New Perspectives of Central Nervous System Injury and Neuroprotection

New Perspectives of Central Nervous System Injury and Neuroprotection

1st Edition - July 10, 2012

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  • Editor: Hari Shanker Sharma
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123870162

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Central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis affect a large number of populations worldwide for which no suitable cure is currently available. In addition, stroke, nanoparticle intoxication, diabetes, hypertension, and psychostimulant abuse either alone or in combination are capable of inducing potential brain damage. Thus, there is an urgent need to expand our knowledge to find suitable therapeutic strategies to enhance neurorepair processes in such diseases.This volume presents neuroprotection and novel therapeutic strategies developed in the last 5 years by 12 world leaders in the field. The term neuroprotection means rescuing neuronal and non-neuronal cells together. The cerebral endothelium that constitutes the anatomical and physiological site of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is one of the most important non-neural cells in the CNS. Any distortion of the BBB leads to brain diseases and restoration of the barrier results in neuroprotection. Thus, the BBB appears to be the "gateway" for neurological diseases and neurorepair. However, to treat brain tumors or infarcts, new therapeutic strategies are needed to enhance brain drug delivery using nanotechnology. In addition, apart from conventional drugs, restoration of BBB function could also be achieved by means of antibodies directed against specific proteins, neurotransmitters or exogenous supplement of neurotrophic factors. Since co-morbidity factors e.g., hypertension, diabetes, and exposure of nanoparticles could complicate the pathogenesis of neurological disorders either an enhanced dose of the drug or nanodelivery of a combination of several drugs is needed to achieve neuroprotection.This volume of International Review of Neurobiology is the first to discuss novel therapeutic strategies in situations of neurological disorders in combination with different co-morbidity factors.

Key Features

  • Reviews written by experts in such a way that provides basic knowledge for beginners and advanced information for researchers and experts
  • New aspects of Neurodegenerative diseases such as; Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis are presented with the latest therapeutic measures
  • Exacerbation of brain pathology in hypertension or diabetes is discussed for the first time


