Obesity - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124077669, 9780124115170

Obesity, Volume 91

1st Edition

Serial Editors: Gerald Litwack
eBook ISBN: 9780124115170
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124077669
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 11th February 2013
Page Count: 512
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Table of Contents

Former Editors

Contributors

Preface

Chapter One. Hormonal Regulation of Lipogenesis

1 Introduction

2 Defining Lipogenesis

3 Lipogenesis in Metabolic Target Tissues

4 Regulation of Lipogenesis

5 Hormonal Regulation

6 Conclusions

References

Chapter Two. Genetic Determinants of Obesity and Related Vascular Diseases

1 Introduction

2 Genetic Determinants of Obesity

3 Vascular Diseases Related to Overweight and Obesity

4 Conclusions

References

Chapter Three. Brd2 Gene Disruption Causes “Metabolically Healthy” Obesity: Epigenetic and Chromatin-Based Mechanisms that Uncouple Obesity from Type 2 Diabetes

Abbreviations

1 Introduction: The Problem of Obesity and Its Complications

2 Complex Polygenic Interactions with the Environment and Epigenetics in Obesity

3 The “brd2 lo” Mouse Model of “Metabolically Healthy” Obesity

4 Who are “Metabolically Healthy” Obese Humans?

5 Other Animal Models of “Metabolically Healthy” Obesity

6 Derepression of Insulin Transcription in the “brd2 lo” Environment

7 Translational Implications of Epigenetic Reprogramming: Conclusions

References

Chapter Four. The TBC1D1 Gene: Structure, Function, and Association with Obesity and Related Traits

1 Introduction

2 TBC1D1 Gene Structure and Expression

3 TBC1D1 Protein Structure and Function

4 The TBC1D1 Gene in Obesity and Related Traits

5 Conclusions

References

Chapter Five. Replication Initiator 1 in Adipose Tissue Function and Human Obesity

1 Introduction

2 Structure of Repin1

3 Cellular Localization of Repin1

4 Repin1 Function in Adipose Tissue

5 Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter Six. Adipokines in Childhood Obesity

1 Introduction

2 White Adipose Tissue as an Endocrine Organ: The Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adipose Axis

3 Changes in White Adipose Tissue Due to Obesity: Importance of the age at Obesity Onset

4 Energy Homeostasis Control: Leptin as a Key Player

5 Insulin Sensitivity: Role of Adiponectin, Visfatin, and Vaspin

6 Low-Grade Inflammatory Environment: Proinflammatory Adipokines

7 Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter Seven. Gut Hormones and Obesity: Physiology and Therapies

1 Introduction

2 Central Structures Involved in the Control of Food Intake

3 Gut Hormones

4 Integration of Gut Hormone Signals

5 Influence of Gut Hormone Signals on Other Aspects of Energy Homeostasis

6 Alterations in Gut Hormones and their Function in Obesity

7 Targeting of Gut Hormones in Obesity

8 Conclusion

References

Chapter Eight. Neuroinflammation in Overnutrition-Induced Diseases

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 IKKβ/NF-κB and Metabolic Inflammation

3 Mediators of Brain Metabolic Inflammation

4 Metabolic Inflammation and Neural Dysregulation

5 Brain Metabolic Inflammation and Obesity

6 Brain Metabolic Inflammation and Diabetes

7 Brain Metabolic Inflammation in Hypertension and Stroke

8 Metabolic Inflammation and Neurodegeneration

9 Conclusions

References

Chapter Nine. p66ShcA: Linking Mammalian Longevity with Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance

1 Aging: Oxidative Stress Versus Metabolic Unbalance

2 Adipose Tissue and Longevity in Mammals

3 Adipose Tissue, Insulin Resistance, and Longevity

4 p66Shc and Longevity in Mice

5 p66Shc and Insulin Signaling

6 p66Shc in Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance

7 p66 and Aging: The Role of mTOR/S6K

8 p66Shc: TOR and ROS?

References

Chapter Ten. The Emerging Role of Constitutive Androstane Receptor and Its Cross talk with Liver X Receptors and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor A in Lipid Metabolism

1 Introduction

2 Initial Characterization of CAR and Its Emerging Roles in Lipid Metabolism

3 LXRs and PPARα in Lipid Metabolism

4 Functional Crosstalk Between CAR and LXR or CAR and PPAR in the Regulation of Lipid Metabolism

5 Conclusion Remarks

References

Chapter Eleven. Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase Deficiency Protects from Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance and Obesity—Novel Insights from Mouse Models

1 Introduction

2 Novel Metabolic Phenotypes in Murine Models of LCAT Deficiency

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter Twelve. Sphingolipids in Lipid Microdomains and Obesity

