New and Future Developments in Catalysis - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444538826, 9780444538833

New and Future Developments in Catalysis

1st Edition

Activation of Carbon Dioxide

Editors: Steven Suib
eBook ISBN: 9780444538833
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444538826
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 29th July 2013
Page Count: 658
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New and Future Developments in Catalysis is a package of books that compile the latest ideas concerning alternate and renewable energy sources and the role that catalysis plays in converting new renewable feedstock into biofuels and biochemicals. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts and catalytic processes will be discussed in a unified and comprehensive approach. There will be extensive cross-referencing within all volumes.

This volume presents a complete picture of all carbon dioxide (CO2) sources, outlines the environmental concerns regarding CO2, and critically reviews all current CO2 activation processes. Furthermore, the volume discusses all future developments and gives a critical economic analysis of the various processes.

Key Features

  • Offers in-depth coverage of all catalytic topics of current interest and outlines future challenges and research areas
  • A clear and visual description of all parameters and conditions, enabling the reader to draw conclusions for a particular case
  • Outlines the catalytic processes applicable to energy generation and design of green processes


Chemists, chemical engineers, and biochemical engineers working in academic and government research; academics, research students, post graduate and graduate students in these areas of study; materials scientists, environmental engineers, biochemists, petroleum engineers, post graduate and research students in these areas

Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Catalytic Processes for Activation of CO2

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Reactions of CO2 with hydrogen

1.3 CO2-assisted reactions

1.4 CO2 insertion reactions

1.5 Concluding remarks and outlook


Chapter 2. Surface Science Studies of Carbon Dioxide Chemistry


2.1 Introduction—why study CO2 adsorption on surfaces?

2.2 Metal surfaces

2.3 Metal oxides

2.4 Non-metals

2.5 Bimetallic systems

2.6 Cluster systems

2.7 Nanostructured catalysts

2.8 Theoretical studies

2.9 Appendix


Chapter 3. Mechanistic Understanding of Catalytic CO2 Activation from First Principles Theory


3.1 Background

3.2 CO2 activation and hydrogenation on transition metal surface

3.3 CO2 activation and hydrogenation on oxide supports

3.4 CO2 activation and hydrogenation on oxide supported metal catalysts

3.5 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 4. Catalytic Activation and Conversion of Carbon Dioxide into Fuels/Value-Added Chemicals Through C—C Bond Formation


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Chemical activation of carbon dioxide

4.3 Construction of C—C bond via carboxylation with carbon dioxide

4.4 Conclusions and prospects


Chapter 5. Catalytic Transformation of CO2 into Value-Added Organic Chemicals

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Synthesis of cyclic carbonate from CO2

5.3 Synthesis of cyclic urea and cyclic urethane

5.4 Concluding remarks


Chapter 6. Application of Carbon Dioxide in Hydrogen Storage: Homogeneous Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide and Dehydrogenation of Formic Acid


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide

6.3 Dehydrogenation of formic acid for hydrogen release

6.4 Proof of concept

6.5 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 7. Recent Advances on the Catalysts for Activation of CO2 in Several Typical Processes

7.1 Introduction

7.2 CO2 reforming of methane

7.3 Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to olefins by CO2

7.4 Catalytic reduction of CO2 to methanol


Chapter 8. Catalytic Synthesis of CO Free Hydrogen

8.1 Introduction

8.2 H2 from biomass

8.3 Biological route

8.4 Chemical route

8.5 Purification of syngas for obtaining H2-rich stream

8.6 Homogeneous catalysis for WGS

8.7 Heterogeneous catalysis for WGS

8.8 CeO2-based catalysts

8.9 ZrO2-based catalysts

8.10 TiO2-based catalysts

8.11 Purification of exhaust streams


Chapter 9. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed C—C Bond Forming Reactions with Carbon Dioxide

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Catalytic carboxylation of organometallic compounds

9.3 Catalytic carboxylation of organic halides

9.4 Direct carboxylation of C—H bonds

9.5 Hydrogenative and alkylative carboxylation of unsaturated C—C bonds

9.6 Catalytic boracarboxylation and silacarboxylation of alkynes

9.7 Catalytic cyclization/carboxylation of olefins and alkynes

9.8 Conclusion


Chapter 10. Electro-Catalytic Reduction of Carbon Dioxide


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide on metals in aqueous and non-aqueous media

10.3 Electro-reduction of carbon dioxide on metallic electrodes


Chapter 11. Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane to Syngas over Mesoporous Material Supported Nickel Catalysts


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Application of mesoporous material supported Ni catalysts for methane reforming with CO2

11.3 Conclusions


Chapter 12. Chemical Functions of Dense Phase CO2 as Accelerator/Modifier in Organic Synthetic Reactions


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Chemical effects of CO2 on organic synthetic reactions in CXLs

