Nuclear Fuel Cycle Science and Engineering - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857090737, 9780857096388

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Science and Engineering

1st Edition

Editors: Ian Crossland
eBook ISBN: 9780857096388
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857090737
Paperback ISBN: 9780081016114
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 21st September 2012
Page Count: 648
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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy

National Nuclear Laboratory

Part I: Introduction to the nuclear fuel cycle

Chapter 1: Nuclear power: origins and outlook

Abstract:

1.1 The rise of nuclear power: 1938 to 1970

1.2 The fall: 1970 to the mid-1990s

1.3 The resurgence: the mid-1990s to the present day

1.4 Future trends

Chapter 2: Radiological protection and the nuclear fuel cycle

Abstract:

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The international system of radiological protection

2.3 International safety standards

2.4 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety requirements and guidance for radiation protection

2.5 Radiation protection in the nuclear fuel cycle

2.6 Conclusions and future trends

2.8 Appendix: Requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards relevant to radiological safety in the nuclear fuel cycle

Chapter 3: Safeguards, security, safety and the nuclear fuel cycle

Abstract:

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Nuclear safeguards

3.3 Nuclear security

3.4 Nuclear safety

3.5 Conclusion and future trends

3.6 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 4: Public acceptability of nuclear technology

Abstract:

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Historical background

4.3 Investigating determinants of acceptability of nuclear technology

4.4 Beyond an instrumental approach to public acceptability

4.5 Future trends

Chapter 5: The economics of nuclear power

Abstract:

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Levelised cost of electricity (LCOE)

5.3 Financing of NPPs

5.4 Conclusions

5.5 Future trends

Part II: Uranium and thorium nuclear fuel cycles: materials mining, enrichment and fuel element design and fabrication

Chapter 6: Mining and milling of uranium

Abstract:

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Uranium mining and milling

6.3 World uranium mines

6.4 Environmental and social impacts

6.5 Secondary sources of uranium

6.6 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 7: Uranium conversion and enrichment

Abstract:

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Uranium hexafluoride

7.3 Conversion

7.4 Enrichment

7.5 Uranium hexafluoride quality, sampling and analysis

7.6 Tails management

7.7 Transport cylinder management

7.8 Nuclear safeguards

7.9 Future trends

Chapter 8: Development of the thorium fuel cycle

Abstract:

8.1 Reasons for considering the thorium cycle

8.2 History and development of the thorium fuel cycle

8.3 Key technological features of the thorium fuel cycle and industrial challenges

8.4 Generic issues linked to the deployment of the thorium fuel cycle

8.5 Conclusion

Chapter 9: Nuclear fuel assembly design and fabrication

Abstract:

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Principal design features of LWR fuel assemblies

9.3 Basic reactor physics affecting fuel assembly design

9.4 Fuel rod design and fabrication

9.5 Fuel forms

9.6 Factors affecting fuel rod endurance

9.7 Future trends

9.8 Sources of further information

Part III: Impact of nuclear reactor design and operation on fuel element irradiation

Chapter 10: Water cooled thermal reactor designs, operation and fuel cycle

Abstract:

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Main characteristic of LWRs

10.3 Pressurised water reactor (PWR) design features

10.4 Factors affecting reactivity and their impact on PWR reactor design

10.5 PWR core design

10.6 Boiling water reactor (BWR) design features

10.7 Factors affecting reactivity and their impact on BWR reactor design

10.8 BWR core and fuel assembly design

10.9 Safety features and issues

10.10 Advantages and limitations

10.11 Future trends

10.12 Sources of further information

Chapter 11: CANDU nuclear reactor designs, operation and fuel cycle

Abstract:

11.1 Introduction

11.2 CANDU reactor features

11.3 CANDU fuel and refuelling

11.4 CANDU reactor control and safety

11.5 Future trends

Chapter 12: Gas-cooled nuclear reactor designs, operation and fuel cycle

Abstract:

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Magnox reactors

12.3 The advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR)

12.3.5 Fuel storage

12.3.6 Waste management and decommissioning

12.4 Safety features and issues

12.5 The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR)

12.5.2 Main plant features

12.5.3 Fuel design and refuelling

12.6 Acknowledgements

Chapter 13: Generation IV reactor designs, operation and fuel cycle

Abstract:

