New and Future Developments in Catalysis - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444538727, 9780444538734

New and Future Developments in Catalysis

1st Edition

Solar Photocatalysis

Editors: Steven Suib
eBook ISBN: 9780444538734
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444538727
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 29th July 2013
Page Count: 492
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New and Future Developments in Catalysis is a package of seven books that compile the latest ideas concerning alternate and renewable energy sources and the role that catalysis plays in converting new renewable feedstock into biofuels and biochemicals. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts and catalytic processes will be discussed in a unified and comprehensive approach. There will be extensive cross-referencing within all volumes.

The use of solar energy during various catalytic chemical processes for the production of an array of chemical products is the theme of this volume. Photocatalysis is a topic of increasing importance due to its essential role in many of today’s environmental and energy source problems. The use of solar energy for catalytic reactions results in a carbon dioxide–neutral process. All photocatalytic processes and the future developments in this area are discussed, including an economic analysis of the various processes.

Key Features

  • Offers in-depth coverage of all catalytic topics of current interest and outlines future challenges and research areas
  • A clear and visual description of all parameters and conditions, enabling the reader to draw conclusions for a particular case
  • Outlines the catalytic processes applicable to energy generation and design of green processes


Chemists, chemical engineers, and biochemical engineers working in academic and government research; academics, research students, post graduate and graduate students in these areas of study; materials scientists, environmental engineers, biochemists, petroleum engineers, post graduate and research students in these areas

Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Heterogeneous Photocatalysis: Basic Approaches and Terminology

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Photophysical Processes in Solid Photocatalysts and Photoinduced Molecular Transformations on Their Surface

1.3 Photogeneration, Recombination, and Trapping of Charge Carriers in Photoactive Solids

1.4 Impact of Catalysis on Photocatalysis

1.5 Impact of Photochemistry on Photocatalysis

1.6 Concluding Remarks and Notes


Chapter 2. Light Activated Processes with Zeolites: Recent Developments

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Organic Photochemistry within Zeolites

2.3 Zeolite-Based Quantum Dot (QD) Materials Relevant to Solar Energy Applications

2.4 Photocatalysis Facilitated by Zeolite

2.5 Environmental Photochemistry with Zeolites

2.6 Novel Optical Materials Using Zeolites


Chapter 3. Photocatalysts for Solar Energy Conversion

3.1 Introduction

3.2 CO2 Photoconversion Into Light Hydrocarbons

3.3 Hydrogen Production by Water Splitting

3.4 Hydrogen Production by Biomass Conversion

3.5 Hydrogen Production by Glycerol Conversion

3.6 Conclusions


Chapter 4. Solar Energy Conversion Using Single-site Photocatalysts

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Characterizations and Photocatalytic Reactions on Single-Site Ti4+-Containing Catalysts

4.3 Characterizations and Photocatalytic Reactions on Single-Site Cr6+-Containing Catalysts

4.4 Photocatalytic Performances of Single-Site Cr6+- and Ti4+-Containing Binary System

4.5 Conclusions


Chapter 5. Principle of Photocatalysis and Design of Active Photocatalysts


5.1 Introduction

5.2 What is Photocatalysis?

5.3 Photocatalytic Activity

5.4 Principle of Photocatalysis

5.5 Thermodynamics of and Energy Conversion by Photocatalysis

5.6 Kinetics of Photocatalysis

5.7 Visible Light-Induced Photocatalysis

5.8 Design of Active Photocatalysts

5.9 Conclusion


Chapter 6. Solar Photocatalysis for Environment Remediation

6.1 General Remarks

6.2 Photocatalytic Activity Under Visible Light Irradiation

6.3 Solar Light Photocatalysis to Abate Atmospheric Pollution

6.4 Solar Photocatalysis for Water Remediation

6.5 Solar Photocatalysis for Soil Remediation

6.6 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 7. Self-Cleaning Materials Based on Solar Photocatalysis

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Coating or Incorporating TiO2. Thickness of the TiO2-containing Layer

7.3 Methods for Increasing the Self-Cleaning Efficacy

7.4 Photo-Induced Hydrophilicity

7.5 Measurements of the Self-cleaning Efficacy

7.6 Measurements of the Mechanical and Optical Properties of Self-cleaning Materials

7.7 Potential effect of Self-cleaning Materials on the Removal of Air Pollutants Outdoors

7.8 Considering the Potential Health Risk of TiO2-Containing Self-Cleaning Materials

7.9 Commercial Availability of Self-cleaning Materials and Coatings

7.10 Conclusions


Chapter 8. Photocatalysts for Solar Hydrogen Conversion

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Titanium-Based Solar Hydrogen Conversion Materials

8.3 Photocatalysts Based on Other Metals with D0 Electronic Configurations

8.4 Photocatalysts Based on Metals with d10 Electronic Configuration

8.5 Photosynthetic Analogous Materials

8.6 Conclusions


Chapter 9. Innovative Photocatalysts for Solar Fuel Generation by CO2 Reduction


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction

9.3 Supramolecular Photocatalysts

9.4 Heterogenized Molecular Photocatalysts

9.5 Photochemical Enzymatic Catalysts

9.6 Composite Heterogeneous Photocatalysts

9.7 Single-Site Metal Oxide Photocatalysts

9.8 Photoelectrochemical CO2 Reduction

9.9 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 10. Solar Photocatalytic Disinfection of Bacteria

