Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse Volume 3 - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128006344, 9780128006771

Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse Volume 3

1st Edition

General Processes and Mechanisms, Prescription Medications, Caffeine and Areca, Polydrug Misuse, Emerging Addictions and Non-Drug Addictions

Editors: Victor Preedy
eBook ISBN: 9780128006771
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128006344
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 12th May 2016
Page Count: 1106
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Description

Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse, Volume 3: General Processes and Mechanisms, Prescription Medications, Caffeine and Areca, Polydrug Misuse, Emerging Addictions and Non-Drug Addictions is the third of three volumes in this informative series and offers a comprehensive examination of the adverse consequences of the most common drugs of abuse. Each volume serves to update the reader’s knowledge on the broader field of addiction as well as to deepen understanding of specific addictive substances. Volume 3 addresses prescription medications, caffeine, polydrug misuse, and non-drug addictions. Each section provides data on the general, molecular, cellular, structural, and functional neurological aspects of a given substance, with a focus on the adverse consequences of addictions.

Research shows that the neuropathological features of one addiction are often applicable to those of others, and understanding these commonalties provides a platform for studying specific addictions in more depth and may ultimately lead researchers toward new modes of understanding, causation, prevention and treatment. However, marshalling data on the complex relationships between addictions is difficult due to the myriad of material and substances.

Key Features

  • Offers a modern approach to understanding the pathology of substances of abuse, offering an evidence-based ethos for understanding the neurology of addictions
  • Fills an existing gap in the literature by serving as a “one-stop-shopping” synopsis of everything to do with the neuropathology of drugs of addiction and substance misuse
  • Includes in each chapter: list of abbreviations, abstract, introduction, applications to other addictions and substance misuse, mini-dictionary of terms, summary points, 6+ figures and tables, full references
  • Offers coverage of preclinical, clinical, and population studies, from the cell to whole organs, and from the genome to whole body