Neuroscientists, neurologists, psychologists

Table of Contents

    • Series Page
    • Contributors
    • Preface
    • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 1 The Function and Mechanisms of Nurr1 Action in Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons, from Development and Maintenance to Survival
      • I Introduction
      • II The Midbrain Dopamine System: Neurochemistry
      • III The Midbrain Dopamine System: Development
      • IV Dopaminergic Neurons and Parkinson’s Disease
      • V Nurr1, A Protein Whose Function Is Important in the Life Cycle of VM DANs
      • VI The Mechanisms of Nurr1 as a Nuclear Receptor
      • VII Most Recent Development in Application of Nurr1 in Dopaminergic Differentiation and Implications in Future Treatment for PD
    • Chapter 2 Monoclonal Antibodies as Novel Neurotherapeutic Agents in CNS Injury and Repair
      • I Introduction
      • II Historical Perspectives on the Use of Antibodies as Therapy
      • III Therapeutic Basis of Antibodies
      • IV Antibodies Versus Receptor Antagonist Drugs
      • V Antibodies Neutralize Effects of Endogenous Antigens
      • VI Our Investigations on Monoclonal Antibodies to Induce Neuroprotection in CNS Injuries
      • VII Neuroprotective Effects of Serotonin Antibodies in CNS Injuries
      • VIII Neuroprotection by Dynorphin A Antibodies in CNS Injuries
      • IX Antibodies to nNOS Is Neuroprotective in CNS Injuries
      • X TNF-α Antibodies Are Neuroprotective in CNS Injuries
      • XI Combination of nNOS and TNF-α Antibodies Enhances Neuroprotection in SCI
      • XII Conclusion and Future Perspectives
    • Chapter 3 The Blood–Brain Barrier in Alzheimer’s Disease
      • I Introduction
      • II Pathology of AD
      • III A Receptor-Mediated Transport of apoJ and ABP at the BBB and BCSF-B
      • IV Human Receptors for ABP1-40
      • V Clearance of AB1-40 P from Brain LDL Receptor at the BBB
      • VI Clearance of ABP1-40 in Monkey Model
      • VII Point Mutation of Codon 22 Reduces Clearance of ABP1-40 from the CSF and Prevents Transport from CNS to Blood
      • VIII Circulating ABP Crosses the BBB in Aged Monkeys
      • IX Cerebrovascular Pathology in AD
      • X Existing Theories Regarding Origin of ABP
      • XI Conclusion
    • Chapter 4 Neurovascular Aspects of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
      • I Introduction
      • II BBB/BSCB Impairment in ALS
      • III Future Perspectives
      • IV Conclusion
    • Chapter 5 Quercetin in Hypoxia-Induced Oxidative Stress: Novel Target for Neuroprotection
      • I Introduction
      • II Hypoxia and Free Radical Generation
      • III Brain: Target to Free Radical Damage
      • IV Antioxidant Defense System
      • V Antioxidant Defense System and Hypoxia
      • VI Pathophysiological Changes in Brain in Response to Hypoxia
      • VII Antioxidant Therapy
      • VIII Our Investigation on Neuroprotection Elicited by Quercetin
      • X General Conclusion and Future Perspective
    • Chapter 6 Environmental Conditions Modulate Neurotoxic Effects of Psychomotor Stimulant Drugs of Abuse
      • I Introduction
      • II Brain Temperature Responses to METH and MDMA are Modulated by Activity State and Environmental Conditions
      • III Adverse Environmental Conditions Enhance Histochemical and Morphological Perturbations Induced by METH: Role of Brain Temperature
      • IV Temperature Modulation of BBB Permeability
      • V Conclusions and Perspectives
    • Chapter 7 Central Nervous Tissue Damage after Hypoxia and Reperfusion in Conjunction with Cardiac Arrest and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
      • I Introduction
    • Chapter 8 Interactions Between Opioids and Anabolic Androgenic Steroids: Implications for the Development of Addictive Behavior
      • I Introduction
      • II AAS May Lead to Opioid Dependence
      • III Interactions Between AAS and the Endogenous Opioids
      • IV AAS Dependence Involve Opioid Mechanisms
      • V Conclusions
    • Chapter 9 Neurotrophic Factors and Neurodegenerative Diseases
      • I Introduction
      • II NTFs and Neurodegenerative Diseases
      • III NTF Delivery Approaches: Evolution in Therapies
      • IV Conclusion
    • Chapter 10 Neuroprotective Effects of Cerebrolysin, A Combination of Different Active Fragments of Neurotrophic Factors And Peptides on the Whole Body Hyperthermia-Induced Neurotoxicity
      • I Introduction
      • II Blood–Brain Barrier—A Gateway to Brain Diseases
      • III Factors Affecting Hyperthermia-Induced Brain Damage
      • IV Cerebrolysin, a Novel Therapeutic Agent in Hyperthermia-Induced Neurotoxicity
      • V Functional Significance of These Findings
      • VI Conclusions
      • VII Future Perspectives
    • Chapter 11 Alzheimer’s Disease and Amyloid: Culprit or Coincidence?
      • I Introduction
      • II Amyloid and AD
      • III Tau and AD
      • IV AD and Tau: A Double Act?
      • V White Matter Pathology and AD
      • VI Transgenic Animal Models for AD: What Have They Taught Us?
      • VII Oxidative Stress and AD
      • VIII Inflammation and AD
      • IX Other Amyloid-Independent Mechanisms in AD
      • X Future Perspectives
    • Chapter 12 Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Other Angioglioneurins
      • I Introduction
      • II VEGF
      • III Other Angioglioneurins
      • IV Potential Role of VEGF and Other Angioglioneurins in Brain Restoration
      • V Conclusions
    • Subject Index
    • Contents of Recent Volumes

Product details

  • No. of pages: 424
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2012
  • Published: July 10, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123870162

