Nutrition and Enhanced Sports Performance - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123964540, 9780123964779

Nutrition and Enhanced Sports Performance

1st Edition

Muscle Building, Endurance, and Strength

Editors: Debasis Bagchi Sreejayan Nair Chandan Sen
eBook ISBN: 9780123964779
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123964540
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 27th August 2013
Page Count: 568
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Description

Nutrition and Enhanced Sports Performance: Muscle Building, Endurance, and Strength provides a comprehensive overview to understanding the integrated impact of nutrition on performance. The book is divided into five main themes:

  • An introductory overview of the role of nutrition in human health
  • Various types of physical exercises, including cardiovascular training, resistance training, aerobic and anaerobic exercise, bioenergetics, and energy balance. This section also covers the nutritional requirements associated with various fitness programs, as well as exercise and nutritional requirements in special populations, including the pre-pubertal, young, elderly, and disabled.
  • Sports and nutritional requirements.
  • The molecular mechanisms involved in muscle building
  • A thorough review of various food, minerals, supplements, phytochemicals, amino acids, transition metals, small molecules and other ergogenic agents that have been implicated in muscle building and human performance

This book is an ideal resource for nutritionists, dietitians, exercise physiologists, health practitioners, researchers, students, athletes, trainers, and all those who wish to broaden their knowledge of nutrition and its role in human performance.

Key Features

  • Discusses the impact of nutrition, including food, minerals, vitamins, hormones, trace elements, etc., that can significantly attenuate/improve human performance and sports
  • Addresses the molecular and cellular pathways involved in the physiology of muscle growth and the mechanisms by which nutrients affect muscle health, growth and maintenance
  • Encompasses multiple forms of sports/performance and the salient contribution of appropriate nutrition on special populations, including nutritional guidelines and recommendations to athletes
  • Strong focus on muscle building

Readership

Scientists and researchers, nutritionists, sports and health professionals, trainers and coaches, and University professors, in related fields will use this book as an authoritative resource on the role of nutrition in human performance. Libraries and universities and research institutions will take significant interest in this book.

Table of Contents

Dedication

Preface

List of Contributors

Section 1: Nutrition and Human Health

Chapter 1. Nutritional Supplementation in Health and Sports Performance

Introduction

Definitions

Nutritional Supplement Recommendations for Athletes

Safety Issues

Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 2. Glycemic Index, Food Exchange Values and Exercise Performance

Glycemic Index

Glycemic Load

Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load and Metabolic Responses

Glycemic Index, Metabolic Responses and Exercise Performance

Glycemic Load, Metabolic Responses and Exercise Performance

Food Exchange Values in Health And Exercise

Conclusions

References

Chapter 3. Performance Enhancement Drugs and Sports Supplements for Resistance Training

Introduction

Testosterone and Anabolic Steroids

Creatine Monohydrate

Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB)

Caffeine

References

Section 2: Exercise and Human Health

Chapter 4. Exercise and Cardiovascular Disease

Introduction

Physiological Responses of the Cardiovascular System to Exercise

Exercise and Health

How Much Exercise is Enough? [36]

Are the Benefits of Exercise Universal?

References

Chapter 5. Resistance Training and Physical Exercise in Human Health

Resistance Training in Human Health

Summary

References

Chapter 6. Psychology and Exercise

Acute and Chronic Psychological Effects of Exercise

Motivation for Exercise Behavior: Why do People Exercise?

Theories and Models Accounting for the Psychological Benefits of Exercise

The “Runners’ High” Phenomenon and the Acute Psychological Effects of Exercise

The Dark Side of Physical Activity: Exercise Addiction

Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 7. Bone Health, Bone Mineral Density and Sports Performance

Introduction

Bone Health

Bone Mineral Density

Bone and Physical Activity

Conclusions

References

Chapter 8. Immune Function, Nutrition, and Exercise

Introduction

Exercise and Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

Exercise and Cancer

Exercise and Inflammation

Delayed-Onset Muscle Damage

Nutrition and Exercise-Induced Immune Changes

Conclusion

References

Chapter 9. The Immune Response to Exercise: Effects on Cellular Mobilization, Immune Function and Muscle Regeneration