Readership

Researchers and advanced students in behavioral neuroscience, neurology, addiction science, psychology and research psychiatry, with additional interest in biochemistry and pharmacology.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Part I. Principles of Addictions, Overviews, Detailed Processes and Mechanisms
    • Section A. General Aspects
      • Chapter 1. Drugs and the Human Envirome
        • Introduction
        • The Human Envirome Project
        • History and Background of Current Political Environments
        • Other Macro-Level Facets of the Current International Policy Regime
        • Drug Policy Evaluation, Piece by Piece
        • Conclusions
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 2. Psychoactive Plants Used during Religious Rituals
        • Introduction
        • Evidences and Findings
        • Summary of the Psychological Effects of the Psychoactive Plants Used in Ancient Religious Rituals
        • Discussion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 3. Substance Use Disorders and Comorbid Mental Illness: A Focus on Epidemiological Data Regarding Mood and Anxiety Disorders
        • Introduction
        • Mood and Anxiety Disorders among Individuals with SUDs
        • Prevalence of SUDs among Individuals with Mood and Anxiety Disorders
        • Longitudinal Data—Incidence of SUDs among Individuals with Mood and Anxiety Disorders
        • Longitudinal Data—Incidence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders among Individuals with SUDs
        • Discussion—Why Is This Comorbidity so Common—Different Theoretical Models?
        • Summary
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Substance Use Disorders
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 4. Mephedrone and Mephedrone-Based Cocktails: Market, Analysis, Mechanisms of Action, and Toxicity
        • Introduction
        • Users, the Internet, and Illegal Products
        • Analysis of Bulk and Biological Samples
        • Mechanisms of Action
        • Routes of Administration and Toxicokinetics
        • Effects, Symptoms, and Intoxications
        • Desired and Untoward Effects of Mephedrone
        • Lethal Complications of Mephedrone
        • Toxicological Data in Lethal and Nonlethal Intoxications
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Mephedrone and Mephedrone-Based Cocktails
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 5. Substance-Induced Psychosis: Conceptual and Diagnostic Challenges in Clinical Practice
        • Introduction
        • Etiology
        • What is Substance-Induced Psychosis
        • Diagnosis
        • Characteristics of SIP
        • Treatment
        • Outcomes/Prognoses
        • Applications to Other Addictions
        • Conclusions
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 6. Sleep and Drug Addiction
        • Introduction
        • Sleep Impairment in Drug Addiction
        • Influence of the Sleep Condition on Drug Addiction
        • Sleep and Drug Addiction: Possible Mechanisms
        • Sleep and Drug Addiction: The Role of Drug-Environment Conditioning
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
    • Section B. Molecular and Cellular Aspects
      • Chapter 7. Hypothalamic and Midbrain Cells, Tyrosine Hydroxylase, and Implications for Drug Addiction
        • Individual Differences, Drug Abuse, and Responses of the Dopaminergic Systems
        • Hypothalamic and Midbrain Cells
        • Tyrosine Hydroxylase as a Marker for the Dopaminergic Neurons
        • The Study of Dopaminergic Systems in the Context of Drug Addiction
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Historical Neurobiological Aspects
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 8. Oxytocin: Providing New Avenues for Treating and Understanding Problematic Drug Use
        • Introduction
        • Oxytocin
        • The Effect of Exogenously Administered Oxytocin on Drug and Alcohol Addiction
        • Oxytocin Affects Key Biological Processes Underlying Addiction
        • Concluding Remarks
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Research on Oxytocin and Addiction
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 9. Role of D2-like Heteroreceptor Complexes in the Effects of Cocaine, Morphine, and Hallucinogens
        • Introduction
        • Application to Other Addictions and Substance Abuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 10. Glutamate Receptors and Drug Addiction
        • Introduction
        • Glutamatergic Neurotransmission
        • Alcohol-Induced Upregulation of NMDAR Function
        • Psychostimulant-Induced AMPAR Redistribution and Impairment of mGluR2/3 Function
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 11. Effect of Interacting Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (NSAIDs) and Opioids on Mood: Pharmacodynamic Considerations in Misuse and Abuse
        • Introduction
        • A Brief Overview of NSAIDs’ and Opioids’ Mechanism of Action
        • Dysregulation of the Inflammatory Cascade and of the Opioid System in MDs
        • Opioid System and Mood
        • Interactions among NSAIDs and Opioids: a Synergistic Pharmacodynamic
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Use of Opiates and Aspirin in Human History
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 12. A Mini-Review on Different Commonly Used Abusive Drugs and the Interactions of These Drugs and Chinese Herbs
        • Introduction
        • Effects of Ketamine on the Brain and Behavior
        • Interaction between Ketamine and Amphetamine
        • Interaction of Ketamine with Other Abusive Drugs
        • Interaction of Ketamine with Chinese Herbs
        • Effects of Opioid Abuse
        • Withdrawal Effects of Common Abusive Drugs
        • Functions of Different Chinese Herbs
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Chinese Herbs
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 13. Interaction of Drugs of Addiction with DNA
        • Introduction
        • Mechanisms of Epigenetic Regulation
        • Histone Modification
        • DNA Methylation
        • Role of Histone Modifications in Addiction
        • Role of DNA Methylation in Addiction
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 14. Drugs of Abuse and DNA Methylation in the Brain: Ethanol, Cocaine, Amphetamine–Methamphetamine, Heroin, Antidepressants, and Antipsychotics
        • Introduction
        • Ethanol
        • Cocaine
        • Amphetamine–Methamphetamine
        • Heroin
        • Antidepressant and Antipsychotic Drugs
        • Discussion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Cocaine Abuse
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 15. Orexin/Hypocretin System and Drug Addiction
        • Introduction
        • The Orx/Hcrt System and Cocaine Addiction
        • Involvement of the Orx/Hcrt System in Ethanol Addiction
        • Involvement in Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on the Orx/Hcrt System
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 16. Reverse Translational Implications of Genome-Wide Association Studies for Addiction Genetics
        • Introduction
        • Genome-Wide Association Studies
        • Use of Genetically Modified Mice to Explore the Genetics of Drug Dependence and Addiction
        • Post-GWAS Studies in Genetically Modified Mice: Reverse Translation
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Drug Dependence
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 17. Polymorphisms in the Delta Opioid Receptor Gene (OPRD1) and Drug Addiction: Candidate Genes, Transgenic Mouse Models, and Genome-Wide Association Studies
        • Introduction
        • Human Candidate Gene Studies
        • Transgenic Mouse Studies
        • Polymorphisms in OPRD1: Personality, Emotional Regulation, and Risk of Addiction