About the Serial Volume Editor

Hari Shanker Sharma

Dr. Hari Shanker Sharma, Professor of Neurobiology (MRC), Docent in Neuroanatomy (UU) is currently working in Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Surgical Sciences, Division of Anesthesiology & Intensive Care Medicine, Uppsala University, Sweden. Dr Sharma obtained his Masters Degree from Bihar University with special expertise in Cell Biology in 1976 and was awarded the Gold Medal of Bihar University for securing 1st position in the 1st Class. Dr Sharma joined the group of Professor Prasanta Kumar Dey, a neurophysiologist, by training in the Department of Physiology, Institute of Medical; Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi in 1977 to obtain his Doctor of Philosophy Degree (D.Phil.) in Neurosciences and was awarded his Ph.D. in 1982 on “Blood-Brain Barrier in Stress.” After carrying out a series of Government of India funded Research Projects on the BBB and brain dysfunction (1982–1987), Dr Sharma joined the lab of Neuropathology at Uppsala University with Professor Yngve Olsson in 1988 to investigate passage of tracer transport across the BBB caused by stress or traumatic insults to the Brain and Spinal cord at light and electron microscopy. Dr Sharma was awarded the prestigious Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Fellowship of German Government (1989–1991) to work on hyperthermia induced BBB dysfunction at the ultrastructural level in the laboratory of Professor Jorge Cervós-Navarro (a living “Legend in Neuropathology in Europe”). Dr Sharma again joined Uppsala University and established a network of collaboration on “Experimental CNS Injury Research Group” as a lead investigator with eminent collaborators in various parts of Europe, USA, and Australia (1991–). On his work on hyperthermia Dr Sharma received the prestigious Neuroanatomy award “Rönnows Research prize” of Uppsala University for “best neuroanatomical research of the year 1996” followed by the Award of the Degree of Doctor of Medical Sciences of Uppsala University in Neuroanatomy in 1999 and selected for the Best Thesis Award of the Medical faculty, “The Hwassers Prize” of 1999. On his meticulous works on the Blood Brain barrier and Brain edema (2000–2003) Dr. Sharma earned the prestigious title of “Docent in Neuroanatomy” of Medical Faculty, Uppsala University in April 2004. Currently his main research interest is Neuroprotection and Neuroregeneration, in relation to the Blood-brain barrier in stress, trauma, and drugs of abuse in health and disease. Dr. Sharma on his research on brain pathology and neuroprotection in different models received the prestigious award from The Laerdal Foundation of Acute Medicine, Stavanger, Norway, in 2005 followed by Distinguished International Scientists Collaboration Award by National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), Baltimore, MD (2006–2008). His recent work on 5-HT3 receptor mediated neuroprotection in morphine withdrawal induced neurotoxicity won the coveted prize of Best Investigator Award 2008 and Best Scientific Presentation by European Federation of the International Association for Study of Pain (ISAP), and Awarded during their VI Annual Meeting in Lisbon, September 9–12, 2008. His recent research is aimed to find out the role of nanoparticles in Neurodegeneration and Neuroprotection using various treatment strategies that is supported by European Aerospace Research and Development (EOARD), London, UK and US Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Oh, USA. On his works on Blood–brain barrier in hypertension and diabetes together with Romanian colleagues, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Hatieganu,” Cluj-Napoca, Romania awarded Dr. Sharma with Honorary Doctorate of Medical Sciences in 2009. Dr Sharma’s work over 30 years on the blood-brain barrier and brain edema won him the US Neurosurgeon Dr Anthony Marmarou Award (2011) by the International Brain Edema Society at their 15th Congress in Tokyo, Japan, November 2011. His works on Nanoneuroscience and development of nanomedicine to treat the CNS injuries has won accolades at various Government and International Scotties or Organization across the World. Accordingly Dr Sharma was decorated with the most prestigious ”Hind Rattan Award 2012” on the eve of Republic Day of India in January 2012 and Mahatma Gandhi Pravasi Gold Medal in October 2012 in House of Lords, London, UK. Dr Sharma was also invited to organize and chair Nanosymposium in Society for Neuroscience meetings in Chicago (2009), San Diego (2010), Washington DC (2011) and New Orleans (2012). Dr Sharma has published over 380 research papers, 75 reviews, 12 monographs, and 70 international book chapters and edited 15 book volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Uppsala University, Sweden

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