Nuclear Power Generation

Nuclear Power Generation

Modern Power Station Practice

2nd Edition - January 1, 1971

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  • Author: Unknown Author
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483157399

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Description

Nuclear Power Generation focuses on the use of nuclear reactors as heat sources for electricity generation. This volume explains how nuclear energy can be harnessed to produce power by discussing the fundamental physical facts and the properties of matter underlying the operation of a reactor. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with an overview of nuclear physics, first by considering the structure of matter and basic physical concepts such as atomic structure and nuclear reactions. The second chapter deals with the requirements of a reactor as a heat source, along with the different types of reactor that have been developed to meet these requirements under varying conditions. The third chapter describes the siting of plant in a developing nuclear power program, paying particular attention to the design of the major items of a nuclear power plant. The fourth chapter covers operational problems and the specialized instrumentation that has been developed for the operational control and protection of reactors. The final chapter examines the techniques that have been developed for reactor commissioning so that essential design and operational data may be obtained. This monograph will be of interest to nuclear engineers and physicists as well as electrical and mechanical engineers.

Table of Contents


  • List of Illustrations

    Nomenclature and Symbols

    Chapter 1. Nuclear Physics

    1.1. Introduction

    1.1.1. General Introduction

    1.1.2. The Structure of Matter

    1.2. Basic Physical Concepts

    1.2.1. Basic Atomic Structure

    1.2.2. The Structure of the Nucleus

    1.2.3. The Equivalence of Mass and Energy

    1.2.4. Radioactivity

    1.2.5. Interaction of Radiation with Matter

    1.3. Nuclear Reactions

    1.3.1. General

    1.3.2. The Compound Nucleus

    1.3.3. Neutron Reactions

    1.3.4. Cross-Sections for Nuclear Reactions

    1.3.5. Particle Reactions (Other than Neutrons)

    1.3.6. Fusion Reactions

    1.4. The Nuclear Fission Reaction

    1.4.1. The "Liquid Drop" Model of the Nucleus

    1.4.2. The "Liquid Drop" Model of Nuclear Fission

    1.4.3. Fissile Materials

    1.4.4. Energy Released in Fission

    1.4.5. Fission Products and Their Significance

    1.4.6. Chain Reactions in Uranium

    1.5. Neutron Slowing Down

    1.5.1. Requirements of a Good Moderator

    1.5.2. The Neutron Slowing-Down Process

    1.5.3. Good Moderators

    1.6. The Heterogeneous Thermal Reactor

    1.6.1. The Neutron Cycle

    1.6.2. The Finite Reactor

    1.6.3. The Cylindrical Reactor

    Exercises

    References

    Chapter 2. Nuclear Power Reactors

    2.1. Introduction

    2.2. Reactor as a Heat Source

    2.2.1. Comparison of Nuclear and Fossil Fuel

    2.2.2. Neutrons and Power

    2.2.3. Heat Generation in the Fuel

    2.2.4. Removal of Heat from the Reactor

    2.3. Steam Cycles

    2.3.1. Single Pressure Steam Cycle

    2.3.2. Dual Pressure Steam Cycle

    2.3.3. Reheat

    2.3.4. Water Reactor Cycles

    2.4. Types of Thermal Reactor

    2.4.1. Magnox

    2.4.2. AGR

    2.4.3. Boiling Water Reactor

    2.4.4. Pressurized Water Reactor

    2.4.5. CANDU

    2.4.6. SGHW Reactor

    2.4.7. Other Thermal Reactors

    2.4.9. Fast-Breeder Reactors

    2.4.10. Future Fuel Requirements and Nuclear Programs

    Exercises

    Reference

    Chapter 3. British Nuclear Power Plant

    3.1. Introduction

    3.2. Siting

    3.3. Design of Nuclear Power Station Plant

    3.3.1. Introduction

    3.3.2. Fuel Elements

    3.3.3. Graphite Structure

    3.3.4. Pressure Circuit

    3.3.5. Gas Circulators and Drives

    3.3.6. Boilers

    3.3.7. Turbines

    3.3.8. Burst-Can Detection Gear

    3.3.9. Fuel-Handling Equipment

    3.3.10. Control Rods

    3.3.11. Electrical Auxiliary Supplies

    3.4. Layout

    3.4.1. Considerations Affecting Layout

    3.4.2. Radiation Control

    3.4.3. Contamination Control

    3.5. Development Potential

    Exercises

    References

    Chapter 4. Nuclear Power Station Operation

    4.1. Introduction

    4.1.1. Operation at Power

    4.1.2. Reactivity

    4.2. Irradiation Effects

    4.2.1. Introduction

    4.2.2. Isotopic Build up

    4.2.3. Fission Product Build up

    4.2.4. Change of Reactivity with Irradiation

    4.2.5. Variation of Temperature Coefficient with Irradiation

    4.2.6. Variation of Graphite Air Reactivity with Irradiation

    4.2.7. Fuel Irradiation Damage, Endurance and Heat Transfer

    4.3. Effects of Temperature

    4.3.1. Moderator Temperature Coefficient

    4.3.2. Fuel Temperature Coefficient

    4.3.3. Change of Rod Worth with Temperature

    4.3.4. Reactor with Negative Temperature Coefficient

    4.3.5. Reactor with Overall Positive Temperature Coefficient

    4.4. Fuel Cycles