The Effects of Acute Exercise on Circulating Leukocyte Counts

Exercise and Immune Function

Muscle Damage and Leukocyte infiltration

Chapter Summary

References

Section 3: Sports and Nutrition

Chapter 10. Vegetarian Athletes

Nutritional Considerations for Vegetarian Athletes

Vegetarian Diet and Athletic Performance

Take-Home Messages

References

Chapter 11. Nutrition in Combat Sports

Introduction

Role of Nutrients

Role of Hydration

Rapid Weight Loss

Supplements for Combat Athletes

References

Chapter 12. Sumo Wrestling: An Overview

Introduction

Energy Balance

Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass for Top League (“Sekitori”)

Organ-Tissue Level Body Composition

Conclusion

References

Chapter 13. Bioenergetics of Cyclic Sports Activities on Land: Walking, Running and Cycling

Energy Expenditure of Human Locomotion

The Energy Cost of Locomotion

Energy Sources

Aerodynamic and Non-Aerodynamic Cost of Locomotion

The Determinants of C in Land Locomotion

Passive Locomotory Tools on Land

Efficiency in Land Locomotion

Conclusions

References

Chapter 14. Bioenergetics of Cyclic Sport Activities in Water: Swimming, Rowing and Kayaking

Energetics and Biomechanics of Aquatic Locomotion

Energetics of Swimming

Passive Locomotory Tools in Water

Rowing and Kayaking (Boat Locomotion)

Conclusions

References

Chapter 15. Performance Enhancement Drugs and Sports Supplements: A Review of the Evidence

Performance-Enhancing Drugs

Performance-Enhancing Supplements

References

Chapter 16. Nutrition and Ultra-Endurance: An Overview

Introduction

Problems Associated with Ultra-Endurance Performance

Nutritional Aspects in Ultra-Endurance Athletes

Conclusions and Implications for Future Research

References

Chapter 17. Exercise and Nutritional Benefits for Individuals with a Spinal Cord Injury or Amputation

Paralympic Sport and Classification Systems

Review Methodology

Energy Expenditure and Body Composition

Exercise Adaptations

Nutritional Practices

Nutritional Knowledge and Education Programs

Supplement Usage

Effects of Nutrition on Body Composition and Performance

Conclusions and Areas for Future Research

References

Chapter 18. An Overview of Doping in Sports

Introduction

Main Tendencies of Doping in the Strength Field

Metabolic Modulators and Related Substances

Blood Doping and Anti-Doping Approaches in Endurance Sports

Masking Agents

Gene Doping

References

Chapter 19. Nutrition In Paralympics

Introduction

Sports Nutrition and Enhanced Performance

The Paralympic Games

Classification and Categories at the Paralympic Games

Nutritional Considerations in the Disabled

Sports Nutrition of Paralympic Athletes

Conclusion

References

Chapter 20. An Overview on the History of Sports Nutrition Beverages

Introduction

Background on Sports Beverages

History of Protein Drinks

Conclusion

References

Section 4: Molecular Mechanisms

Chapter 21. α-Hydroxy-Isocaproic Acid (HICA)—Effects on Body Composition, Muscle Soreness and Athletic Performance

Background

Effects of Alfa-Hydroxy-Isocaproic Acid on Body Composition, Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness and Physical Performance in Athletes

Conclusion

References

Chapter 22. Role of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in Muscle Growth

Introduction

Muscle Growth

mTOR Signaling Pathway

mTOR in Myogenesis

mTOR in Muscle Hypertrophy

mTOR in Muscle Atrophy

Nutrition and mTOR-Dependent Muscle Growth

Conclusions

References

Chapter 23. Stress Proteins and Heat Shock Proteins: Role in Muscle Building and Sports Nutrition

Introduction

Heat Shock Protein Family

Regulation of Stress Proteins in Skeletal Muscle

Stress Proteins and Exercise

Stress Proteins and Dietary Supplements

Conclusions

References

Chapter 24. Anabolic and Catabolic Signaling Pathways that Regulate Skeletal Muscle Mass