1 Introduction

2 Sphingolipids Function in Lipid Microdomains

3 Sphingolipid and Obesity

4 Conclusions and Future Directions

References

Chapter Thirteen. Ghrelin At the Interface of Obesity and Reward

1 Introduction

2 Ghrelin in Obesity

3 Ghrelin in the Multicircuit Control of Appetite

4 Stress-Induced Ghrelin-Mediated Food Reward

5 Conclusion and Future Perspectives

References

Chapter Fourteen. Endocannabinoids and Obesity

1 Introduction

2 Discovery of the Endocannabinoid System

3 Obesity and Endocannabinoid System

4 Studies of Cannabinoid Receptors and Endocannabinoid Metabolic Enzymes

5 Physiological Roles of CB1 in Different Tissues

6 Novel CB1 Antagonists

7 Future Perspectives

8 Conclusions

References

Chapter Fifteen. Lipocalin 13 Regulation of Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Obesity

1 Introduction

2 LCN Structure and Function

3 LCN13 Regulation of Glucose Metabolism

4 LCN13 Regulation of Lipid Metabolism

5 Regulation of Nutrient Metabolism by Other LCN Family Members

6 Conclusions and Future Directions

References

Chapter Sixteen. Sirtuin 1 Deacetylase: A Key Regulator of Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

1 Introduction

2 SIRT1 as a Master Regulator of Metabolism

3 Regulation of Hepatic Fat (TG) Metabolism by SIRT1

4 Regulation of Hepatic Cholesterol and Bile Acid Metabolism by SIRT1

5 Conclusion and Future Perspectives

References

Chapter Seventeen. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and Obesity

1 Introduction

2 PTP1B

3 Biological Roles of PTP1B

4 Genetic Deletion of PTP1B in Mice

5 Inhibitors of PTP1B

References

Chapter Eighteen. Nomilin as an Anti-Obesity and Anti-Hyperglycemic Agent

1 Introduction

2 Bile Acid Biosynthesis

3 Biological Functions of Bile Acids as Farnesoid X Receptor Ligands

4 TGR5, a Bile Acid Receptor

5 TGR5 Agonists

6 A Citrus Limonoid, Nomilin

7 Anti-Obesity and Anti-Hyperglycemic Effects of TGR5 Agonists

8 The Future

References

Index


Description

First published in 1943, Vitamins and Hormones is the longest-running serial published by Academic Press. The Editorial Board now reflects expertise in the field of hormone action, vitamin action, X-ray crystal structure, physiology and enzyme mechanisms.

Under the capable and qualified editorial leadership of Dr. Gerald Litwack, Vitamins and Hormones continues to publish cutting-edge reviews of interest to endocrinologists, biochemists, nutritionists, pharmacologists, cell biologists and molecular biologists. Others interested in the structure and function of biologically active molecules like hormones and vitamins will, as always, turn to this series for comprehensive reviews by leading contributors to this and related disciplines.

This volume focuses on obesity.

Key Features

  • Contributions from leading authorities
  • Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

Readership

Researchers, faculty, and graduate students interested in cutting-edge review concerning the molecular and cellular biology of vitamins, hormones, and related factors and co-factors. Libraries and laboratories at institutes with strong programs in cell biology, biochemistry, molecular biology, gene regulation, hormone control, and signal transduction are likely to be interested


Details

No. of pages:
512
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2013
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124115170
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124077669

About the Serial Editors

Gerald Litwack Serial Editor

Dr. Gerald Litwack obtained M.S. and PhD degrees from the University of Wisconsin Department of Biochemistry and remained there for a brief time as a Lecturer on Enzymes. Then he entered the Biochemical Institute of the Sorbonne as a Fellow of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis. He next moved to Rutgers University as an Assistant Professor of Biochemistry and later as Associate Professor of biochemistry at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Medicine. After four years he moved to the Temple University School of Medicine as Professor of Biochemistry and Deputy Director of the Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, soon after, becoming the Laura H. Carnell Professor. Subsequently he was appointed chair of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology at the Jefferson Medical College as well as Vice Dean for Research and Deputy Director of the Jefferson Cancer Institute and Director of the Institute for Apoptosis. Following the move of his family, he became a Visiting Scholar at the Department of Biological Chemistry of the Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and then became the Founding Chair of the Department of Basic Sciences at the Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine, becoming Professor of Molecular and Cellular Medicine and Associate Director of the Institute for Regenerative Medicine at the Texas A&M Health Science Center as his final position. During his career he was a visiting scientist at the University of California, San Francisco and Berkeley, Courtauld Institute of Biochemistry, London and the Wistar Institute. He was appointed Emeritus Professor and/or Chair at Rutgers University, Thomas Jefferson University and the Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine. He has published more than 300 scientific papers, authored three textbooks and edited more than sixty-five books. Currently he lives with his family and continues his authorship and editorial work in Los Angeles.

Affiliations and Expertise

Toluca Lake, North Hollywood, California, USA