Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780444595577, 9780444595812

Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics

3rd Edition

Transport and Rate Processes in Physical, Chemical and Biological Systems

Authors: Yasar Demirel
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444595577
eBook ISBN: 9780444595812
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 30th January 2014
Page Count: 792
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Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena.

This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapter on stochastic approaches to include the statistical thermodynamics, mesoscopic nonequilibrium thermodynamics, fluctuation theory, information theory, and modeling the coupled biochemical systems in thermodynamic analysis. This new addition also comes with more examples and practice problems.

Key Features

  • Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field
  • Contributions from leading authorities and industry experts
  • A useful text for seniors and graduate students from diverse engineering and science programs to analyze some nonequilibrium, coupled, evolutionary, stochastic, and dissipative processes
  • Highlights fundamentals of equilibrium thermodynamics, transport processes and chemical reactions
  • Expands the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and its use in coupled transport processes and chemical reactions in physical, chemical, and biological systems
  • Presents a unified analysis for transport and rate processes in various time and space scales
  • Discusses stochastic approaches in thermodynamic analysis including fluctuation and information theories
  • Has 198 fully solved examples and 287 practice problems
  • An Instructor Resource containing the Solution Manual can be obtained from the author:


Graduate students in chemical, biological, mechanical, biomedical, environmental, and systems engineering programs, and in biophysical and biochemical science programs. Advanced students in diverse engineering programs

Table of Contents


Preface to the Third Edition

List of Symbols

Greek letters



Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Equilibrium Thermodynamics


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Basic definitions

1.3 Reversible and irreversible processes

1.4 Equilibrium

1.5 The thermodynamic laws

1.6 Balance equations

1.7 Entropy and entropy production

1.8 The Gibbs equation

1.9 Fluid phase equilibrium



Further Reading

Chapter 2. Transport and Rate Processes


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Nonequilibrium systems

2.3 Kinetic approach

2.4 Transport phenomena

2.5 The Maxwell–Stefan equations

2.6 Transport coefficients

2.7 Electric charge flow

2.8 The relaxation theory

2.9 Chemical reactions

2.10 Coupled processes



Further Reading

Chapter 3. Fundamentals of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Local thermodynamic equilibrium

3.3 The second law of thermodynamics

3.4 Balance equations and entropy production

3.5 Entropy production equation

3.6 Phenomenological equations

3.7 Onsager’s Relations

3.8 Transformation of forces and flows

3.9 Chemical reactions

3.10 Heat conduction

3.11 Diffusion

3.12 Validity of linear phenomenological equations

3.13 Curie–Prigogine principle

3.14 Time variation of entropy production

3.15 Minimum entropy production

3.16 Entropy production in an electrical circuit



Further Reading

Chapter 4. Using the Second Law: Thermodynamic Analysis


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Second law analysis

4.3 Equipartition principle

4.4 Exergy analysis

4.5 Applications of exergy analysis

4.6 Pinch analysis

4.7 Optimization problem



Further Reading

Chapter 5. Thermoeconomics


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Thermodynamic cost

5.3 Ecological cost

5.4 Availability

5.5 Thermodynamic optimum

5.6 Equipartition and optimization in separation systems



Further Reading

Chapter 6. Diffusion


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Maxwell–Stefan equation

6.3 Diffusion in electrolyte systems

6.4 Diffusion without shear forces

6.5 Diffusion of biological solutes in liquids



Further Reading

Chapter 7. Heat and Mass Transfer


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Coupled heat and mass transfer

7.3 Heat of transport

7.4 Degree of coupling

7.5 Efficiency of coupling

7.6 Coupled mass and energy balances

7.7 Separation by thermal diffusion

7.8 Heat and mass transfer in discontinuous systems

7.9 Thermoelectric effects



Further Reading

Chapter 8. Chemical Reactions


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Chemical reaction equilibrium constant