Introduction

History

Anabolic Signaling

Catabolic Signaling

Summary

References

Chapter 25. Muscle Growth, Repair and Preservation: A Mechanistic Approach

Introduction

Muscle Growth

Muscle Atrophy

Muscle Damage and Repair

Summary

References

Chapter 26. Nitric Oxide, Sports Nutrition and Muscle Building

Introduction

The Nitric Oxide Synthases

The Nitrate–Nitrite–No Pathway

Skeletal Muscle Functions Mediated By NO

Nutritional Modification Of Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy

Conclusion

References

Chapter 27. Role of Nitric Oxide in Sports Nutrition

Introduction

Recommended Nutrition Criteria for Better Sports Performance

Role of Nitric Oxide in Nutritional Supplements

Biochemistry of Nitrosative Protein Modifications in Muscles

References

Chapter 28. Blood Rheology, Blood Flow and Human Health

Blood Flow: Characteristics, Exercise and Training

Hemorheology: Interactions with Blood Flow, Exercise and Training

Nutrition, Blood Flow and Blood Rheology

Conclusion

References

Chapter 29. Genetic Aspects of Sprint, Strength and Power Performance

Introduction

Exercise Performance and Heritability

Conclusions

Glossary

References

Chapter 30. Unraveling the Function of Skeletal Muscle as a Secretory Organ: Role of Myokines on Muscle Regulation

Introduction

Bioactive Proteins Secreted from Skeletal Muscle Cells in Response to Exercise

Approach for Identification of New Muscle-Secreted Proteins

SPARC is a Cancer Preventive Protein Secreted by Skeletal Muscle

Perspective

References

Section 5: Minerals and Supplements in Muscle Building

Chapter 31. The Role of Testosterone in Nutrition and Sports: An Overview

Introduction

Meaning of Natural Testosterone Levels and Hypertrophy/Muscle Growth

Energy Restriction, Testosterone Levels and Hypertrophy

Influence of Diet on Testosterone Levels

Influence of Protein and Carbohydrate Ingestion Post Exercise on Testosterone Levels and Hypertrophy/Body Composition

Mechanisms Whereby Insulin Could Alter Testosterone Levels

Effect of Resistance Training Plus Dietary Supplementation on Testosterone Levels

References

Chapter 32. Nutritional Interventions to Reduce Immune Suppression Post Marathon

Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Runners

Changes in Immune Biomarkers and Runners

Immunonutrition Support and Long-Distance Running

Conclusions and Recommendations

References

Chapter 33. Carbohydrate and Muscle Glycogen Metabolism: Exercise Demands and Nutritional Influences

Carbohydrate Utilization During Exercise

Conclusion

References

Chapter 34. An Overview of Adaptogens with a Special Emphasis on Withania and Rhodiola

Introduction

Withania as Adaptogen

Rhodiola as Adaptogen

References

Chapter 35. Anabolic Training Response and Clinical Implications

Introduction

Resistance Training

Nutrition

Clinical Aspects

References

Chapter 36. Requirements of Energy, Carbohydrates, Proteins and Fats for Athletes

Energy Requirements

Carbohydrates

Protein

Fats

Conclusions

References

Chapter 37. An Overview of Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Exercise and Sports Nutrition

Introduction

Amino Acids Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle

Molecular Pathways of Amino Acids in Skeletal Muscle

Effects of Amino Acids Supplementation on Muscle Mass and Strength

Dietary Sources and Practical Application of Protein Supplementation

Amino Acids—Practical Recommendations

Conclusion and Perspectives

References

Chapter 38. Water, Hydration and Sports Drink

Introduction

Effects of Hypohydration

Special Populations

Hydration for Physical Activities

Conclusions

References

Chapter 39. Physiological Basis for Creatine Supplementation in Skeletal Muscle

Introduction/Overview

Creatine Biosynthesis, Uptake, and Degradation

Bioenergetics and Mechanisms of Action

Limits of Creatine Storage Capacity with Supplementation

Body Mass, Body Composition, and Body Water

Muscle Fiber Type Adaptations

Acute Anaerobic Benefits

Chronic Anaerobic Adaptations

Endurance Exercise Acute Effects and Adaptation

Role of Creatine Supplementation for use to Combat Aging

Therapeutic use of Creatine Supplementation

Summary

References

Chapter 40. Oral Bioavailability of Creatine Supplements: Insights into Mechanism and Implications for Improved Absorption

