in Multilayered Oil Reservoir Systems
    16.1 Introduction
    16.2 Identification of Layered Oil Reservoir Systems
    16.3 Analyzing Pressure Behavior Multilayered Systems
    Layered Reservoir With Crossflow
    Layered Reservoir Without Crossflow
    Composite Reservoirs
    Interlayer Crossflow Reservoirs
    16.4 Concept of Reservoir Layer Fracture Conductivity
    16.5 Pressure-Production Performance Response Equations
    Constant Producing Pressure
    Constant Producing Rate
    16.6 Investigating Degree of Communication and Type of Crossflow
    16.7 Pressure Buildup Response Characteristics in Layered Reservoir Systems
    16.8 Pressure Analysis Methods for Oil Wells Producing Commingled Zones
    Conventional Analysis Method (Horner Plot)
    MDH Method
    Extended Muskat Plot
    Other Methods
    16.9 Factors Effecting Multilayered Reservoir Performance
    16.10 Economic Aspects of Interlayer Crossflow 595
    References for additional reading

    CHAPTER 17
    Pressure Analysis Methods in Heterogeneous Oil Reservoir Systems
    17.1 Introduction
    17.2 Effect of Pressure on Rock Properties
    17.3 Major Causes of Heterogeneities
    17.4 Pressure Responses Near No Flow Boundaries
    Methods of Estimating Distance to a Linear Discontinuity
    17.5 Effect of Hydraulic Diffusivity on Reservoir Behavior
    17.6 Simple Procedures and Guidelines to Determine Reservoir Heterogeneity Properties
    17.7 Simple Approach to Estimate Fracture Trends or Heterogeneities
    17.8 Determination of Reservoir Parameters and Fracture Orientation
    17.9 Defining Reservoir Heterogeneity By Multiple Well Testing Techniques
    Homogeneous Isotropic Reservoir Systems
    Anisotropic Reservoir Systems
    Heterogeneous Reservoir Systems
    17.10 Method for Calculating Fracture Orientation
    17.11 Estimating Two Dimensional Permeability With Vertical Interference Testing
    17.12 Application of Pulse Tests to Describe Reservoir Heterogeneity
    Homogeneous Isotropic Reservoir Systems
    Anisitropic Reservoir Systems
    17.13 Validity of Various Models and Steps to Obtain Reservoir Descriptions
    17.14 Summary
    References for Additional Reading

    CHAPTER 18
    Oil Well Testing - Field Case Studies
    18.1 Introduction
    18.2 Oil Well Test Evaluation Sheet
    18.3 Method to Convert Bottom Hole Pressure at Instrument Depth To Reservoir Datum
    18.4 Determining Average Depth of Oil Reservoirs
    18.5 Stimulation Efforts Evaluation, Summary and Results
    Low Pressure Reservoirs -Multiphase Pressure Buildup Test Analysis
    Field Case Studies
    18.6 Transient Pressure Drawdown Test Analysis
    General Equations
    Method of Analysis
    Field Case Studies
    18.7 Skin Effect, Skin Factor, and Flow Efficiency
    Positive (+) and Negative (-) Skins
    Skin Factor Equations and Their Relationships
    Causes of Positive and Negative Skins
    Relationships With Flow Efficiency
    18.8 Factors Responsible For Reduction in Formation Permeability
    18.9 Improvement Analysis As a Result of Fracture Treatment
    References for Additional Reading


    CHAPTER 19
    Decline Curve Analysis Methods
    19.1 Introduction
    19.2 Transient Decline Behavior Analysis
    Transient Drainage Radius During Infinite-Acting Period
    Characteristics of Exponent b During Transient Period
    Production Characteristics During Transient Period
    Constant Pressure Rate Decline
    Constant Rate Production, Pressure Declining
    19.3 Pseudo-Steady State Decline
    Forecasting Rate Decline
    19.4 Characteristics and Classification of Production Decline Curves
    Hyperbolic Decline Behavior
    Exponential Decline Behavior
    Harmonic Decline Behavior
    Characteristics and Decline Exponent b Estimating Techniques
    Harmonic Decline Curve
    19.5 Decline Response Behavior in Fractured Reservoirs
    Classifications and Limitations of Log Log Type Curves
    Type Curve Matching Methods
    19.6 Summary
    References for Additional Reading

