Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

A 21st Century Perspective

2nd Edition - October 22, 2013

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  • Editors: Gerold Siedler, Stephen Griffies, John Gould, John Church
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123918536
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123918512

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Description

The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of world ocean circulation experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation.

Key Features

  • Presents in situ and remote observations with worldwide coverage
  • Provides theoretical understanding of processes within the ocean and at its boundaries to other Earth System components
  • Allows for simulating ocean and climate processes in the past, present and future using a hierarchy of physical-biogeochemical models

Readership

Graduate students, practitioners, researchers in oceanographic fields, atmospheric and meteorological studies

Table of Contents

  • Contributors

    Acknowledgments

    Cover Graphics

    Preface

    Part I: The Ocean’s Role in the Climate System

    Part I: The Ocean's Role in the Climate System

    Chapter 1. The Ocean as a Component of the Climate System

    Abstract

    1 Setting the Scene

    2 The Ocean as an Exchanging Earth System Reservoir

    3 Atmosphere–Ocean Fluxes and Meridional Transports

    4 Global-Scale Surface and Deep Ocean Circulations

    5 Large-Scale Modes of Variability Involving the Ocean

    6 The Ocean's Role in Past Climate Change

    7 The Ocean in the Anthropocene

    8 Concluding Thoughts

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 2. Paleoclimatic Ocean Circulation and Sea-Level Changes

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Reconstructing Past Ocean States

    3 The Oceans in the Quaternary

    4 The Deeper Past

    5 Outlook

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Part II: Ocean Observations

    Part II: Ocean Observations

    Chapter 3. In Situ Ocean Observations: A Brief History, Present Status, and Future Directions

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Development of Present Observational Capability

    3 Emerging and Specialized Ocean Observing Technologies

    4 Changes in Data Volume and Coverage and Implication for Synthesis Products

    5 The Future: Outstanding Issues and a New Framework for Global Ocean Observing

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4. Remote Sensing of the Global Ocean Circulation

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Ocean General Circulation

    3 Variability of the Large-Scale Ocean Circulation

    4 Mesoscale Eddies and Fronts

    5 Summary and Outlook

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Part III: Ocean Processes

    Part III: Ocean Processes

    Chapter 5. Exchanges Through the Ocean Surface

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Air–Sea Exchange Formulae and Climatological Fields

    3 Measurement Techniques and Review of Datasets

    4 Variability and Extremes

    5 Ocean Impacts

    6 Outlook and Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 6. Thermodynamics of Seawater

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Absolute Salinity SA and Preformed Salinity S*

    3 The Gibbs-Function Approach to Evaluating Thermodynamic Properties

    4 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Conservative Temperature Θ

    5 The 48-Term Expression for Specific Volume

    6 Changes to Oceanographic Practice Under TEOS-10

    7 Ocean Modeling Using TEOS-10

    8 Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 7. Diapycnal Mixing Processes in the Ocean Interior

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Mixing Basics

    3 Turbulence in and Below the Surface Mixed Layer

    4 Mixing in the Ocean Interior

    5 Discussion

    6 Summary and Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 8. Lateral Transport in the Ocean Interior

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Theory of Mass, Tracer, and Vector Transport

    3 Observations and Models of Spatial Variations of Eddy Statistics

    4 Mesoscale Isoneutral Diffusivity Variation Parameterizations

    5 Conclusions and Remaining Questions

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 9. Global Distribution and Formation of Mode Waters

    Abstract

    1 Mode Water Observations

    2 Global Water Mass Census of the Upper Ocean

    3 Global Distribution of Mode Water

    4 Formation of Mode Water

    5 PV Framework

    6 Mode Water and Climate

    7 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 10. Deepwater Formation

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Processes of Deepwater Formation

    3 Interannual and Decadal Variability in Properties, Formation Rate, and Circulation

    4 Conclusions and Outlook

    References

    Part VI: Ocean Circulation and Water Masses

    Part IV: Ocean Circulation and Water Masses

    Chapter 11. Conceptual Models of the Wind-Driven and Thermohaline Circulation

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Wind-Driven Circulation

    3 Thermohaline Circulation

    4 Transient Behaviour of the Wind-Driven and Thermohaline Circulation

    5 Discussion and Perspective

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 12. Ocean Surface Circulation

    Abstract

    1 Observed Near-Surface Currents

    2 Geostrophic Surface Circulation

    3 Ageostrophic Currents

    4 Regional Surface Ocean Dynamics

    5 Applications

    6 Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 13. Western Boundary Currents

    Abstract

    1 General Features

    2 North Atlantic

    3 South Atlantic

    4 Indian Ocean

    5 North Pacific

    6 South Pacific

    7 Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 14. Currents and Processes along the Eastern Boundaries

