Nutrition and Drug Interrelations - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123325501, 9780323141970

Nutrition and Drug Interrelations

1st Edition

Editors: John Hathcock
eBook ISBN: 9780323141970
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1978
Page Count: 948
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Description

Nutrition and Drug Interrelations examines and presents the different relations of nutrition, metabolism, and effects of drugs, including drugs' positive effects in the field of animal husbandry and human and veterinary medicine. This book also highlights the importance of the interrelations between nutrition and drugs.
The introductory chapter gives an overview of the variable role of food in humans on a historical and sociological context and perspective. The first section of this book deals with the impacts of drugs on the nutrition process. These impacts can either be harmless or harmful depending on the adequacy of nutrition. The second section of this book describes some of the many influences of nutritional condition on biochemical competence to cope with xenobiotics, including drugs. The third section highlights the various uses of pharmacological agents in food production. This section also discusses some concerns about the effect in the food chain of pharmacological agents.
The last section in this book demonstrates the overlap in boundary between dietetic and pharmacological treatments. Given focus is the use of vitamin D derivatives and megavitamin treatments with doubtful benefits. This book will benefit most students and professionals in the field of food and nutrition, human and veterinary medicine, and animal husbandry. The subject area in this book will also yield interest from people involved in metabolism, nutrition, and pharmacology.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Foreword

Preface

1 The Agile Role of Food: Some Historical Reflections

I. Food as Patriotism

II. The Vast Variety of Food Image and Role

III. The American Version of Food Folklore

IV. The New Nutrition and Its Manipulation

V. The Vitamin Amendments of 1976

References

Section I / Drug Effects on Nutrient intake, Function, and Requirement

2 Appetite Regulation and Its Modulation by Drugs

I. Introduction

II. Regulation of Feeding Behavior

III. Disorders of Appetite Regulation

IV. Drugs Affecting Food Intake

V. Summary and Research Needs

References

3 Drugs and Water-Soluble Vitamin Absorption

I. Introduction: Principles of Intestinal Absorption

II. Water-Soluble Vitamin Absorption and Drug Inhibition

III. Discussion: Research Needs

References

4 Drug Effects on Fat-Soluble Vitamin Absorption

I. Introduction

II. Physiology of Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Fat-Soluble Vitamins

III. Drugs Affecting Fat-Soluble Vitamin Absorption

IV. Miscellaneous Effects of Drugs on Fat-Soluble Vitamin Absorption

V. Research Needs

VI. Conclusion

References

5 Drugs and Environmental Chemicals in Relation to Vitamin Needs

I. Introduction

II. Human Findings in Marginal Deficiency States

III. Some Drug-Vitamin Interrelations

IV. Implications of Marginal Deficiency on Human Performance

V. Preventive/Corrective Proposals to Attain Nutritional Adequacy

VI. Summary

References

6 Effects of Oral Contraceptives on Nutrient Utilization

I. Introduction

II. Effects of Oral Contraceptives on Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism

III. Vitamin Requirements and Utilization

IV. Metals

V. Conclusions and Future Research

References

7 Nutritional Impact of Intestinal Drug-Microbe Interactions

I. Introduction and Definitions

II. The Role of the Intestinal Microflora in Host Nutrition

III. Transformations of Foreign Compounds by Intestinal Microorganisms

IV. The Nutritional Consequences of Drug-Microbe Interactions in the Intestines of Monogastric Animals

V. The Influence of Anutrients, Foreign Compounds, and Drugs on the Fermentation in the Forestomachs of Polygastric Animals

VI. Research Needs

References

8 Interactions of Drugs and Intestinal Mucosal Endoplasmic Reticulum

I. Introduction

II. Distribution of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in the Intestine

III. Biochemical Properties of Some Intestinal Microsomal Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes

IV. Factors Affecting Intestinal Drug Metabolism

V. Conclusions and Research Needs

References

9 Drug Effects on Gastric Mucosa

I. Pathogenesis

II. Drug Treatment of Gastric Mucosal Damage

III. Research Needs

References

Section II / Nutritional Effects on Drug Metabolism and Action

10 Nutrients in Drug Detoxication Reactions

I. Introduction

II. The Metabolic Reactions of Drugs

III. Nutrients Required in Phase I Reactions

IV. Nutrients in Phase II Reactions or Conjugations

V. General Mechanism of Conjugation and Nutrients Required

VI. Conclusion

References

11 Diet-Drug Interactions and Incompatibilities

I. Introduction

II. Influence of Food and Other Dietary Constituents on Drug Absorption

III. Vitamin Intakes and Drug Responses

IV. Drug-Induced Malnutrition

V. Systemic Reactions Induced by Drug-Food Incompatibilities

VI. Adverse Effects of Food Constituents on Nutrient Availability

VII. Nutrient-Nutrient Incompatibilities

VIII. Summary and Conclusions

IX. Research Needs

References

12 Ascorbic Acid and Drug Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. In Vivo Effects of Ascorbic Acid

III. Specificity Studies

IV. In Vivo Reversal of Drug Metabolism and Cytochrome Ρ-450 Turnover in Deficient Guinea Pigs

V. Drug-Cytochrome P-450 Binding and Km Studies

VI. Lipid Peroxidation and Phosphatidylcholine in Normal and Deficient Animals

VII. Comparative Physicochemical Properties of Cytochrome P-450 in Normal and Ascorbic Acid-Deficient Microsomes

VIII. Research Needs

References

13 Dietary Minerals and Drug Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Essential Minerals

III. Nonessential Minerals

IV. Conclusion and Research Needs

References

14 Drug Metabolism and Infantile Undernutrition

I. Introduction

II. Antipyretic Drug Metabolism

III. Metabolism of Antibiotics

IV. Summary and Conclusions

References

15 Effects of Dietary Protein on Drug Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Effect of Protein Deficiency on Mixed-Function Oxidase Enzyme System

