Nutrition and Enhanced Sports Performance

Nutrition and Enhanced Sports Performance

Muscle Building, Endurance, and Strength

1st Edition - July 26, 2013

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  • Editors: Debasis Bagchi, Nair Sreejayan, Chandan Sen
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123964540
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123964779

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Description

Nutrition and Enhanced Sports Performance: Muscle Building, Endurance, and Strength provides a comprehensive overview to understanding the integrated impact of nutrition on performance. The book is divided into five main themes: An introductory overview of the role of nutrition in human health Various types of physical exercises, including cardiovascular training, resistance training, aerobic and anaerobic exercise, bioenergetics, and energy balance. This section also covers the nutritional requirements associated with various fitness programs, as well as exercise and nutritional requirements in special populations, including the pre-pubertal, young, elderly, and disabled. Sports and nutritional requirements. The molecular mechanisms involved in muscle building A thorough review of various food, minerals, supplements, phytochemicals, amino acids, transition metals, small molecules and other ergogenic agents that have been implicated in muscle building and human performance This book is an ideal resource for nutritionists, dietitians, exercise physiologists, health practitioners, researchers, students, athletes, trainers, and all those who wish to broaden their knowledge of nutrition and its role in human performance.

Key Features

  • Discusses the impact of nutrition, including food, minerals, vitamins, hormones, trace elements, etc., that can significantly attenuate/improve human performance and sports
  • Addresses the molecular and cellular pathways involved in the physiology of muscle growth and the mechanisms by which nutrients affect muscle health, growth and maintenance
  • Encompasses multiple forms of sports/performance and the salient contribution of appropriate nutrition on special populations, including nutritional guidelines and recommendations to athletes
  • Strong focus on muscle building

Readership

Scientists and researchers, nutritionists, sports and health professionals, trainers and coaches, and University professors, in related fields will use this book as an authoritative resource on the role of nutrition in human performance. Libraries and universities and research institutions will take significant interest in this book.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Preface

    List of Contributors

    Section 1: Nutrition and Human Health

    Chapter 1. Nutritional Supplementation in Health and Sports Performance

    Introduction

    Definitions

    Nutritional Supplement Recommendations for Athletes

    Safety Issues

    Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 2. Glycemic Index, Food Exchange Values and Exercise Performance

    Glycemic Index

    Glycemic Load

    Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load and Metabolic Responses

    Glycemic Index, Metabolic Responses and Exercise Performance

    Glycemic Load, Metabolic Responses and Exercise Performance

    Food Exchange Values in Health And Exercise

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 3. Performance Enhancement Drugs and Sports Supplements for Resistance Training

    Introduction

    Testosterone and Anabolic Steroids

    Creatine Monohydrate

    Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB)

    Caffeine

    References

    Section 2: Exercise and Human Health

    Chapter 4. Exercise and Cardiovascular Disease

    Introduction

    Physiological Responses of the Cardiovascular System to Exercise

    Exercise and Health

    How Much Exercise is Enough? [36]

    Are the Benefits of Exercise Universal?

    References

    Chapter 5. Resistance Training and Physical Exercise in Human Health

    Resistance Training in Human Health

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 6. Psychology and Exercise

    Acute and Chronic Psychological Effects of Exercise

    Motivation for Exercise Behavior: Why do People Exercise?

    Theories and Models Accounting for the Psychological Benefits of Exercise

    The “Runners’ High” Phenomenon and the Acute Psychological Effects of Exercise

    The Dark Side of Physical Activity: Exercise Addiction

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 7. Bone Health, Bone Mineral Density and Sports Performance

    Introduction

    Bone Health

    Bone Mineral Density

    Bone and Physical Activity

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 8. Immune Function, Nutrition, and Exercise

    Introduction

    Exercise and Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

    Exercise and Cancer

    Exercise and Inflammation

    Delayed-Onset Muscle Damage

    Nutrition and Exercise-Induced Immune Changes

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 9. The Immune Response to Exercise: Effects on Cellular Mobilization, Immune Function and Muscle Regeneration