    Abstract

    1 Introduction and General Background

    2 Low-Latitude EBCs

    3 Midlatitude EBCs: The EBUS

    4 High-Latitude EBCs

    5 Climate Variability and the Ocean’s Eastern Boundaries

    6 Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 15. The Tropical Ocean Circulation and Dynamics

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Tropical Pacific Variability

    3 Tropical Atlantic Variability

    4 Tropical Indian Ocean Variability

    5 Progresses in Tropical Climate Predictions

    6 Outlooks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 16. The Marine Cryosphere

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Sea Ice

    3 Land Ice

    4 Marine Permafrost

    5 Emerging Capabilities

    6 Cryospheric Change

    7 Summary

    References

    Chapter 17. The Arctic and Subarctic Oceans/Seas

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Exchanges with the Subpolar Oceans and Beyond

    3 Currents and Water Mass Transformations in the Arctic/Subarctic

    4 Evidence of Long-term Changes in the Arctic/Subarctic

    5 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 18. Dynamics of the Southern Ocean Circulation

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Progress in Understanding Southern Ocean Dynamics During WOCE (1990–2002)

    3 The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC)

    4 Southern Ocean Overturning Circulation

    5 Southern Ocean Change

    6 Summary and Outstanding Challenges

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 19. Interocean and Interbasin Exchanges

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Interocean Exchanges at Choke Points

    3 Interbasin Exchanges

    4 Deep Passages

    5 Discussion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Part V: Modeling the Ocean Climate System

    Part V: Modeling the Ocean Climate System

    Chapters in This Part of the Book

    The Need for Ongoing Efforts from Future Generations

    Chapter 20. Ocean Circulation Models and Modeling

    Abstract

    1 Scope of this Chapter

    2 Physical and Numerical Basis for Ocean Models

    3 Ocean Modeling: Science Emerging from Simulations

    4 Summary Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 21. Dynamically and Kinematically Consistent Global Ocean Circulation and Ice State Estimates

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Definition

    3 Data Assimilation and the Reanalyses

    4 Ocean State Estimates

    5 Global-Scale Solutions

    6 The Uncertainty Problem

    7 Discussion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 22. Methods and Applications of Ocean Synthesis in Climate Research

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Methods with a Focus on Developments in the Last Decade

    3 Applications for Climate Research

    4 Assessments of the Impact of New and Future Climate Observing Systems

    5 Conclusion and Future Challenges

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 23. Coupled Models and Climate Projections

    Abstract

    1 Formulation of Coupled Models

    2 Flux Adjustments

    3 Control Runs

    4 Twentieth Century Runs

    5 Future Projections

    6 North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    7 El Nino/Southern Oscillation

    8 Uses of Climate Models

    9 Limitations of Climate Models

    10 Cutting Edge Issues

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 24. The Ocean’s Role in Modeling and Predicting Seasonal-to-Interannual Climate Variations

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 The Scientific Basis for Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction

    3 Development of Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Systems

    4 Closing Remarks: Challenges for the Future Research

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 25. The Ocean's Role in Modeling and Predicting Decadal Climate Variations

    Abstract

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 Tropical Pacific and Tropical Atlantic Decadal Variability

    3 Description of Extratropical Decadal Variability from Observations

    4 The Stochastic Climate Model: The Null Hypothesis for Climate Variability

    5 Decadal Predictability

    6 Summary and Discussion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 26. Modeling Ocean Biogeochemical Processes and the Resulting Tracer Distributions

    Abstract

    1 Goals of Ocean Biogeochemical Modeling within Climate Research

    2 Concepts and Methods of Biogeochemical Ocean Modeling

    3 Model Results, Evaluation, Skill, and Limits, and Model Data Fusion/Data Assimilation

    4 Major Marine Carbon Modeling Findings of the Recent Decade

    5 Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Further Reading

    Part VI: The Changing Ocean

    Part VI: The Changing Ocean

    Chapter 27. Sea-Level and Ocean Heat-Content Change

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Fundamental Concepts of Sea-Level Change

    3 Observations of Sea-Level Change

    4 Observations of Ocean Heat-Content and Steric Sea-Level Change

    5 Understanding Observed Sea-Level Change

    6 Prediction and Projections of Future Sea-Level Change

    7 Future Outlook

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 28. Long-term Salinity Changes and Implications for the Global Water Cycle

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Salinity Observations in the Global Oceans

    3 Observed Salinity Variability

    4 Observed Long-Term Changes to Ocean Salinity

    5 Ocean Salinity—Relationship to the Global Water Cycle

    6 Modeling Ocean Salinity Variability and Change

    7 Summary and Outlook

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 29. Ocean Heat Transport

    Abstract

    1 Background

    2 Calculation of Ocean Heat Transport

    3 Observation-Based Estimates of Ocean Heat Transport

    4 Understanding Mechanisms

    5 Ocean Heat Transport Variability

    6 Synthesis and Summary

    References

    Further-Reading

    Chapter 30. The Marine Carbon Cycle and Ocean Carbon Inventories

    Abstract

    1 Introduction and Background to the Marine Carbon Cycle

    2 History of Observations and Capacity to Collect Marine Carbon Cycle Measurements

    3 The Anthropogenic Perturbation of the Marine Carbonate System

    4 Ocean Inventories, Storage Rates, and Uptake of CO2 and Cant

    5 Ocean Time-Series Validation of Trends in DIC/pCO2/Cant

    6 Conclusion and Outlook

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 31. Marine Ecosystems, Biogeochemistry, and Climate