Introduction

Cellular Mechanism of Intestinal Absorption

Creatine Absorption in the GIT

Human Oral Bioavailability of Creatine Supplements

Absorption Characteristics of Alternative Forms of Creatine

Conclusions

References

Chapter 41. An Overview of Carnitine

Introduction

Antioxidant Activity

Nitric Oxide

Exercise Performance-Related Variables

Summary of Carnitine for Athletic Populations

Overview of Carnitine for Non-Athletic (Healthy and Diseased) Populations

Conclusions

References

Chapter 42. An Overview of the Influence of Protein Ingestion on Muscle Hypertrophy

The Importance of Dietary Energy

Protein Requirements

Habitual High Protein Intake

Amino Acids

Absorption Rate

Co-Ingestion of Protein with Carbohydrate

Ingestion Timing

References

Chapter 43. An Overview of Ornithine, Arginine and Citrulline in Exercise and Sports Nutrition

Introduction

Ornithine, Arginine and Citrulline: Biogenesis and Metabolism

Nitric Oxide Synthesis and its Function in the Body

Effects of Ornithine, Arginine and Citrulline Supplementation on Nitric Oxide Synthesis and Performance

Exercise and Ammonia

Effects of Ornithine, Arginine and Citrulline Supplementation on Ammonia and Performance

Other Effects of Ornithine, Arginine and Citrulline Supplementation

Conclusion

References

Chapter 44. An Overview of Glycine-Arginine-Alpha-Ketoisocaproic Acid (GAKIC) in Sports Nutrition

Introduction

Isokinetic Dynamometer Studies

Cycle Ergometry Studies

KIC Monotherapy

Metabolism

Conclusion

References

Chapter 45. L-Arginine and L-Citrulline in Sports Nutrition and Health

Introduction

Arginine

Citrulline

Conclusion

References

Chapter 46. Roles of Chromium(III), Vanadium, and Zinc in Sports Nutrition

Introduction

Vanadium

Chromium

Zinc

Conclusion

References

Chapter 47. An Overview on Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) Supplementation in Skeletal Muscle Function and Sports Performance

Introduction

An Overview on HMB Metabolism

HMB Supplementation

Effects of HMB Supplementation on Strength and Body Composition

Mechanisms of Action of HMB

Effects of HMB Supplementation on Protein Homeostasis in Skeletal Muscle

Conclusion

References

Chapter 48. Role of Astaxanthin in Sports Nutrition

Introduction

Benefits of Astaxanthin for Athletes

Conclusions

References

Chapter 49. Ursolic Acid and Maslinic Acid: Novel Candidates for Counteracting Muscle Loss and Enhancing Muscle Growth

Introduction

Ursolic Acid

Maslinic Acid

Conclusions

References

Chapter 50. Plant Borates and Potential Uses to Promote Post-training Recovery and to Mitigate Overtraining Syndrome

Introduction

The Trace Element Boron, Borates and Boro-Carbohydrates

Myokines, Inflammation, Recovery and Overtraining Syndrome

Inflammation

Exercise and Inflammation

Biological Potency of Calcium Fructoborate

Summary

References

Chapter 51. An Overview on Caffeine

Introduction

Caffeine Pharmacology

Mechanisms of Caffeine and Effects on Performance

Sources of Caffeine

Safety and Side Effects

Summary

References

Chapter 52. Role of Quercetin in Sports Nutrition

Chemistry

Performance

Mitochondrial Biogenesis

Immune & Inflammatory Responses

Future Research Areas

Conclusions

References

Chapter 53. Human Performance and Sports Applications of Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia)

Traditional Use

Modern Extracts

Laboratory and Animal Research

Human-Feeding Trials

Safety

Summary

References

Section 6: Dietary Recommendations

Chapter 54. Nutrition and Dietary Recommendations for Bodybuilders

Introduction

Protein Requirements for the Bodybuilder

Protein Type and Digestibly

Protein Timing for Bodybuilders

Protein Dose Per Meal

Energy Requirements

Carbohydrates

Fats

Conclusion

References

Chapter 55. Performance Nutrition for Young Athletes

Introduction

Carbohydrate

Protein

Fat

Micronutrients

Hydration

Supplements

Gaps in Our Knowledge

Putting it all Together

References

Section 7: Concluding Remarks

Chapter 56. Commentary

Index

Details

No. of pages:
568
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780123964779
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123964540

