Nucleation of Water

Nucleation of Water

From Fundamental Science to Atmospheric and Additional Applications

1st Edition - November 25, 2021

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  • Authors: Ari Laaksonen, Jussi Malila
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128143216
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128143223

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Description

Nucleation of Water: From Fundamental Science to Atmospheric and Additional Applications provides a comprehensive accounting of the current state-of-the-art regarding the nucleation of water. It covers vapor-liquid, liquid-vapor, liquid-ice and vapor-ice transitions and describes basic kinetic and thermodynamic concepts in a manner understandable to researchers working on specific applications. The main focus of the book lies in atmospheric phenomena, but it also describes engineering and biological applications. Bubble nucleation, although not of major atmospheric relevance, is included for completeness. This book presents a single, go-to resource that will help readers understand the breadth and depth of nucleation, both in theory and in real-world examples.

Key Features

  • Offers a single, comprehensive work on water nucleation, including cutting- edge research on ice, cloud and bubble nucleation
  • Written primarily for atmospheric scientists, but it also presents the theories in such a way that researchers in other disciplines will find it useful
  • Written by one of the world’s foremost experts on ice nucleation

Readership

PhD students and researchers who are atmospheric scientists, earth system scientists, ocean scientists, hydrologists, chemical engineers and physical chemists looking into ice nucleation or aerosol science

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • About the authors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgment
  • Nomenclature
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
  • Abstract
  • 1.1. On nucleation of water
  • 1.2. A brief history
  • 1.3. About this book
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Physico-chemical concepts
  • Abstract
  • 2.1. Thermodynamic potentials and ensembles
  • 2.2. Thermodynamics of gas and liquid
  • 2.3. Kinetics
  • 2.4. Further reading
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Properties of water and ice
  • Abstract
  • 3.1. Water molecule and gaseous water
  • 3.2. Liquid and amorphous water
  • 3.3. Ice
  • 3.4. Mixture properties
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Homogeneous gas–liquid nucleation theory
  • Abstract
  • 4.1. General features of gas–liquid nucleation
  • 4.2. Nucleation kinetics
  • 4.3. Nucleation thermodynamics
  • 4.4. Nucleation theorems
  • 4.5. Classical nucleation theory
  • 4.6. Scaling model for the critical clusters
  • 4.7. Size dependence of the surface tension
  • 4.8. Semiphenomenological nucleation theory
  • 4.9. Nucleation models based on corresponding states correlations
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Homogeneous gas–liquid nucleation experiments
  • Abstract
  • 5.1. Nucleation experiments
  • 5.2. Diffusion chambers
  • 5.3. Expansion chambers
  • 5.4. Experimental results and comparison with theories
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Simulations and molecular-based theories
  • Abstract
  • 6.1. Molecular approaches to nucleation
  • 6.2. Density functional theory of nucleation
  • 6.3. Molecular simulation
  • 6.4. Quantum chemistry
  • 6.5. Comparison with experiments and theories
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Binary and multicomponent gas–liquid nucleation
  • Abstract
  • 7.1. Multicomponent gas–liquid nucleation
  • 7.2. Nucleation kinetics
  • 7.3. Nucleation thermodynamics
  • 7.4. Nucleation theorems
  • 7.5. Classical binary nucleation theory
  • 7.6. Semi-phenomenological binary nucleation theory
  • 7.7. Density functional binary nucleation theory
  • 7.8. Water–surfactant nucleation
  • 7.9. Nucleation of sulfuric acid and water
  • 7.10. Homogeneous multicomponent nucleation in the atmosphere
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Heterogeneous nucleation of water vapor
  • Abstract
  • 8.1. Heterogeneous nucleation
  • 8.2. Contact angle and solid surface tensions
  • 8.3. Adsorption
  • 8.4. Adsorption nucleation theory
  • 8.5. Classical heterogeneous nucleation theory
  • 8.6. Ion-induced nucleation
  • 8.7. Comparison of experimental results and theoretical predictions
  • 8.8. Dropwise condensation
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Cloud drop nucleation
  • Abstract
  • 9.1. Köhler theory
  • 9.2. Particles with insoluble inclusions
  • 9.3. Deliquescence and efflorescence
  • 9.4. Kappa-Köhler model
  • 9.5. Slightly soluble substances
  • 9.6. Insoluble cloud condensation nuclei
  • 9.7. Surfactant effects
  • 9.8. Co-condensation of soluble gases
  • 9.9. Laboratory experiments
  • 9.10. Atmospheric observations
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Ice nucleation
  • Abstract
  • 10.1. Ice nucleation and freezing
  • 10.2. Homogeneous freezing in pure water
  • 10.3. Condensation freezing
  • 10.4. Homogeneous freezing in solution
  • 10.5. Immersion freezing
  • 10.6. Deposition nucleation
  • 10.7. Contact nucleation
  • 10.8. Nucleation in and out of pores
  • 10.9. Ice nucleus types
  • 10.10. Cirrus cloud formation
  • 10.11. Freezing in mixed-phase and rainclouds
  • 10.12. Cloud seeding
  • 10.13. Polar stratospheric cloud formation
  • 10.14. Frost nucleation
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Bubble nucleation
  • Abstract
  • 11.1. Cavitation and boiling
  • 11.2. Thermodynamics
  • 11.3. Kinetics
  • 11.4. Third nucleation theorem
  • 11.5. Heterogeneous bubble nucleation
  • 11.6. Nucleation of dissolved gases
  • 11.7. Experiments of cavitation and boiling in water
  • 11.8. Cavitation and boiling in the Earth system
  • 11.9. Applications
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 294
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2021
  • Published: November 25, 2021
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128143216
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128143223

About the Authors

Ari Laaksonen

Dr. Ari Laaksonen received his Ph.D from the University of Helsinki in 1992, worked as a visiting scholar in the University of Chicago from 1993-95, and became a professor in 1998. He has supervised 23 Ph.D. students, and published over 270 peer reviewed scientific articles on nucleation, atmospheric aerosols and clouds, and on climate research. His scientific work has lately focused on heterogeneous nucleation of water and ice on different types of surfaces. He was nominated as a Thomson Reuters highly cited researcher for the past seven years.

Affiliations and Expertise

Chief Scientist, Finnish Meteorological Institute, and Professor of Environmental Physics, University of Eastern Finland

Jussi Malila

Jussi Malila received his MSc in environmental physics in 2008 and PhD in applied physics in 2016, both from the University of Eastern Finland. His scientific interests are in nucleation and phase equilibrium studies related to atmospheric systems, including atmospheric new particle formation and aerosol--cloud interactions, and in climate and sustainability education.

Affiliations and Expertise

University Lecturer, Docent, University of Oulu

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