12.3 Concluding remarks


Chapter 13. Synthesis of Cyclic Carbonates from Carbon Dioxide and Epoxides

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Applications of cyclic carbonates

13.3 Synthesis of cyclic carbonates using quaternary ammonium halide catalysts

13.4 Synthesis of cyclic carbonates using other nitrogen containing salts as catalysts

13.5 Synthesis of cyclic carbonates using other group V and VI salts as catalysts

13.6 Synthesis of cyclic carbonates using metal salts as catalysts

13.7 Synthesis of cyclic carbonates using metal oxide containing species as catalysts

13.8 Synthesis of cyclic carbonates using metal complexes as catalysts

13.9 Conclusions


Chapter 14. Environmental Concerns Regarding CO2

14.1 Global Carbon Cycle

14.2 Climate Change and CO2 Emissions

14.3 Global Warming Projections

14.4 Environmental Concerns Associated with Global Climate Change

14.5 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 15. Catalyst Development for CO2 Activation to Produce Syn-Gas through CO2 Reforming of CH4: Mitigation of Carbon Formation on Ni-Based Catalysts


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Mitigation of catalytic carbon formation through catalyst development

15.3 Development of bimetallic NiCoAlMgOx catalyst for CO2 reformingof CH4

15.4 Concluding remarks


Chapter 16. Carbon Dioxide as Soft Oxidant and Promoter in Oxidation Catalysis

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Carbon dioxide as Soft oxidant

16.3 Carbon dioxide as promoter

16.4 Conclusion


Chapter 17. Biomimetic Approaches to Reversible CO2 Capture from Air. N-Methylcarbaminic Acid Formation in Rubisco-Inspired Models

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Biological CO2 Fixation and Biomimetic Approaches to CO2 Scrubbing

17.3 Computational Methods

17.4 Results and Discussion

17.5 Conclusion and Outlook

Supplementry data


Chapter 18. CO2 Adsorption in Porous Materials


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Molecular Sieves Under Study

18.3 Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide

18.4 Controlling Factors for co2 Capture on Molecular Sieves


Chapter 19. Carbon Dioxide Activation and Conversion

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Binding of CO2 by organometallics and beyond

19.3 Analysis of CO2-based structures and intermediates

19.4 Indirect activation modes in catalysis

19.5 Direct metal-catalyzed conversions

19.6 Activation and conversion of CO2 by organic molecules

19.7 Outlook for CO2 catalysis


Chapter 20. Photocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide into Fuels Using Layered Double Hydroxides Coupled with Hydrogen or Water


20.1 Introduction

20.2 CO2 photoreduction with water using metal oxide and other semiconductor-type photocatalysts

20.3 CO2 photoreduction with hydrogen using metal oxide-based and other semiconductor-type photocatalysts

20.4 Syntheses and characterization of layered double hydroxides for CO2 photoreduction with hydrogen

20.5 CO2 photoreduction with hydrogen using layered double hydroxides

20.6 Conclusions


Chapter 21. CO2 Capture by CaO-Based Sorbents and Sorption Enhanced Reaction Systems

21.1 CO2 capture and storage: implementation and investments needed

21.2 Technical solutions for CO2 capture

21.3 Costs and efficiency of CCS techniques

21.4 Focus: high temperature pre-combustion capture of CO2

21.5 CO2 sorption at high temperature by solid adsorbents

21.6 CO2 capture by CaO-based sorbents

21.7 Process application of CaO looping cycle

21.8 The carbonator/reformer

21.9 The calciner/combustor

21.10 Thermodynamic calculations

21.11 The series reactors method

21.12 Results and discussion

21.13 Deactivating factors

21.14 Conclusions




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About the Editor

Steven Suib

Steve Suib is one of the leading figures in solid-state catalysis and renewable systems in the US. His 450 publications, 40 patents, and authorship on multiple books on the topic of catalysis is proof of this, as is his distinguished Professor status. He is also editor for Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, which puts him in a perfect position to keep abreast with current developments in the area.

He has been a prominent and prolific catalysis researcher for many years encompassing all aspects of the fields from synthesis, characterization, catalysis, to applications. He easily works in both basic fundamental academic research as well as applied industrial research.

Affiliations and Expertise

Board of Trustees Distinguished Professor, Director, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, USA His expertise is in the field of solid state inorganic chemistry including studies of zeolites and microporous materials; physical chemistry; environmental chemistry including green syntheses, heterogeneous catalysis; plasma chemistry and catalysis; semiconductors; inorganic photochemistry; photocatalysis; batteries; ceramics. Preparation and characterization of these systems using structural, crystallographic, surface, electrochemical, luminescence, microscopic and EPR techniques.


"One reason that carbon dioxide is a potent greenhouse gas is that the molecule is very stable, and if it could be made less so, it would be easier to bind and keep out of the atmosphere. Chemists and biochemists examine approaches and techniques for activating it using homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysis." --Reference & Research Book News, December 2013