    The Effects of Acute Exercise on Circulating Leukocyte Counts

    Exercise and Immune Function

    Muscle Damage and Leukocyte infiltration

    Chapter Summary

    References

    Section 3: Sports and Nutrition

    Chapter 10. Vegetarian Athletes

    Nutritional Considerations for Vegetarian Athletes

    Vegetarian Diet and Athletic Performance

    Take-Home Messages

    References

    Chapter 11. Nutrition in Combat Sports

    Introduction

    Role of Nutrients

    Role of Hydration

    Rapid Weight Loss

    Supplements for Combat Athletes

    References

    Chapter 12. Sumo Wrestling: An Overview

    Introduction

    Energy Balance

    Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass for Top League (“Sekitori”)

    Organ-Tissue Level Body Composition

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 13. Bioenergetics of Cyclic Sports Activities on Land: Walking, Running and Cycling

    Energy Expenditure of Human Locomotion

    The Energy Cost of Locomotion

    Energy Sources

    Aerodynamic and Non-Aerodynamic Cost of Locomotion

    The Determinants of C in Land Locomotion

    Passive Locomotory Tools on Land

    Efficiency in Land Locomotion

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 14. Bioenergetics of Cyclic Sport Activities in Water: Swimming, Rowing and Kayaking

    Energetics and Biomechanics of Aquatic Locomotion

    Energetics of Swimming

    Passive Locomotory Tools in Water

    Rowing and Kayaking (Boat Locomotion)

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 15. Performance Enhancement Drugs and Sports Supplements: A Review of the Evidence

    Performance-Enhancing Drugs

    Performance-Enhancing Supplements

    References

    Chapter 16. Nutrition and Ultra-Endurance: An Overview

    Introduction

    Problems Associated with Ultra-Endurance Performance

    Nutritional Aspects in Ultra-Endurance Athletes

    Conclusions and Implications for Future Research

    References

    Chapter 17. Exercise and Nutritional Benefits for Individuals with a Spinal Cord Injury or Amputation

    Paralympic Sport and Classification Systems

    Review Methodology

    Energy Expenditure and Body Composition

    Exercise Adaptations

    Nutritional Practices

    Nutritional Knowledge and Education Programs

    Supplement Usage

    Effects of Nutrition on Body Composition and Performance

    Conclusions and Areas for Future Research

    References

    Chapter 18. An Overview of Doping in Sports

    Introduction

    Main Tendencies of Doping in the Strength Field

    Metabolic Modulators and Related Substances

    Blood Doping and Anti-Doping Approaches in Endurance Sports

    Masking Agents

    Gene Doping

    References

    Chapter 19. Nutrition In Paralympics

    Introduction

    Sports Nutrition and Enhanced Performance

    The Paralympic Games

    Classification and Categories at the Paralympic Games

    Nutritional Considerations in the Disabled

    Sports Nutrition of Paralympic Athletes

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 20. An Overview on the History of Sports Nutrition Beverages

    Introduction

    Background on Sports Beverages

    History of Protein Drinks

    Conclusion

    References

    Section 4: Molecular Mechanisms

    Chapter 21. α-Hydroxy-Isocaproic Acid (HICA)—Effects on Body Composition, Muscle Soreness and Athletic Performance

    Background

    Effects of Alfa-Hydroxy-Isocaproic Acid on Body Composition, Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness and Physical Performance in Athletes

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 22. Role of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in Muscle Growth

    Introduction

    Muscle Growth

    mTOR Signaling Pathway

    mTOR in Myogenesis

    mTOR in Muscle Hypertrophy

    mTOR in Muscle Atrophy

    Nutrition and mTOR-Dependent Muscle Growth

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 23. Stress Proteins and Heat Shock Proteins: Role in Muscle Building and Sports Nutrition

    Introduction

    Heat Shock Protein Family

    Regulation of Stress Proteins in Skeletal Muscle

    Stress Proteins and Exercise

    Stress Proteins and Dietary Supplements

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 24. Anabolic and Catabolic Signaling Pathways that Regulate Skeletal Muscle Mass

    Introduction

    History

    Anabolic Signaling

    Catabolic Signaling

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 25. Muscle Growth, Repair and Preservation: A Mechanistic Approach