8.3 The principle of detailed balance

8.4 Dissipation for chemical reactions

8.5 Reaction velocity (flow)

8.6 Multiple chemical reactions

8.7 Stationary states

8.8 Biochemical reaction networks

8.9 Energy conversion in coupled chemical reactions



Further Reading

Chapter 9. Coupled Systems of Chemical Reactions and Transport Processes


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Nonisothermal reaction-diffusion systems

9.3 Chemical reaction with coupled heat and mass flows

9.4 Coupled system of chemical reaction and transport processes

9.5 Evolution of coupled systems

9.6 Nonlinear macrokinetics in a reaction-diffusion system



Further Reading

Chapter 10. Membrane Transport


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Membrane equilibrium

10.3 Passive transport

10.4 Facilitated and active transport in membranes

10.5 Biomembranes



Further Reading

Chapter 11. Thermodynamics and Biological Systems


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Simplified analysis in living systems

11.3 Bioenergetics

11.4 Proper pathways

11.5 Coupling in mitochondria

11.6 Regulation in bioenergetics

11.7 Reaction-mass transport in bioenergetics

11.8 Exergy use in bioenergetics

11.9 Molecular machines

11.10 Molecular evolution

11.11 Evolutionary criterion



Further Reading

Chapter 12. Stability Analysis


12.1 Introduction

12.2 The Gibbs stability theory

12.3 Stability and entropy production

12.4 Thermodynamic fluctuations

12.5 Stability in nonequilibrium systems

12.6 Linear stability analysis



Further Reading

Chapter 13. Organized Structures


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Equilibrium and nonequilibrium structures

13.3 Bifurcation

13.4 Limit cycle

13.5 Order in physical structures

13.6 Order in chemical systems

13.7 Biological structures



Further Reading

Chapter 14. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics Approaches


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Network thermodynamics with bond-graph methodology

14.3 Mosaic nonequilibrium thermodynamics

14.4 Rational thermodynamics

14.5 Extended nonequilibrium thermodynamics

14.6 GENERIC formulations

14.7 Matrix model

14.8 Internal variables


Further Reading

Chapter 15. Probabilistic Approach in Thermodynamics


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Statistical thermodynamics

15.3 Stochastic thermodynamics

15.4 Fluctuation theorems

15.5 Information theory

15.6 Applications: biomolecules and biochemical cycles

15.7 Statistical rate theory

15.8 Mesoscopic nonequilibrium thermodynamics


Further Reading

Appendix A. Tensors

Appendix B. Thermochemical Parameters

Appendix C. Some Biochemical Reaction Properties

Appendix D. Steam Tables

Appendix E. Gas Properties

Appendix F. The Lee/Kesler Generalized-Correlation Tables



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About the Author

Yasar Demirel

Dr. Demirel graduated in 1975 from the Hacettepe University in Ankara, Turkey with Bsc and MSc degrees. He earned an ‘Advanced Chemical Engineering’ diploma from the UMIST, University of Manchester, UK in 1977, and a PhD degree in chemical engineering from the University of Birmingham, UK in 1981. He joined the faculty of the Çukurova University in Adana, Turkey as assistant professor, and promoted to associate professor in 1986. In 1993, he joined the faculty of the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in Dhahran Saudi Arabia where he was promoted to full professor in 2000. He carried out research and scholarly work at the University of Delaware between 1999 and 2001. He worked at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg as a visiting Professor between 2002 and 2006. Currently, he is on the faculty of the University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Dr. Demirel has accumulated teaching and research experience over the years in diverse fields of engineering. He is the associate editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Thermodynamics and member of editorial board of International Journal of Exergy. Dr. Demirel authored and co-authored three books, two book chapters, and 120 research papers. The first edition of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics was published in 2002. After it was expanded to a graduate textbook, the second edition was published in 2007. His new book titled “Energy: Production, Conversion, Storage, Conservation, and Coupling is in press. He has obtained several awards and scholarships, and presented invited seminars.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA


"This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapter on stochastic approaches…also comes with more examples and practice problems." --Zentralblatt MATH 1283, 2014