13.1 Introduction

13.2 General issues in developing sustainable fuel cycles

13.3 The Generation IV Initiative

13.4 Common Generation IV requirements for fuels and fuel cycles

13.5 The very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) and its fuel cycle

13.6 The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) and its fuel cycle

13.7 The molten salt reactor (MSR) and its fuel cycle

13.8 The sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and its fuel cycle

13.9 The lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) and its fuel cycle

13.10 The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) and its fuel cycle

13.11 Future trends

13.12 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 14: Understanding and modelling fuel behaviour under irradiation

Abstract:

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Description of important phenomena

14.3 Modelling fuel behaviour under irradiation

14.4 Sources of further information

Part IV: Spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management

Chapter 15: Nuclear management of spent fuel from power reactors

Abstract:

15.1 Types of nuclear reactors and nuclear fuel arisings

15.2 International initiatives in spent fuel management

15.3 Characteristics of spent nuclear fuel

15.4 Spent fuel management strategies

15.5 Spent fuel storage

15.6 Spent fuel disposal

15.7 Spent fuel reprocessing and recycling

15.8 High-level radioactive waste (HLW) storage and disposal

Chapter 16: Reprocessing of spent oxide fuel from nuclear power reactors

Abstract:

16.1 Introduction: closed and open cycles

16.2 Targets and constraints of reprocessing

16.3 Main industrial reprocessing process (PUREX)

16.4 Reprocessing plant

16.5 Reprocessing: industrial organization

16.6 Closed cycles

16.7 Future trends

16.8 Sources of further information and advice

16.9 Appendix: Industrial-scale reprocessing of spent oxide fuel in selected countries

Chapter 17: Partitioning and transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste

Abstract:

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Physics of transmutation

17.3 Transmutation in different types of reactors

17.4 Implementation scenarios

17.5 Potential benefits of P&T for a repository

17.6 Future trends and R&D challenges

17.7 Conclusions

17.8 Acknowledgement

Chapter 18: Disposal of radioactive waste

Abstract:

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Nature of radioactive waste

18.3 Pre-disposal

18.4 Framework for disposal

18.5 Modern disposal practice

18.6 Future trends

18.7 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 19: Packaging and transport of radioactive material in the nuclear fuel cycle

Abstract:

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Safety and security in the packaging and transport of radioactive material

19.3 Governing international regulatory security principles and guidance in radioactive materials’ packaging and transport

19.4 Regulatory requirements for packages and transport

19.5 Transport experience and operations

19.6 Current technologies and future trends

19.8 Acknowledgements

Co-operation in the field of nuclear power: An overview of non-commercial international nuclear power organisations

Index


Description

The nuclear fuel cycle is characterised by the wide range of scientific disciplines and technologies it employs. The development of ever more integrated processes across the many stages of the nuclear fuel cycle therefore confronts plant manufacturers and operators with formidable challenges. Nuclear fuel cycle science and engineering describes both the key features of the complete nuclear fuel cycle and the wealth of recent research in this important field.

Part one provides an introduction to the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiological protection, security and public acceptance of nuclear technology are considered, along with the economics of nuclear power. Part two goes on to explore materials mining, enrichment, fuel element design and fabrication for the uranium and thorium nuclear fuel cycle. The impact of nuclear reactor design and operation on fuel element irradiation is the focus of part three, including water and gas-cooled reactors, along with CANDU and Generation IV designs. Finally, part four reviews spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management.

With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Nuclear fuel cycle science and engineering provides an important review for all those involved in the design, fabrication, use and disposal of nuclear fuels as well as regulatory bodies and researchers in this field.

Key Features

  • Provides a comprehensive and holistic review of the complete nuclear fuel cycle
  • Reviews the issues presented by the nuclear fuel cycle, including radiological protection and security, public acceptance and economic analysis
  • Discusses issues at the front-end of the fuel cycle, including uranium and thorium mining, enrichment and fuel design and fabrication

Readership

Nuclear waste management professionals; Nuclear power operators; Nuclear metallurgists and radio-chemists; Governmental and regulatory bodies in the field of nuclear waste management; Researchers, scientists and academics in this field


Details

No. of pages:
648
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2012
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780857096388
Hardcover ISBN:
9780857090737
Paperback ISBN:
9780081016114

About the Editors

Ian Crossland Editor

Dr Ian Crossland is the Director of Crossland Consulting Ltd. Dr Crossland has over 40 years experience in the UK nuclear power industry. He is an independent consultant for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as well as several national radioactive waste management bodies in Europe.

Affiliations and Expertise

Crossland Consulting, UK