Nuclear Methods in Mineral Exploration and Production - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444415677, 9781483256863

Nuclear Methods in Mineral Exploration and Production

1st Edition

Editors: Jerome G. Morse
eBook ISBN: 9781483256863
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1977
Page Count: 292
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Description

Developments in Economic Geology, 7: Nuclear Methods in Mineral Exploration and Production elaborates on the status of applicable nuclear techniques used in mineral exploration and production.
The selection first offers information on radiometric methods and X-ray analysis in mineral exploration. Discussions focus on gamma-ray spectrometry, radon detection, autoradiography of uranium and thorium, X-ray diffraction, and application of X-ray analysis. The text then examines X-ray fluorescence geochemical analysis on the surface of Mars and radioactivation methods, as well as nuclear geochemical measurements of planetary surface; radioactivation methods for mineral exploration; and radioactivation sources. The publication takes a look at nuclear well logging for petroleum and the potential of plowshare for resource development. Topics include natural radiation, induced logs, description of potential applications related to energy resources, and obstacles to the development of a commercial plowshare program in the U.S. The selection is a dependable source of data for readers interested in the use of nuclear techniques in mineral production and exploration.

Table of Contents


Preface

List of Contributors

Chapter 1. Introduction

Summary

References

Chapter 2. Radiometric Methods

Introduction

Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

The Gamma-Ray Spectrum

Data Reduction

Detector Systems

Field Applications

Autoradiography of Uranium and Thorium

Alpha Autoradiography

The Fission-Track Method

Radon Detection

Physical Parameters

Sampling and Analysis

Conclusions

References

Chapter 3. X-Ray Analysis in Mineral Exploration

Introduction

X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis

Generation of X-Rays

Absorption and Secondary Fluorescence

Qualitative Fluorescence Analysis

Quantitative Fluorescence Analysis

Sample Preparation (Quantitative Analysis)

X-Ray Diffraction Analysis

X-Ray Diffraction Theory

Qualitative Analysis

Quantitative Analysis

Sample Preparation

Accuracy and Sensitivity

Instrumentation

X-Ray Fluorescence

X-Ray Diffractometry

Special Instrumentation

Future Trends

Application of X-Ray Analysis

Non-Metallic Minerals

Energy Materials

Metals

Conclusions

References

Chapter 4. X-Ray Fluorescence Geochemical Analysis on the Surface of Mars

Introduction

The Viking Mission to Mars

Designing an Instrument for Space

Previous Nuclear Geochemical Measurements of Planetary Surface

Instrument Description

Methods of Data Interpretation

Mars Results

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 5. Radioactivation Methods

Introduction

Theoretical Considerations

Gamma Group

Neutron Group

Neutron-Gamma Transport

Radioactivation Sources

Radioisotopic Neutron Sources

Accelerator Neutron Sources

Gamma-Ray Sources

Radioactivation Methods for Mineral Exploration

Introduction

Significance of Borehole Analysis for Deposit Evaluation

Application of Radioactivation Methods

Ongoing and Future Developments

References

Chapter 6. Nuclear Well Logging for Petroleum

Introduction

Natural Radiation

Natural Gamma-Ray Log

Induced Logs

Induced Gamma-Ray Logs

Neutron Logs

Chapter 7. The Potential of Plowshare for Resource Development

Introduction

Phenomenology

Cavity and Chimney Formation

Seismic Effects

Radioactivity Production, Distribution, and Transport

Summary of PNE Contained Underground Experiments Conducted through 1975

Description of Potential Applications Related to Energy Resources

Storage

Oil Shale

Gas Stimulation

U.S.S.R. Program

Excavation Experiments and Applications

Contained Experiments and Applications

Obstacles To The Development of a Commercial Plowshare Program in the U.S

Economic Obstacles

Political Obstacles

Social Obstacles

References

Appendix. Fundamentals of Atomic and Nuclear Physics

Atomic Structure

The Nucleus

Electrons

Isotopes and Radioactivity

Radioactivity

Half-Life

Properties Of Rays and Particles Emitted by Radionuclides

Alpha Radiation (A)

Beta Radiation

Gamma Rays (7)

Units of Radioactivity

The Curie

Decay Series

The Neutron

Compound Nucleus

Cross-Section

Artificial Radioactivity

Statistical Considerations in Measurement of Radioactivity

References

Subject Index




Details

No. of pages:
292
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 1977
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9781483256863

About the Editor

Jerome G. Morse