Numerical Ecology, Volume 24

3rd Edition

Authors: P. Legendre Loic Legendre
Paperback ISBN: 9780444538680
eBook ISBN: 9780444538697
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 3rd July 2012
Page Count: 1006
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Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Complex ecological data sets

1.0 Numerical analysis of ecological data

1.1 Spatial structure, spatial dependence, spatial correlation

1.2 Statistical testing by permutation

1.3 Computer programs and packages

1.4 Ecological descriptors

1.5 Coding

1.6 Missing data

1.7 Software

Chapter 2 Matrix algebra

2.0 Matrix algebra

2.1 The ecological data matrix

2.2 Association matrices

2.3 Special matrices

2.4 Vectors and scaling

2.5 Matrix addition and multiplication

2.6 Determinant

2.7 Rank of a matrix

2.8 Matrix inversion

2.9 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

2.10 Some properties of eigenvalues and eigenvectors

2.11 Singular value decomposition

2.12 Software

Chapter 3 Dimensional analysis in ecology

3.0 Dimensional analysis

3.1 Dimensions

3.2 Fundamental principles and the Pi theorem

3.3 The complete set of dimensionless products

3.4 Scale factors and models

Chapter 4 Multidimensional quantitative data

4.0 Multidimensional statistics

4.1 Multidimensional variables and dispersion matrix

4.2 Correlation matrix

4.3 Multinormal distribution

4.4 Principal axes

4.5 Multiple and partial correlations

4.6 Tests of normality and multinormality

4.7 Software

Chapter 5 Multidimensional semiquantitative data

5.0 Nonparametric statistics

5.1 Quantitative, semiquantitative, and qualitative multivariates

5.2 One-dimensional nonparametric statistics

5.3 Rank correlations

5.4 Coefficient of concordance

5.5 Software

Chapter 6 Multidimensional qualitative data

6.0 General principles

6.1 Information and entropy

6.2 Two-way contingency tables

6.3 Multiway contingency tables

6.4 Cont


The book describes and discusses the numerical methods which are successfully being used for analysing ecological data, using a clear and comprehensive approach. These methods are derived from the fields of mathematical physics, parametric and nonparametric statistics, information theory, numerical taxonomy, archaeology, psychometry, sociometry, econometry and others.

Key Features

  • An updated, 3rd English edition of the most widely cited book on quantitative analysis of multivariate ecological data
  • Relates ecological questions to methods of statistical analysis, with a clear description of complex numerical methods
  • All methods are illustrated by examples from the ecological literature so that ecologists clearly see how to use the methods and approaches in their own research
  • All calculations are available in R language functions


Practicing ecologists: professional researchers and graduate students in the fields of ecology, environment, and oceanography.


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© Elsevier 2012
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"Pierre Legendre…and Louis Legendre… present this text of data analysis methods for ecologists, with an emphasis on use of the statistical computer language R. The book begins by articulating salient points about ecological data in particular, such as the many functional correlations that must be adjusted for without ascribing as-yet-unexplained variation to random noise, then covers the mathematical foundations of matrix algebra and dimensional analysis."--Reference & Research Book News, December 2013
"What I really love about this book is that for most methods the formulae are given. Thus, we learn the statistical rea-soning, the mathematics and the ecological interpretation…Numerical Ecology is a definite must-have for any quanti-tative ecologist."--Basic and Applied Ecology, December 2013

About the Authors

P. Legendre Author

Affiliations and Expertise

Département de Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal, H3C 3J7, Québec, Canada

Loic Legendre Author