Nuclear Fuel Cycle Science and Engineering

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Science and Engineering

1st Edition - September 21, 2012

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  • Editor: Ian Crossland
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857096388
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081016114

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Description

The nuclear fuel cycle is characterised by the wide range of scientific disciplines and technologies it employs. The development of ever more integrated processes across the many stages of the nuclear fuel cycle therefore confronts plant manufacturers and operators with formidable challenges. Nuclear fuel cycle science and engineering describes both the key features of the complete nuclear fuel cycle and the wealth of recent research in this important field.Part one provides an introduction to the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiological protection, security and public acceptance of nuclear technology are considered, along with the economics of nuclear power. Part two goes on to explore materials mining, enrichment, fuel element design and fabrication for the uranium and thorium nuclear fuel cycle. The impact of nuclear reactor design and operation on fuel element irradiation is the focus of part three, including water and gas-cooled reactors, along with CANDU and Generation IV designs. Finally, part four reviews spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management.With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Nuclear fuel cycle science and engineering provides an important review for all those involved in the design, fabrication, use and disposal of nuclear fuels as well as regulatory bodies and researchers in this field.

Key Features

  • Provides a comprehensive and holistic review of the complete nuclear fuel cycle
  • Reviews the issues presented by the nuclear fuel cycle, including radiological protection and security, public acceptance and economic analysis
  • Discusses issues at the front-end of the fuel cycle, including uranium and thorium mining, enrichment and fuel design and fabrication

Readership

Nuclear waste management professionals; Nuclear power operators; Nuclear metallurgists and radio-chemists; Governmental and regulatory bodies in the field of nuclear waste management; Researchers, scientists and academics in this field

Table of Contents

  • Contributor contact details

    Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy

    National Nuclear Laboratory

    Part I: Introduction to the nuclear fuel cycle

    Chapter 1: Nuclear power: origins and outlook

    Abstract:

    1.1 The rise of nuclear power: 1938 to 1970

    1.2 The fall: 1970 to the mid-1990s

    1.3 The resurgence: the mid-1990s to the present day

    1.4 Future trends

    Chapter 2: Radiological protection and the nuclear fuel cycle

    Abstract:

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 The international system of radiological protection

    2.3 International safety standards

    2.4 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety requirements and guidance for radiation protection

    2.5 Radiation protection in the nuclear fuel cycle

    2.6 Conclusions and future trends

    2.8 Appendix: Requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards relevant to radiological safety in the nuclear fuel cycle

    Chapter 3: Safeguards, security, safety and the nuclear fuel cycle

    Abstract:

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Nuclear safeguards

    3.3 Nuclear security

    3.4 Nuclear safety

    3.5 Conclusion and future trends

    3.6 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 4: Public acceptability of nuclear technology

    Abstract:

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Historical background

    4.3 Investigating determinants of acceptability of nuclear technology

    4.4 Beyond an instrumental approach to public acceptability

    4.5 Future trends

    Chapter 5: The economics of nuclear power

    Abstract:

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Levelised cost of electricity (LCOE)

    5.3 Financing of NPPs

    5.4 Conclusions

    5.5 Future trends

    Part II: Uranium and thorium nuclear fuel cycles: materials mining, enrichment and fuel element design and fabrication

    Chapter 6: Mining and milling of uranium

    Abstract:

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Uranium mining and milling

    6.3 World uranium mines

    6.4 Environmental and social impacts

    6.5 Secondary sources of uranium

    6.6 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 7: Uranium conversion and enrichment

    Abstract:

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Uranium hexafluoride

    7.3 Conversion

    7.4 Enrichment

    7.5 Uranium hexafluoride quality, sampling and analysis

    7.6 Tails management

    7.7 Transport cylinder management

    7.8 Nuclear safeguards

    7.9 Future trends

    Chapter 8: Development of the thorium fuel cycle

    Abstract:

    8.1 Reasons for considering the thorium cycle

    8.2 History and development of the thorium fuel cycle

    8.3 Key technological features of the thorium fuel cycle and industrial challenges

    8.4 Generic issues linked to the deployment of the thorium fuel cycle

    8.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 9: Nuclear fuel assembly design and fabrication

    Abstract:

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Principal design features of LWR fuel assemblies

    9.3 Basic reactor physics affecting fuel assembly design

    9.4 Fuel rod design and fabrication

    9.5 Fuel forms

    9.6 Factors affecting fuel rod endurance

    9.7 Future trends

    9.8 Sources of further information

    Part III: Impact of nuclear reactor design and operation on fuel element irradiation