III. Conclusions

References

16 Effect of Amino Acid Intake on Ethanol Toxicity

I. Introduction

II. Ethanol Absorption and Metabolism

III. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Ethanol

IV. Methods of Determining Ethanol Toxicity

V. Role of Acetaldehyde in Alcohol Toxicity

VI. Summary

References

17 Nutritional Effects on Drug-Protein Binding

I. Introduction

II. Binding to Plasma Albumin

III. Free Fatty Acids

IV. Effects of Free Fatty Acids on Drug Binding to Plasma Albumin

V. Mechanism of Fatty Acid-Induced Albumin Binding Changes

VI. Summary and Conclusions

VII. Research Needs

References

18 Lipids in Drug Detoxication

I. Introduction

II. Function of Lipoprotein in the Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme System

III. Effect of Dietary Lipid on Composition of Hepatic Endoplasmic Reticulum

IV. Role of Dietary Lipid in Hepatic Microsomal Drug Metabolism

V. Role of Dietary Lipid on Component Enzymes of Drug-Metabolizing System

VI. Effect of Dietary Lipid on Substrate Interaction with Cytochrome P-450

VII. Effect of Dietary Lipid on Intestinal Mixed-Function Oxidase Activity

VIII. Effect of Dietary Lipid on the Induction of Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzymes

References

19 Dietary Effects on Carcinogenicity of Drugs and Related Compounds

I. Introduction

II. Review

III. Antitumor Agents

IV. Steroid Hormones

V. Agents Active in the Nervous System

VI. Antibacterial and Antiparasitic Agents

VII. Agents for Treatment of Dermatologic Diseases

VIII. Discussion

References

Section III / Use of Drugs in Animal Feeds

20 The Role of Antibiotics in Efficient Livestock Production

I. Introduction

II. Mode of Action

III. Continued Effectiveness

IV. Application of Antibiotics in Feeding Programs

V. Summary

References

21 Physiological Effects of Estrogens in Animal Feeds with Emphasis on Growth of Ruminants

I. Introduction

II. Plant Estrogens

III. Estrogens of Mycological Origin

IV. Synthetic Estrogens

V. Overview

References

22 Distribution and Fate of Growth-Promoting Drugs Used in Animal Production

I. Introduction

II. Compounds Possessing Hormonal Activity

III. Antibiotics

IV. Arsenic-Containing Compounds

V. Conclusions

References

23 Antibiotics in Animal Feeds: An Assessment of the Animal and Public Health Aspects

I. Introduction

II. Relevant New Information

III. Conclusions

References

Section IV / Use of Nutrients and Foods as Drugs

24 Some Aspects of Pharmacologic Use and Abuse of Water-Soluble Vitamins

I. Review of Vitamins

II. Nicotinic Acid

III. Vitamin C

IV. Conclusions

References

25 Uses and Function of Vitamin Κ

I. Historical Sketch

II. Blood Coagulation Mechanisms

III. Role of Vitamin K-Dependent Proteins

IV. Inactivation of Vitamin K-Dependent Proteins by Antithrombin III

V. A Fifth Vitamin K-Dependent Protein

VI. Depression of Vitamin Κ Activity

VII. Vitamin Κ Function and the Structure of Prothrombin

VIII. Five Distinct Vitamin K-Dependent Molecules

IX. Some Possibilities and Needs for Investigation

References

26 Vitamin D: Metabolism, Drug Interactions, and Therapeutic Applications in Humans

I. Introduction

II. Metabolism of Vitamin D

III. Biochemical Mode of Action of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D

IV. Drug and Disease-Related Aberrations in Vitamin D Metabolism and Therapeutic Application of Vitamin D-Sterols

V. Calcinogenic Plants as a Source of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3

VI. Perspectives in Future Vitamin D Research

References

27 Toxic Effects of Megadoses of Fat-Soluble Vitamins

I. Introduction

II. Hypervitaminosis A

III. Excess Vitamin Ε

IV. Toxicity of Vitamin Κ

V. Interactions of Hypervitaminoses

VI. Research Needs

References

28 Diet and Drug Therapy of Hyperlipoproteinemia

I. Introduction

II. Atherosclerosis and Hyperlipoproteinemia

III. Hyperlipoproteinemia

IV. Dietary Therapy of Hyperlipoproteinemia

V. Drug Therapy

VI. Research Needs

References

29 Medicinal Uses of Foods

I. Introduction

II. Vegetable, Animal, and Mineral Prescriptions and Uses

III. Diets

IV. Conclusion

References

Author Index

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
948
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1978
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323141970

About the Editor

John Hathcock