About the Editor

Debasis Bagchi

Debasis Bagchi

Debasis Bagchi, PhD, MACN, CNS, MAIChE, received his Ph.D. in Medicinal Chemistry in 1982. He is a Professor in the Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Houston College of Pharmacy, Houston, TX, and Chief Scientific Officer at Cepham Research Center, Piscataway, NJ, Adjunct Faculty in Texas Southern University, Houston, TX. He served as the Senior Vice President of Research & Development of InterHealth Nutraceuticals Inc, Benicia, CA, from 1998 until Feb 2011, and then as Director of Innovation and Clinical Affairs, of Iovate Health Sciences, Oakville, ON, until June 2013. Dr. Bagchi received the Master of American College of Nutrition Award in October 2010. He is the Past Chairman of International Society of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods (ISNFF), Past President of American College of Nutrition, Clearwater, FL, and Past Chair of the Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods Division of Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), Chicago, IL. He is serving as a Distinguished Advisor on the Japanese Institute for Health Food Standards (JIHFS), Tokyo, Japan. Dr. Bagchi is a Member of the Study Section and Peer Review Committee of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD. He has published 321 papers in peer reviewed journals, 30 books, and 18 patents. Dr. Bagchi is also a Member of the Society of Toxicology, Member of the New York Academy of Sciences, Fellow of the Nutrition Research Academy, and Member of the TCE stakeholder Committee of the Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH. He is also Associate Editor for the Journal of Functional Foods, Journal of the American College of Nutrition, and the Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research, and is also serving as Editorial Board Member of numerous peer reviewed journals, including Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, Cancer Letters, Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, and The Original Internist, among others.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Houston College of Pharmacy, TX, USA

Sreejayan Nair

Sreejayan Nair

Dr. Sreejayan Nair is a Professor of Pharmacology and the Associate Dean for Research in the School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, University of Wyoming. He also serves as the Director of the interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program in the University of Wyoming. Dr. Nair earned his bachelors, masters and PhD degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences from the College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal, India. He received his post-doctoral trainings at the Department of Medicine-II, Ludwig Maximillians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich, Germany, and at the Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN. His research interests are diabetes and cardiovascular disease. He has published over 75 research papers in peer-reviewed journals and presented at various national and international conferences. His research has been funded by the American Heart Association, American Diabetes Association, and the National Institutes of Health. He has co-edited three books related to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. He is a Fellow of the American College of Nutrition.

Affiliations and Expertise

School of Pharmacy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA

Chandan Sen

Chandan Sen

Dr. Chandan K Sen is a tenured Professor of Surgery, Executive Director of The Ohio State University Comprehensive Wound Center and Director of the Ohio State University's Center for Regenerative Medicine & Cell Based Therapies. He is also the Associate Dean for Research at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. After completing his Masters of Science in Human Physiology from the University of Calcutta, Dr. Sen received his PhD in Physiology from the University of Kuopio in Finland. Dr. Sen trained as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of California at Berkeley's Molecular and Cell Biology department. His first faculty appointment was in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. In fall of 2000, Dr. Sen moved to The Ohio State University where established a program on tissue injury and repair. Currently, Dr. Sen is a Professor and Vice Chair of Research of Surgery. Dr. Sen serves on the editorial board of numerous scientific journals. He is the Editor in Chief of Antioxidants & Redox Signaling(www.liebertpub.com/ars) with a current impact factor of 8.456. He is the Section Editor of microRNA of Physiological Genomics, a journal of the American Physiological Society. Dr. Sen and his team have published over 250 scientific publications. He has a H-index of 64 and is currently cited 2000 times every year.

Affiliations and Expertise

The Ohio State University, Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Reviews

"The book is detailed and informative without being wordy, and sections can be read out of chronological order. It is filled with helpful figures and tables to highlight important concepts…This is a comprehensive and well-supported book on sport and nutrition. It is easy to read, while providing the audience with good information to implement in the practice setting."  Rating: 5 Stars--Doody.com, February 21, 2014

Ratings and Reviews