Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444508867, 9780080479729

Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics

1st Edition

Transport and Rate Processes in Physical & Biological Systems

Authors: Yasar Demirel Yasar Demirel
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444508867
eBook ISBN: 9780080479729
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 22nd November 2002
Page Count: 420
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The book begins with a brief review of equilibrium systems and transport and rate processes, then covers the following areas: theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics; dissipation function; entropy and exergy; analysis and case studies on using the second law of thermodynamics; economic impact of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics theory; analysis of transport and rate processes; membrane transport; dissipative structures and biological systems; and other thermodynamic approaches and extended nonequilibrium thermodynamics.

Key Features

· Summarizes new applications of thermodynamics as tools for design and optimisation · Covers second law and exergy analysis for sustainable development · Promotes understanding of the coupled phenomena of natural processes


For graduate students and researchers working in the following areas: physics, chemistry, biology, chemical engineering, biochemical engineering and biomedical engineering.

Table of Contents


1. Equilibrium Thermodynamics

1.1. Basic Definitions

1.2. Reversible and Irreversible Processes

1.3. Equilibrium

1.3.1. Fundamental Equations

1.3.2. Thermodynamic Equilibrium

1.4.1. The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

1.4.2. The First Law of Thermodynamics

1.4.3. The Second Law of Thermodynamics

1.4. Thermodynamic Laws

1.5. Entropy and Entropy Production

1.6. The Gibbs Equation

1.7. Equations of State

1.8. Thermodynamic Potentials

1.8.1. Cross Relations

1.8.2. Extremum Principles


2. Transport and Rate Processes


2.1. Nonequilibrium Systems

2.2. Kinetic Approach

2.3. Transport Phenomena

2.3.1. Momentum Transfer

2.3.2. Heat Transfer

2.3.3. Mass Transfer

2.4. The Maxwell-Stefan Equations

2.5. Transport Coefficients

2.6. Electric Charge Flow

2.7. The Relaxation Theory

2.8. Chemical Reactions

2.9. Coupled Processes


3. Linear Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics


3.1. Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium

3.2. Second Law of Thermodynamics

3.3. Phenomenological Equations

3.3.1. Flows and Forces

3.4. Curie-Prigogine Principle

3.5. Dissipation Function

3.6. Variation of Entropy Production


4. Balance Equations and Entropy Generation

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Entropy Generation Equation

4.1.1. The Mass Balance Equations

4.1.2. The Momentum Balance Equations

4.1.3. The Energy Balance Equations

4.1.4. The Entropy Balance Equations


5. Entropy and Exergy

5.1. Entropy

5.1.1. Entropy Balance

5.2. Exergy

5.2.1. Exergy Balance

5.2.2. Flow Exergy

5.2.3. Exergetic (Second Law) Efficiency

5.2.4. Chemical Exergy

5.2.5. Depletion Number


6. Using The Second Law of Thermodynamics


6.1. Second Law Analysis

6.1.1. Optimization Problem

6.2. Heat and Fluid Flow

6.2.1. Case Studies

6.3. Heat and Mass Transfer

6.3.1. Case Studies

6.4. Chemical Reactions and Reacting Flows

6.4.1. Case Studies

6.5. Separation

6.5.1. Extraction

6.5.2. Distillation

6.5.3. Case Studies


7. Thermoeconomics


7.1. Thermodynamic Analysis

7.2. Thermodynamic Optimum

7.2.1. Exergy Analysis

7.2.2. Exhaustion of Renewable Resources

7.2.3. Ecological Cost

7.3. Availability

7.4. Exergy Destruction Number

7.5. Equipartition and Optimization


8. Diffusion


8.1. Maxwell-Stefan Diffusivity

8.2. Diffusion in Nonelectrolyte Systems

8.3. Diffusion in Electrolyte Systems

8.4. Irreversible Processes in Electrolyte Systems


9. Heat and Mass Transfer


9.1. Heat and Mass Transfer

9.2. Heat of Transport

9.3. Degree of Coupling

9.4. Coupling in Liquid Mixtures

9.4.1. Coupling in Binary Liquid Mixtures

9.4.2. Coupling in Ternary Liquid Mixtures


10. Chemical Reactions


10.1. Dissipation For Chemical Reactions

10.1.1. Michaelis-Menten Kinetics

10.2. Coupled Chemical Reactions

10.2.1. Two-Reaction Coupling


11. Membrane Transport


11.1. Passive Transport

11.1.1. Composite Membranes

11.1.2. Electrokinetic Effect

11.2. Facilitated Transport

11.3. Active Transport


12. Thermodynamics and Biological Systems


12.1. Mitochondria

12.2. Bioenergetics in Mitochondria

12.3. Oxidative Phosphorylation

12.4. Proper Pathways

12.5. Multiple Inflection Points

12.6. Coupling in Mitochondria

12.6.1. Variation of Coupling

12.7. Thermodynamic Regulation in Bioenergetics

12.7.1. Uncoupling

12.7.2. Slipping

12.7.3. Potassium Channels

12.7.4. Metabolic Control Analysis

12.8. Facilitated Transport

12.8.1. Kinetic Formulation

12.8.2. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamic Approach

12.9. Active Transport

12.10. Molecular Evolution

12.11. Molecular Machines

12.12. Evolutionary Criterium


13. Other Thermodynamic Approaches


13.1. Network Thermodynamics With Bond Graph

13.1.1. Transport Processes

13.1.2. Chemical Processes

13.2. Mosaic in Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics

13.3. Rational Thermodynamics


14. Extended Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics


14.1. Stability

14.2. Ordering in Physical Structures

14.2.1. Ordering in Convection

14.2.2. Ordering in Chemical Reactions

14.3 Ordering in Biological Structures

14.3.1. Ordering in Time: Biological Clocks

14.4. Bifurcation

14.5. Extended Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics






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About the Author

Yasar Demirel

Dr. Yasar Demirel earned his PhD degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of Birmingham, UK in 1981. He joined the faculty of Çukurova University in Adana, Turkey, and promoted to associate professorship in 1986. In 1993, he joined the faculty of King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in Dhahran Saudi Arabia where he was promoted to full professorship in 2000. He carried out research and scholarly work at the University of Delaware between 1999 and 2001. He worked at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg as a visiting professor between 2002 and 2006. Currently, he is on the faculty of University of Nebraska, Lincoln. He has accumulated broad teaching and research experience over the years in diverse fields of engineering. He is the editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Thermodynamics. Dr. Demirel authored and co-authored three books, four book chapters, and 160 research papers. The first edition of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics was published in 2002. After it was expanded to a graduate textbook, the third edition was published in 2014. The second edition new book titled “Energy: Production, Conversion, Storage, Conservation, and Coupling” is published in 2016. He has obtained several awards and scholarships, and presented invited seminars.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA

Yasar Demirel

Affiliations and Expertise

Virginia Tech, Virginia, USA