    Chapter 10: Water cooled thermal reactor designs, operation and fuel cycle

    Abstract:

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Main characteristic of LWRs

    10.3 Pressurised water reactor (PWR) design features

    10.4 Factors affecting reactivity and their impact on PWR reactor design

    10.5 PWR core design

    10.6 Boiling water reactor (BWR) design features

    10.7 Factors affecting reactivity and their impact on BWR reactor design

    10.8 BWR core and fuel assembly design

    10.9 Safety features and issues

    10.10 Advantages and limitations

    10.11 Future trends

    10.12 Sources of further information

    Chapter 11: CANDU nuclear reactor designs, operation and fuel cycle

    Abstract:

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 CANDU reactor features

    11.3 CANDU fuel and refuelling

    11.4 CANDU reactor control and safety

    11.5 Future trends

    Chapter 12: Gas-cooled nuclear reactor designs, operation and fuel cycle

    Abstract:

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Magnox reactors

    12.3 The advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR)

    12.3.5 Fuel storage

    12.3.6 Waste management and decommissioning

    12.4 Safety features and issues

    12.5 The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR)

    12.5.2 Main plant features

    12.5.3 Fuel design and refuelling

    12.6 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 13: Generation IV reactor designs, operation and fuel cycle

    Abstract:

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 General issues in developing sustainable fuel cycles

    13.3 The Generation IV Initiative

    13.4 Common Generation IV requirements for fuels and fuel cycles

    13.5 The very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) and its fuel cycle

    13.6 The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) and its fuel cycle

    13.7 The molten salt reactor (MSR) and its fuel cycle

    13.8 The sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and its fuel cycle

    13.9 The lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) and its fuel cycle

    13.10 The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) and its fuel cycle

    13.11 Future trends

    13.12 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 14: Understanding and modelling fuel behaviour under irradiation

    Abstract:

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Description of important phenomena

    14.3 Modelling fuel behaviour under irradiation

    14.4 Sources of further information

    Part IV: Spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management

    Chapter 15: Nuclear management of spent fuel from power reactors

    Abstract:

    15.1 Types of nuclear reactors and nuclear fuel arisings

    15.2 International initiatives in spent fuel management

    15.3 Characteristics of spent nuclear fuel

    15.4 Spent fuel management strategies

    15.5 Spent fuel storage

    15.6 Spent fuel disposal

    15.7 Spent fuel reprocessing and recycling

    15.8 High-level radioactive waste (HLW) storage and disposal

    Chapter 16: Reprocessing of spent oxide fuel from nuclear power reactors

    Abstract:

    16.1 Introduction: closed and open cycles

    16.2 Targets and constraints of reprocessing

    16.3 Main industrial reprocessing process (PUREX)

    16.4 Reprocessing plant

    16.5 Reprocessing: industrial organization

    16.6 Closed cycles

    16.7 Future trends

    16.8 Sources of further information and advice

    16.9 Appendix: Industrial-scale reprocessing of spent oxide fuel in selected countries

    Chapter 17: Partitioning and transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste

    Abstract:

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Physics of transmutation

    17.3 Transmutation in different types of reactors

    17.4 Implementation scenarios

    17.5 Potential benefits of P&T for a repository

    17.6 Future trends and R&D challenges

    17.7 Conclusions

    17.8 Acknowledgement

    Chapter 18: Disposal of radioactive waste

    Abstract:

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Nature of radioactive waste

    18.3 Pre-disposal

    18.4 Framework for disposal

    18.5 Modern disposal practice

    18.6 Future trends

    18.7 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 19: Packaging and transport of radioactive material in the nuclear fuel cycle

    Abstract:

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Safety and security in the packaging and transport of radioactive material

    19.3 Governing international regulatory security principles and guidance in radioactive materials’ packaging and transport

    19.4 Regulatory requirements for packages and transport

    19.5 Transport experience and operations

    19.6 Current technologies and future trends

    19.8 Acknowledgements

    Co-operation in the field of nuclear power: An overview of non-commercial international nuclear power organisations

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 648
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2012
  • Published: September 21, 2012
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857096388
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081016114

About the Editor

Ian Crossland

Dr Ian Crossland is the Director of Crossland Consulting Ltd. Dr Crossland has over 40 years experience in the UK nuclear power industry. He is an independent consultant for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as well as several national radioactive waste management bodies in Europe.

Affiliations and Expertise

Crossland Consulting, UK

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