    Introduction

    Muscle Growth

    Muscle Atrophy

    Muscle Damage and Repair

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 26. Nitric Oxide, Sports Nutrition and Muscle Building

    Introduction

    The Nitric Oxide Synthases

    The Nitrate–Nitrite–No Pathway

    Skeletal Muscle Functions Mediated By NO

    Nutritional Modification Of Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 27. Role of Nitric Oxide in Sports Nutrition

    Introduction

    Recommended Nutrition Criteria for Better Sports Performance

    Role of Nitric Oxide in Nutritional Supplements

    Biochemistry of Nitrosative Protein Modifications in Muscles

    References

    Chapter 28. Blood Rheology, Blood Flow and Human Health

    Blood Flow: Characteristics, Exercise and Training

    Hemorheology: Interactions with Blood Flow, Exercise and Training

    Nutrition, Blood Flow and Blood Rheology

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 29. Genetic Aspects of Sprint, Strength and Power Performance

    Introduction

    Exercise Performance and Heritability

    Conclusions

    Glossary

    References

    Chapter 30. Unraveling the Function of Skeletal Muscle as a Secretory Organ: Role of Myokines on Muscle Regulation

    Introduction

    Bioactive Proteins Secreted from Skeletal Muscle Cells in Response to Exercise

    Approach for Identification of New Muscle-Secreted Proteins

    SPARC is a Cancer Preventive Protein Secreted by Skeletal Muscle

    Perspective

    References

    Section 5: Minerals and Supplements in Muscle Building

    Chapter 31. The Role of Testosterone in Nutrition and Sports: An Overview

    Introduction

    Meaning of Natural Testosterone Levels and Hypertrophy/Muscle Growth

    Energy Restriction, Testosterone Levels and Hypertrophy

    Influence of Diet on Testosterone Levels

    Influence of Protein and Carbohydrate Ingestion Post Exercise on Testosterone Levels and Hypertrophy/Body Composition

    Mechanisms Whereby Insulin Could Alter Testosterone Levels

    Effect of Resistance Training Plus Dietary Supplementation on Testosterone Levels

    References

    Chapter 32. Nutritional Interventions to Reduce Immune Suppression Post Marathon

    Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Runners

    Changes in Immune Biomarkers and Runners

    Immunonutrition Support and Long-Distance Running

    Conclusions and Recommendations

    References

    Chapter 33. Carbohydrate and Muscle Glycogen Metabolism: Exercise Demands and Nutritional Influences

    Carbohydrate Utilization During Exercise

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 34. An Overview of Adaptogens with a Special Emphasis on Withania and Rhodiola

    Introduction

    Withania as Adaptogen

    Rhodiola as Adaptogen

    References

    Chapter 35. Anabolic Training Response and Clinical Implications

    Introduction

    Resistance Training

    Nutrition

    Clinical Aspects

    References

    Chapter 36. Requirements of Energy, Carbohydrates, Proteins and Fats for Athletes

    Energy Requirements

    Carbohydrates

    Protein

    Fats

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 37. An Overview of Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Exercise and Sports Nutrition

    Introduction

    Amino Acids Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle

    Molecular Pathways of Amino Acids in Skeletal Muscle

    Effects of Amino Acids Supplementation on Muscle Mass and Strength

    Dietary Sources and Practical Application of Protein Supplementation

    Amino Acids—Practical Recommendations

    Conclusion and Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 38. Water, Hydration and Sports Drink

    Introduction

    Effects of Hypohydration

    Special Populations

    Hydration for Physical Activities

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 39. Physiological Basis for Creatine Supplementation in Skeletal Muscle

    Introduction/Overview

    Creatine Biosynthesis, Uptake, and Degradation

    Bioenergetics and Mechanisms of Action

    Limits of Creatine Storage Capacity with Supplementation

    Body Mass, Body Composition, and Body Water

    Muscle Fiber Type Adaptations

    Acute Anaerobic Benefits

    Chronic Anaerobic Adaptations

    Endurance Exercise Acute Effects and Adaptation

    Role of Creatine Supplementation for use to Combat Aging

    Therapeutic use of Creatine Supplementation

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 40. Oral Bioavailability of Creatine Supplements: Insights into Mechanism and Implications for Improved Absorption