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Photocatalytic Bacteria-Inactivation with UV Light

10.3 Solar Photodisinfection

10.4 Photocatalytic Disinfection Mechanism


Chapter 11. Surface-Modified Anisotropic TiO2 Nanocrystals Immobilized in Membranes: A Biologically Inspired Solar Fuel Catalyst

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Wireless Photoelectrochemical Cells (PECs)

11.3 Semiconductor Nanowires and Nanorods

11.4 Colloidal Hybrid Nanostructures

11.5 New Designs That Build On the “Gratzel Colloid” and “Artificial Leaf”

11.6 Self-Assembly of Nanostructured Catalyst to Form Organized Systems for Water Splitting at the Macroscale

11.7 Conclusion


Chapter 12. Current Development of Photocatalysts for Solar Energy Conversion


12.1 The Importance and History of Solar Energy, a Bright Future with Global Markets

12.2 Photocatalysts for Solar Energy Conversion

12.3 TiO2 for Photocatalysis

12.4 Basic Crystal Structure of TiO2

12.5 Tailoring Morphology of TiO2 Photocatalytic Nanomaterials

12.6 Optical Excitations and Carrier Dynamics

12.7 Interface Charge Transfer and Surface Reaction

12.8 Overpotential

12.9 From UV to Visible Light


Chapter 13. Role of Advanced Analytical Techniques in the Design and Characterization of Improved Catalysts for Water Oxidation


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Electrochemical Techniques

13.3 Product Detection

13.4 Spectroscopy and Imaging

13.5 Conclusions


Chapter 14. Z-Scheme Type Water Splitting into H2 and O2 Under Visible Light Through Two-Step Photoexcitation Between Two Different Photocatalysts

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Photocatalytic Water Splitting into H2 and O2 Under Visible Light Irradiation Through Two-Step Photoexcitation (Z-Scheme)

14.3 Conclusion


Chapter 15. Solar Photocatalytic Processes: Water Decontamination and Disinfection

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Solar Photocatalysis

15.3 Solar Photoreactors

15.4 Target Contaminants and Applications

15.5 Solar Photocatalytic Disinfection


Chapter 16. The Application of Semiconductor Photocatalysis for the Removal of Cyanotoxins from Water and Design Concepts for Solar Photocatalytic Reactors for Large Scale Water Treatment

16.1 Introduction

16.2 UV/Solar Destruction

16.3 Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis

16.4 Processes Influencing Photocatalytic Destruction

16.5 Toxicity Studies

16.6 Mechanistic Studies

16.7 Pilot Reactor Processes

16.8 Design Concepts for (Solar) Photocatalytic Reactors

16.9 Other Cyanotoxins

16.10 Concluding Comments


Chapter 17. Nanocrystal Assembly of Hierarchical Porous Architecture for Photocatalysis


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Synthesis Strategies of Nanocrystal Assembly into Hierarchical Porous Architecture

17.3 Photocatalytic Applications of Nanocrystal-Assemblied Hierarchical Porous Architecture

17.4 Conclusions and Outlook


Chapter 18. Mesoporous Materials Catalysts for Photodegradation of Water Pollutants: From Chemical Templates to Biotemplates


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Template-Based Synthesis of Mesoporous Photocatalysts

18.3 Water Treatment by using Mesoporous Photocatalysts

18.4 Conclusion and Perspectives




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About the Editor

Steven Suib

Steve Suib is one of the leading figures in solid-state catalysis and renewable systems in the US. His 450 publications, 40 patents, and authorship on multiple books on the topic of catalysis is proof of this, as is his distinguished Professor status. He is also editor for Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, which puts him in a perfect position to keep abreast with current developments in the area.

He has been a prominent and prolific catalysis researcher for many years encompassing all aspects of the fields from synthesis, characterization, catalysis, to applications. He easily works in both basic fundamental academic research as well as applied industrial research.

Affiliations and Expertise

Board of Trustees Distinguished Professor, Director, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, USA His expertise is in the field of solid state inorganic chemistry including studies of zeolites and microporous materials; physical chemistry; environmental chemistry including green syntheses, heterogeneous catalysis; plasma chemistry and catalysis; semiconductors; inorganic photochemistry; photocatalysis; batteries; ceramics. Preparation and characterization of these systems using structural, crystallographic, surface, electrochemical, luminescence, microscopic and EPR techniques.


"Photo-assisted catalysis uses ultraviolet and/or visible light to excite state species in the active phase of the reaction, and chemists and materials scientists here focus on such synthesis using sunlight. Among their topics are photocatalysis for solar energy conversion, self-clearing materials based on solar photocatalysis, the solar photocatalytic disinfection of bacteria, the role of advanced analytical techniques in designing and characterizing improved catalysts for water oxidation…" --Reference & Research Book News, December 2013