    4.4.1. Basic Procedure for Absorber Programs

    4.4.2. Choice of Absorber Weights and Positions

    4.5. Instability

    4.5.1. Radial Instabilities

    4.5.2. Automatic Sector Control

    4.5.3. Axial Instabilities

    4.6. Reactor Kinetics

    4.6.1. Delayed Neutrons

    4.6.2. Prompt Criticality

    4.7. Reactor Control

    4.7.1. Control Rods

    4.7.2. Reactivity in Control Rods

    4.7.3. Start-up

    4.7.4. Shut-Down

    4.7.5. Control at Power

    4.8. Reactor Safety

    4.8.1. General Philosophy of Reactor Protection

    4.8.2. Two out of Three Protection

    4.8.3. Designing out Faults

    4.8.4. The Effectiveness of Reactor Protection

    4.8.5. Some General Conclusions from Fault Studies

    4.8.6. The Role of the Operator in Reactor Protection

    4.8.7. Operational Limitations Required on Safety Grounds

    4.9. Neutron Flux Measurements

    4.9.1. Neutron Flux

    4.9.2. Thermal Columns

    4.9.3. Artificial Neutron Sources

    4.9.4. Calibration of Neutron Flux Instruments

    4.9.5. Neutron Detectors

    4.9.6. Mean Current Ionization Chambers

    4.9.7. Pulse Counter Chambers

    4.10. Reactor Power Level Measurements

    4.10.1. Power Level Instrumentation Range

    4.10.2. Low-Power Proportional Counter Channel

    4.10.3. Low-Level and High-Level Log Channels

    4.10.4. High-Level Linear Channel

    4.10.5. Linear and Emergency Channel

    4.10.6. Power Deviation Channel

    4.11. Temperature Measurements

    4.11.1. Fuel-Element Temperature

    4.11.2. Temperature Trip Amplifiers

    4.12. Coolant Measurements

    4.12.1. Flow

    4.12.2. Excess Pressure

    4.12.3. Rate of Fall of Pressure

    4.12.4. Moisture in Carbon Dioxide Measurement

    4.13. Safety Circuits

    4.13.1. Reactor Protection

    4.13.2. Practical Safety Circuits

    4.13.3. '2 out of 3' Circuits

    4.13.4. Typical Reactor Relay Safety-circuit System

    4.13.5. Reactor Solid State Safety-Circuit System

    4.13.6. Multi-Aperture Ferrite Cores

    4.13.7. Laddie Safety-Circuit System

    4.14. Sector Servo Control-Rod System

    4.15. Reactor Industrial Television Equipment

    4.15.1. Reactor Channel Camera

    4.15.2. Camera Manipulator Attachments

    4.15.3. Coolant Hoses

    4.15.4. Reactor Environment Effects on the Camera

    4.16. Neutron Flux Scanning

    Exercises

    Chapter 5. Nuclear Techniques

    5.1. Introduction

    5.2. Commissioning a Nuclear Power Station

    5.2.1. Basic Aims

    5.2.2. Organization for Commissioning

    5.2.3. The Commissioning Program

    5.2.4. Combined Engineering Tests

    5.2.5. Physics Tests

    5.2.6. Power Raising Tests

    5.2.7. Commissioning the Second Reactor at a Station

    5.2.8. Commissioning AGR Stations

    5.3. Properties of Reactor Materials

    5.3.1. Nuclear Fuels

    5.3.2. Fuel Element Canning

    5.3.3. Coolant

    5.3.4. Moderator

    5.3.5. Pressure Vessel

    5.3.6. Lubricants and Greases

    5.3.7. Clean Conditions

    5.4. Health Physics

    5.4.1. Units of Contamination

    5.4.2. Units of Radiation

    5.4.3. Types of Radiation

    5.4.4. Effects of Radiation on Man

    5.4.5. Shielding Materials

    5.4.6. Health Physics Control

    5.5. Legislation Affecting Nuclear Power Stations

    5.5.1. The Nuclear Installations Act, 1965

    5.5.2. The Radioactive Substances Act, 1948 and 1960

    5.5.3. The Ionizing Radiations (Sealed Sources) Regulations, 1961

    5.5.4. Operating Procedures

    5.5.5. District Survey

    5.5.6. Effluent Disposal

    5.6. Nuclear Fuel Management

    5.6.1. The Fuel Element Route

    5.6.2. Stock Control

    5.6.3. Operational Control

    5.6.4. Irradiated Fuel

    5.7. Latest Developments

    5.7.1. AGR Stations

    5.7.2. Fast Reactor Stations

    Exercises

    Contents of Volumes 1-8

Product details

  • No. of pages: 394
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1971
  • Published: January 1, 1971
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483157399

About the Author

Unknown Author

Dr. Sam Stuart is a physiotherapist and a research Fellow within the Balance Disorders Laboratory, OHSU. His work focuses on vision, cognition and gait in neurological disorders, examining how technology-based interventions influence these factors. He has published extensively in world leading clinical and engineering journals focusing on a broad range of activities such as real-world data analytics, algorithm development for wearable technology and provided expert opinion on technology for concussion assessment for robust player management. He is currently a guest editor for special issues (sports medicine and transcranial direct current stimulation for motor rehabilitation) within Physiological Measurement and Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, respectively.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Research Fellow, Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University, UK Honorary Physiotherapist, Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields, UK

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