    Introduction

    Cellular Mechanism of Intestinal Absorption

    Creatine Absorption in the GIT

    Human Oral Bioavailability of Creatine Supplements

    Absorption Characteristics of Alternative Forms of Creatine

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 41. An Overview of Carnitine

    Introduction

    Antioxidant Activity

    Nitric Oxide

    Exercise Performance-Related Variables

    Summary of Carnitine for Athletic Populations

    Overview of Carnitine for Non-Athletic (Healthy and Diseased) Populations

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 42. An Overview of the Influence of Protein Ingestion on Muscle Hypertrophy

    The Importance of Dietary Energy

    Protein Requirements

    Habitual High Protein Intake

    Amino Acids

    Absorption Rate

    Co-Ingestion of Protein with Carbohydrate

    Ingestion Timing

    References

    Chapter 43. An Overview of Ornithine, Arginine and Citrulline in Exercise and Sports Nutrition

    Introduction

    Ornithine, Arginine and Citrulline: Biogenesis and Metabolism

    Nitric Oxide Synthesis and its Function in the Body

    Effects of Ornithine, Arginine and Citrulline Supplementation on Nitric Oxide Synthesis and Performance

    Exercise and Ammonia

    Effects of Ornithine, Arginine and Citrulline Supplementation on Ammonia and Performance

    Other Effects of Ornithine, Arginine and Citrulline Supplementation

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 44. An Overview of Glycine-Arginine-Alpha-Ketoisocaproic Acid (GAKIC) in Sports Nutrition

    Introduction

    Isokinetic Dynamometer Studies

    Cycle Ergometry Studies

    KIC Monotherapy

    Metabolism

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 45. L-Arginine and L-Citrulline in Sports Nutrition and Health

    Introduction

    Arginine

    Citrulline

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 46. Roles of Chromium(III), Vanadium, and Zinc in Sports Nutrition

    Introduction

    Vanadium

    Chromium

    Zinc

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 47. An Overview on Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) Supplementation in Skeletal Muscle Function and Sports Performance

    Introduction

    An Overview on HMB Metabolism

    HMB Supplementation

    Effects of HMB Supplementation on Strength and Body Composition

    Mechanisms of Action of HMB

    Effects of HMB Supplementation on Protein Homeostasis in Skeletal Muscle

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 48. Role of Astaxanthin in Sports Nutrition

    Introduction

    Benefits of Astaxanthin for Athletes

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 49. Ursolic Acid and Maslinic Acid: Novel Candidates for Counteracting Muscle Loss and Enhancing Muscle Growth

    Introduction

    Ursolic Acid

    Maslinic Acid

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 50. Plant Borates and Potential Uses to Promote Post-training Recovery and to Mitigate Overtraining Syndrome

    Introduction

    The Trace Element Boron, Borates and Boro-Carbohydrates

    Myokines, Inflammation, Recovery and Overtraining Syndrome

    Inflammation

    Exercise and Inflammation

    Biological Potency of Calcium Fructoborate

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 51. An Overview on Caffeine

    Introduction

    Caffeine Pharmacology

    Mechanisms of Caffeine and Effects on Performance

    Sources of Caffeine

    Safety and Side Effects

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 52. Role of Quercetin in Sports Nutrition

    Chemistry

    Performance

    Mitochondrial Biogenesis

    Immune & Inflammatory Responses

    Future Research Areas

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 53. Human Performance and Sports Applications of Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia)

    Traditional Use

    Modern Extracts

    Laboratory and Animal Research

    Human-Feeding Trials

    Safety

    Summary

    References

    Section 6: Dietary Recommendations

    Chapter 54. Nutrition and Dietary Recommendations for Bodybuilders

    Introduction

    Protein Requirements for the Bodybuilder

    Protein Type and Digestibly

    Protein Timing for Bodybuilders

    Protein Dose Per Meal

    Energy Requirements

    Carbohydrates

    Fats

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 55. Performance Nutrition for Young Athletes

