Occupancy Estimation and Modeling

Occupancy Estimation and Modeling

Inferring Patterns and Dynamics of Species Occurrence

2nd Edition - November 13, 2017

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  • Authors: Darryl MacKenzie, James Nichols, J. Royle, Kenneth Pollock, Larissa Bailey, James Hines
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124072459
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128146910

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Occupancy Estimation and Modeling: Inferring Patterns and Dynamics of Species Occurrence, Second Edition, provides a synthesis of model-based approaches for analyzing presence-absence data, allowing for imperfect detection. Beginning from the relatively simple case of estimating the proportion of area or sampling units occupied at the time of surveying, the authors describe a wide variety of extensions that have been developed since the early 2000s. This provides an improved insight about species and community ecology, including, detection heterogeneity; correlated detections; spatial autocorrelation; multiple states or classes of occupancy; changes in occupancy over time; species co-occurrence; community-level modeling, and more. Occupancy Estimation and Modeling: Inferring Patterns and Dynamics of Species Occurrence, Second Edition has been greatly expanded and detail is provided regarding the estimation methods and examples of their application are given. Important study design recommendations are also covered to give a well rounded view of modeling.  

Key Features

  • Provides authoritative insights into the latest in occupancy modeling
  • Examines the latest methods in analyzing detection/no detection data surveys
  • Addresses critical issues of imperfect detectability and its effects on species occurrence estimation
  • Discusses important study design considerations such as defining sample units, sample size determination and optimal effort allocation


Ecologists, population animal researchers, biologists, and graduate students in related areas

Table of Contents

    1. Introduction
    2. Occupancy Applications
    3. Fundamental Principals of Statistical Inference

    4. Basic Presence/absence Situation
    5. Beyond Two Occupancy States
    6. Extensions to Basic Approaches
    7. Modeling Hetergeneous Detection Probabilities

    8. Basic Presence/absence Situation
    9. More than Two Occupancy States
    10. Further Topics

    11. Design of Single-season Occupancy Studies
    12. Multiple Season Study Design

    13. Integrated Modeling of Habitat and Occupancy Dynamics
    14. Species Co-occurrence
    15. Occupancy in Community-level Studies
    16. Final Comments

Product details

  • No. of pages: 648
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2017
  • Published: November 13, 2017
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124072459
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128146910

About the Authors

Darryl MacKenzie

Dr. MacKenzie is biometrician for Proteus Wildlife Research Consultants in New Zealand. His main area of expertise is in using occupancy models for monitoring and research. He started working in this area while on a year long stint at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center with Drs William L. Kendall and James D. Nichols during 2000/01. He has acted as a statistical consultant to the Department of Conservation, Ministry of Fisheries and the U.S. Geological Survey. In 2002 Darryl was awarded a prestigious Fast-Start Marsden Grant from the Royal Society of New Zealand for research into optimal study designs for estimating the proportion of area occupied by a target species.

Affiliations and Expertise

Proteus Research and Consulting, Dunedin, New Zealand

James Nichols

James Nichols
James Nichols received a B.S. in Biology from Wake Forest Univ., M.S. in Wildlife Management from Louisiana State Univ., and Ph.D. in Wildlife Ecology from Michigan State Univ. He has spent his entire research career at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center working for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Biological Service, and now the U.S. Geological Survey. He is currently a Senior Scientist at Patuxent. His research interests focus on the dynamics and management of animal populations and on methods for estimating population parameters.

Affiliations and Expertise

U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD, USA

J. Royle

J. Royle
Dr Royle is a Senior Scientist and Research Statistician at the U.S. Geological Survey's Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. His research is focused on the application of probability and statistics to ecological problems, especially those related to animal sampling and demographic modeling. Much of his research over the last 10 years has been devoted to the development of methods illustrated in our new book. He has authored or coauthored more than 100 journal articles, and co-authored the books Spatial Capture Recapture, Hierarchical Modeling and Inference in Ecology and Occupancy Estimation and Modeling: Inferring Patterns and Dynamics of Species Occurrence, all published by Academic Press.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Statistician, U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD, USA

Kenneth Pollock

Kenneth Pollock

Affiliations and Expertise

North Carolina State University, Department of Zoology, Raleigh, NC, USA

Larissa Bailey

Larissa Bailey

Affiliations and Expertise

Colorado State University, USA

James Hines

Affiliations and Expertise

U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD, USA

Ratings and Reviews

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  • andy Tue Sep 07 2021


    Very efficiently written information. It will be beneficial to anybody who utilizes it, including me. Keep up the good work. For sure i will check out more posts. This site seems to get a good amount of visitors. instagram

  • RichardGroover Fri Mar 27 2020

    Occupancy Estimation and Modeling

    Fine, although to truly understand and use it, the reader should know PRESENCE software

  • DouglasCausey Fri Dec 07 2018

    Occupancy Estimation and Modeling

    This is the most recent edition of a classic that set the standard for occupancy modeling research. This is updated, clearly laid out, easy to understand, and authoritative. An outstanding resource.

  • JasonPreble Fri Nov 02 2018

    solid reference for occupancy modeling studies

    I bought this book before starting an occupancy modeling study on bats in order to help determine best practices. It has served this purpose well, and I could read up on the topics I needed without being put to sleep. I particularly enjoyed the study case concerning trolls in Middle Earth.

  • Manoon P. Thu Jan 25 2018

    Occupancy Estimation and Modeling 2nd edition

    I think this is a fundamental book for people who interested in studying spatial ecology of wildlife and plant (dermatology filed also), especially for students. The book include all vital information, evolution of the the concepts plus examples. There many recent researches included in this new edition, update from the first one in 2002 as due to it popularity increasing over time since the first one released. I appreciate that I can own one, that will be one of my good reference that will definitely used when I write and analyze data for my thesis in next couple years.

  • Bayu B. Wed Jan 24 2018

    Occupancy estimation and modelling

    Strongly recommended book!!!