Nuclear Methods in Mineral Exploration and Production

Nuclear Methods in Mineral Exploration and Production

1st Edition - January 1, 1977

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  • Editor: Jerome G. Morse
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483256863

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Description

Developments in Economic Geology, 7: Nuclear Methods in Mineral Exploration and Production elaborates on the status of applicable nuclear techniques used in mineral exploration and production. The selection first offers information on radiometric methods and X-ray analysis in mineral exploration. Discussions focus on gamma-ray spectrometry, radon detection, autoradiography of uranium and thorium, X-ray diffraction, and application of X-ray analysis. The text then examines X-ray fluorescence geochemical analysis on the surface of Mars and radioactivation methods, as well as nuclear geochemical measurements of planetary surface; radioactivation methods for mineral exploration; and radioactivation sources. The publication takes a look at nuclear well logging for petroleum and the potential of plowshare for resource development. Topics include natural radiation, induced logs, description of potential applications related to energy resources, and obstacles to the development of a commercial plowshare program in the U.S. The selection is a dependable source of data for readers interested in the use of nuclear techniques in mineral production and exploration.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    List of Contributors

    Chapter 1. Introduction

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 2. Radiometric Methods

    Introduction

    Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    The Gamma-Ray Spectrum

    Data Reduction

    Detector Systems

    Field Applications

    Autoradiography of Uranium and Thorium

    Alpha Autoradiography

    The Fission-Track Method

    Radon Detection

    Physical Parameters

    Sampling and Analysis

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 3. X-Ray Analysis in Mineral Exploration

    Introduction

    X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis

    Generation of X-Rays

    Absorption and Secondary Fluorescence

    Qualitative Fluorescence Analysis

    Quantitative Fluorescence Analysis

    Sample Preparation (Quantitative Analysis)

    X-Ray Diffraction Analysis

    X-Ray Diffraction Theory

    Qualitative Analysis

    Quantitative Analysis

    Sample Preparation

    Accuracy and Sensitivity

    Instrumentation

    X-Ray Fluorescence

    X-Ray Diffractometry

    Special Instrumentation

    Future Trends

    Application of X-Ray Analysis

    Non-Metallic Minerals

    Energy Materials

    Metals

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4. X-Ray Fluorescence Geochemical Analysis on the Surface of Mars

    Introduction

    The Viking Mission to Mars

    Designing an Instrument for Space

    Previous Nuclear Geochemical Measurements of Planetary Surface

    Instrument Description

    Methods of Data Interpretation

    Mars Results

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 5. Radioactivation Methods

    Introduction

    Theoretical Considerations

    Gamma Group

    Neutron Group

    Neutron-Gamma Transport

    Radioactivation Sources

    Radioisotopic Neutron Sources

    Accelerator Neutron Sources

    Gamma-Ray Sources

    Radioactivation Methods for Mineral Exploration

    Introduction

    Significance of Borehole Analysis for Deposit Evaluation

    Application of Radioactivation Methods

    Ongoing and Future Developments

    References

    Chapter 6. Nuclear Well Logging for Petroleum

    Introduction

    Natural Radiation

    Natural Gamma-Ray Log

    Induced Logs

    Induced Gamma-Ray Logs

    Neutron Logs

    Chapter 7. The Potential of Plowshare for Resource Development

    Introduction

    Phenomenology

    Cavity and Chimney Formation

    Seismic Effects

    Radioactivity Production, Distribution, and Transport

    Summary of PNE Contained Underground Experiments Conducted through 1975

    Description of Potential Applications Related to Energy Resources

    Storage

    Oil Shale

    Gas Stimulation

    U.S.S.R. Program

    Excavation Experiments and Applications

    Contained Experiments and Applications

    Obstacles To The Development of a Commercial Plowshare Program in the U.S

    Economic Obstacles

    Political Obstacles

    Social Obstacles

    References

    Appendix. Fundamentals of Atomic and Nuclear Physics

    Atomic Structure

    The Nucleus

    Electrons

    Isotopes and Radioactivity

    Radioactivity

    Half-Life

    Properties Of Rays and Particles Emitted by Radionuclides

    Alpha Radiation (A)

    Beta Radiation

    Gamma Rays (7)

    Units of Radioactivity

    The Curie

    Decay Series

    The Neutron

    Compound Nucleus

    Cross-Section

    Artificial Radioactivity

    Statistical Considerations in Measurement of Radioactivity

    References

    Subject Index




Product details

  • No. of pages: 292
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 1977
  • Published: January 1, 1977
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483256863

About the Editor

Jerome G. Morse

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