    Introduction

    Carbohydrate

    Protein

    Fat

    Micronutrients

    Hydration

    Supplements

    Gaps in Our Knowledge

    Putting it all Together

    References

    Section 7: Concluding Remarks

    Chapter 56. Commentary

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 568
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: July 26, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123964540
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123964779

About the Editors

Debasis Bagchi

Debasis Bagchi
Debasis Bagchi, PhD, MACN, CNS, MAIChE, received his Ph.D. in Medicinal Chemistry in 1982. He is a Professor in the Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Houston College of Pharmacy, Houston, TX, and Chief Scientific Officer at Cepham Research Center, Piscataway, NJ, Adjunct Faculty in Texas Southern University, Houston, TX. He served as the Senior Vice President of Research & Development of InterHealth Nutraceuticals Inc, Benicia, CA, from 1998 until Feb 2011, and then as Director of Innovation and Clinical Affairs, of Iovate Health Sciences, Oakville, ON, until June 2013. Dr. Bagchi received the Master of American College of Nutrition Award in October 2010. He is the Past Chairman of International Society of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods (ISNFF), Past President of American College of Nutrition, Clearwater, FL, and Past Chair of the Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods Division of Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), Chicago, IL. He is serving as a Distinguished Advisor on the Japanese Institute for Health Food Standards (JIHFS), Tokyo, Japan. Dr. Bagchi is a Member of the Study Section and Peer Review Committee of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD. He has published 321 papers in peer reviewed journals, 30 books, and 18 patents. Dr. Bagchi is also a Member of the Society of Toxicology, Member of the New York Academy of Sciences, Fellow of the Nutrition Research Academy, and Member of the TCE stakeholder Committee of the Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH. He is also Associate Editor for the Journal of Functional Foods, Journal of the American College of Nutrition, and the Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research, and is also serving as Editorial Board Member of numerous peer reviewed journals, including Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, Cancer Letters, Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, and The Original Internist, among others.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, USA; Chief Scientific Officer, Cepham Research Center, Piscataway, New Jersey; Adjunct Faculty, Texas Southern University, Houston, Texas, USA

Nair Sreejayan

Nair Sreejayan
Dr. Sreejayan Nair is a Professor of Pharmacology and the Associate Dean for Research in the School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, University of Wyoming. He also serves as the Director of the interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program in the University of Wyoming. Dr. Nair earned his bachelors, masters and PhD degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences from the College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal, India. He received his post-doctoral trainings at the Department of Medicine-II, Ludwig Maximillians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich, Germany, and at the Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN. His research interests are diabetes and cardiovascular disease. He has published over 75 research papers in peer-reviewed journals and presented at various national and international conferences. His research has been funded by the American Heart Association, American Diabetes Association, and the National Institutes of Health. He has co-edited three books related to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. He is a Fellow of the American College of Nutrition.

Affiliations and Expertise

School of Pharmacy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA

Chandan Sen

Chandan Sen
Dr. Chandan K Sen is a tenured Professor of Surgery, Executive Director of The Ohio State University Comprehensive Wound Center and Director of the Ohio State University's Center for Regenerative Medicine & Cell Based Therapies. He is also the Associate Dean for Research at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. After completing his Masters of Science in Human Physiology from the University of Calcutta, Dr. Sen received his PhD in Physiology from the University of Kuopio in Finland. Dr. Sen trained as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of California at Berkeley's Molecular and Cell Biology department. His first faculty appointment was in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. In fall of 2000, Dr. Sen moved to The Ohio State University where established a program on tissue injury and repair. Currently, Dr. Sen is a Professor and Vice Chair of Research of Surgery. Dr. Sen serves on the editorial board of numerous scientific journals. He is the Editor in Chief of Antioxidants & Redox Signaling(www.liebertpub.com/ars) with a current impact factor of 8.456. He is the Section Editor of microRNA of Physiological Genomics, a journal of the American Physiological Society. Dr. Sen and his team have published over 250 scientific publications. He has a H-index of 64 and is currently cited 2000 times every year.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Surgery, Executive Director of The Ohio State University Comprehensive Wound Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA

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