    CHAPTER 20
    Overall Skin Effects and Impact On Oil Well Performance
    20.1 Introduction
    20.2 Concept of Skin Factor
    20.3 Wellbore Damage Effects
    20.4 Effective Wellbore Radius Concepts and Productivity Index Calculation Techniques
    Vertical Wells
    Horizontal Wells
    20.5 Skin Factor Due to Partial Penetration
    20.6 Skin Factor Due to Perforation
    20.7 Skin from Partial Completion and Slant
    20.8 Skin Factor Due to Reduced Crushed Zone Permeability
    20.9 Slant Well Damage Skin Effect on Well Productivity
    20.10 Horizontal Well Damage Skin Effects
    Impact of Skin Effect on Horizontal Oil Well Performance
    20.21 Summary
    References for Additional Reading

    APPENDIX A
    Conversion Factors Between Unit Systems

    APPENDIX B
    Correlation Tables and Charts for Dimensionless Functions
    References for Additional Readings

    APPENDIX C
    Pressure Drop Through Vertical, Inclined and Horizontal Oil Wells
    C.1 Hagedorn and Brown Method - Vertical Oil Wells
    C.2 Beggs and Brill Method - Inclined and Horizontal Pipes

    References for Additional Readings

    APPENDIX D
    Oil and Water PVT Properties and Correlation Equations
    D.1 Oil PVT Properties and Correlations
    Bubble Point (Saturation) Pressure
    Factors Affecting Saturation Pressure
    Correlations For Saturation Pressure Calculation
    D.2 Solution Gas Oil Ratio
    D.3 Oil Formation Volume Factor (FVF)
    Correlations to Determine Oil FVF
    D.4 Total Formation Volume Fcator
    D.5 Oil Density
    D.6 Oil Viscosity
    Factors Affecting Oil Viscosity
    Methods to Estimate Oil Viscosity
    D.7 Oil Compressibility
    D.8 Reservoir Rock Properties
    D.9 Reservoir PVT Water Properties
    Use of New Tables to Determine Formation Water PVT Properties

    References for Additional Readings

    APPENDIX E
    Substantial Set of Problems Without Solution
    E.1 Routine exercises to Practical Applications

    Nomenclature 7
    Bibliography
    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 525
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Gulf Professional Publishing 2003
  • Published: December 19, 2003
  • Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780750677066
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080479798

About the Author

Amanat Chaudhry

Amanat Chaudhry is President and Engineering Manager with Advanced Twpsom Petroleum Systems, Inc. in Houston, Texas. He founded Twpsom in 1995. The company is involved in the development of PC-based well simulation and management software support models and programs in reservoir and production engineering. He has more than 20 years of international and domestic experience in reservoir engineering reservoir simulation development and applications, well testing, water flooding, EOR techniques, reservoir studies and operations. Mr. Chaudhry formally worked as a Senior Reservoir Engineering Advisor an Senior Staff Reservoir Engineer of Pertamina, the state Owned Oil Company of Indonesia. He also worked as Senior Reservoir Engineer with Core Lab Inc. - now Western Atlas in Reservoir Simulation Application Group in Dallas. He has started his career in the oil industry with Reservoir PVT & EOR Lab Inc. (subsidiaries of Core Lab Inc.) in Houston, Texas, as a Research Associate. Her holds MS degrees in Petroleum Engineering and Chemical Engineering both from the University of Pittsburgh, PA.

Affiliations and Expertise

President & Engineering Manager, Advanced TWPSOM Petroleum Systems Inc., Houston, TX, USA

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