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Phytoplankton, Primary Production, and Climate

    3 Climate Impacts on Higher Trophic Levels

    4 Ocean Acidification

    5 Deoxygenation and Hypoxia

    6 Marine Biogeochemical Cycles–Climate Interactions

    7 Observational and Research Directions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 904
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: October 22, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123918536
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123918512

About the Series Volume Editors

Gerold Siedler

Gerold Siedler
Gerold Siedler is a physical oceanographer at the marine research institute in Kiel/Germany. He established a highly regarded ocean observing unit and participated in almost 30 research cruises. His research focused on ocean processes and circulation in all three oceans. He was professor at Kiel University, Director of the marine research institute IfM (1976-1978) and Dean of the Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences (1991-1992) at Kiel University. In addition he worked as visiting investigator abroad, in particular at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the USA, including teaching in the WHOI/MIT joint program. He performed research at the University of Miami, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Pasadena, the University of Hawaii in the USA, the Laboratory for the Physics of the Ocean, Paris and Ifremer/Brest in France, and as a Humboldt researcher at the University of Cape Town in South Africa. He served in leading functions in major international ocean/climate programs, in particular GATE and WOCE. He was a vice-president of the Association for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean (IAPSO, 1975-1979) and a president of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR, 1983-1988) at ICSU. He published 77 peer-reviewed papers, authored or edited 4 books and contributed to 18 books. He is now Emeritus Professor at Kiel University.

Affiliations and Expertise

Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany

Stephen Griffies

Stephen Griffies
Stephen Griffies is a senior scientist at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory in Princeton, USA. He is an expert on physical and numerical aspects of ocean circulation models and their applications for understanding and predicting large-scale climate phenomena. His research focuses on questions related to global and regional sea level; ocean mesoscale dynamics and parameterizations; climate predictability; physically based analysis methods; and numerical algorithms. He is a leader in projects associated with the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), having led the WCRP/CLIVAR Working Group on Ocean Model Development as part of coordinating ocean climate modeling efforts worldwide. Besides his 20 years in Princeton, he has worked for extended periods in Australia on topics related to the ocean climate modeling, Southern Ocean dynamics, and physical ocean processes. He authored a standard monograph on fundamentals of ocean climate models and co-authored more than 80 peer-reviewed research articles. He was awarded the 2014 Fridtjof Nansen Medal from the European Geosciences Union for contributions to oceanography.

Affiliations and Expertise

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ, USA

John Gould

John Gould
John Gould (sometimes known as W. John) has had a long career in ocean research mostly focused on the collection and interpretation of ocean current measurements. His career started with working with John Swallow, who first developed the neutrally buoyant float at the UK National Institute of Oceanography. He led many research cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean. He was Project Director of the World Climate Research Programme’s World Ocean Circulation Experiment- WOCE (1993-2002) and of its Climate Variability and Predictability Study -CLIVAR (1998-2002). From 2002-2006 he directed the international Argo profiling float project. At various times he has chaired the ICES Oceanic Hydrography Working Group and been a member of the executive of the International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean and a member of the advisory board for Australia’s Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS). He has an interest in widening public awareness of marine science and of the oceans’ role in climate. He is a member of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysic’s History Working Group and is a visiting scientist at the UK’s National Oceanography Centre.

Affiliations and Expertise

Southampton Oceanography Centre, Southampton, U.K.

John Church

John Church
John Church is a CSIRO Fellow with the Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research. His area of expertise is the role of the ocean in climate, particularly anthropogenic climate change and sea-level rise. He has been a Principal Investigator on NASA/CNES satellite altimeter Science Working Teams since 1987. He was co-convening lead author for the Chapter on Sea Level in the IPCC Third and Fifth Assessment Reports. He Co-Chaired the international Scientific Steering Group for the World Ocean Circulation Experiment from 1994 to 1998 and Chaired the Joint Scientific Committee of the World Climate Research Programme from 2006 to 2008. He was awarded the 2006 Roger Revelle Medal by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, was a winner of a CSIRO Medal for Research Achievement in 2006, won the 2007 Eureka Prize for Scientific Research and presented the 2008 AMOS R.H. Clarke Lecture. He is the author of over 120 refereed publications, 80 other reports and co-edited three books. He is a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science and the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering.

Affiliations and Expertise

Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, a Partnership between CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology, Hobart, Australia

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