        • Overlap between Risk Variants for Addiction and Neurodegenerative Disorders
        • Genome-Wide Association Studies
        • Epigenetics and Individual Differences in Vulnerability to Addiction
        • Application to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Genome-Wide Association Studies
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 18. Drug Addictions and Genetics of the Dopamine Pathway
        • Introduction
        • The Dopamine Pathway
        • Candidate Gene Studies of Addiction Within the Dopamine Pathway
        • Other Dopamine-Related Genes and Addiction
        • Dopamine in Genome-Wide Association Studies on Addiction
        • Dopamine and Epigenetics in Addiction
        • Conclusion
        • Application to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 19. In Silico Chemogenomics Knowledgebase and Computational System Neuropharmacology Approach for Cannabinoid Drug Research
        • Introduction
        • Public Resource for Polypharmacology Research
        • In Silico Technologies for Profiling Chemicals at the Genomic Level for Polypharmacology Research
        • CBLigand Platform for Polypharmacology Research of DA
        • CBLigand Architecture, Data Collection, and Data Retrieval
        • Chemoinformatics Tools for Polypharmacophore Research
        • Polypharmacophore Prediction of Cannabinoid Ligands against Alzheimer’s Disease Targets
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Conclusion
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 20. Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Peptide and Drug Addiction
        • Introduction
        • The Mesolimbic Dopaminergic System
        • CART Peptides, Psychostimulants, and the Mesolimbic Dopaminergic System
        • CART Peptides, Mesolimbic Dopaminergic System, and Cocaine
        • CART Peptides and Dopamine
        • CART Peptide Receptors and Binding Sites
        • CART Peptides, Psychostimulants, and Other Brain Regions Associated With the Mesolimbic Dopaminergic System
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Drug Addiction
        • Summary Points
    • Section C. Structural and Functional Aspects
      • Chapter 21. The Cerebellar Landscape of Drug Addiction
        • Introduction
        • A Brief Overview of the Cerebellar Anatomy and Internal Circuitry
        • Anatomical and Functional Relationships Between the Corticostriatal-Limbic Circuitry Circuits and the Cerebellum
        • Cerebellar Plasticity in Drug-Sensitized Animals
        • Cerebellar Hallmarks of Cocaine-Induced Conditioned Preference
        • The Cerebellum and Executive Functions in Addiction
        • Concluding Remarks
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse/Abuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Addiction
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 22. Movement Dysfunction as a Neuropathology of Illicit Stimulant Abuse
        • Introduction
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 23. Left Hemispheric “Imbalance” in Drug Addiction
        • Introduction
        • A Definition of Addiction
        • Reward Mechanisms Underlie Drug Abuse
        • Theoretical Models of Addiction
        • The Cortical Imbalance Model: Neurophysiological and “Attitude” Effect
        • Brain Stimulation Techniques in the Treatment of Addiction Behavior
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on “Cortical Balance”
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 24. Co-occurence of Substance Use and Personality Disorders: Epidemiology, Etiopathogenesis, and Treatment
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology of Personality Disorders in Addiction
        • The Relationship between Substance Use Disorders and Personality Disorders
        • Management and Treatment
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Personality Disorders
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 25. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Pharmacological Aspects
        • Introduction
        • Genetics and NAS
        • Clinical Manifestations of NAS
        • Monitoring and Treatment of NAS
        • Neonatal Morphine Sulfate
        • Methadone
        • Phenobarbital
        • Clonidine
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 26. Comorbidity between Substance Use Disorder and Severe Mental Illness: Dual Diagnosis
        • Introduction
        • Main Etiopathogenic Hypothesis in Dual Diagnosis
        • Psychosis and Dual Diagnosis
        • Affective Disorders and Dual Diagnosis
        • Application to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Cognitive Functioning
        • Summary Points
  • Part II. Prescription Medications: Depressants
    • Section A. General Aspects
      • Chapter 27. Lormetazepam Addiction
        • Introduction
        • Lormetazepam Pharmacological Profile and Its Differences with the Other Benzodiazepines
        • Addiction
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 28. Prescribing and Dispensing of Benzodiazepines: Implications for Dependence and Misuse
        • Introduction
        • Pharmacodynamics and Mechanism
        • Misuse and Dependence Potential of Benzodiazepines
        • Why Prescribing and Dispensing Matter in the Context of Misuse and Dependence?
        • Benzodiazepines in Developed Country Settings
        • Benzodiazepines in Developing Country Settings
        • Consumers’ Perceptions about Benzodiazepine Prescription and Dispensing
        • Reasons for Long-Term or Excessive Prescribing and Dispensing of Benzodiazepines
        • Role of Prescribers
        • Role of Pharmacies
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Key Facts on Anxiety
        • Summary Points
    • Section B. Molecular and Cellular Aspects
      • Chapter 29. Bidirectional Plasticity of Hippocampal Glutamate Receptors Is Central to Expression of Benzodiazepine Withdrawal-Anxiety
        • Introduction
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Glutamatergic Plasticity Mechanisms Associated with Benzodiazepine Withdrawal-Anxiety
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 30. Effect of Chronic Benzodiazepine Exposure on GABAA Receptors: Regulation of GABA/Benzodiazepine Site Interactions
        • Introduction
        • Alterations in GABAA Receptors
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Benzodiazepine Use
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 31. The K+-Cl− Cotransporter KCC2 and Zolpidem
        • Introduction
        • GABAA Receptor and Zolpidem
        • Role of KCC2 in Neurons
        • Balance between GABA and Glutamate Neurons
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Psychological Dependence
        • Summary Points
    • Section C. Structural and Functional Aspects
      • Chapter 32. Benzodiazepine Misuse and Addiction. Risk Factors and Adverse Behavioral Aspects
        • Introduction
        • General Aspects
        • Molecular and Cellular Aspects
        • Structural and Functional Aspects
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Benzodiazepine Misuse and Addiction
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 33. Benzodiazepines, Age-Related Pharmacological Changes, and Risk of Falls in Older Adults
        • Introduction
        • Effects of BZDs on GABAA Receptor Sites
        • BZDs and Different Pharmacokinetic Properties
        • Aging, Changes in BZD Properties, and Their Consequences
        • Scope of Falls: Definition, Epidemiology, Causes, and Consequences of Falls
        • BZDs as Risk Factors of Falls in Older Patients
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Aging and Age-Related Changes
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 34. The Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata in Sedative-Hypnotic Withdrawal
        • Introduction
        • Sedative-Hypnotic Physiological Dependence and Associated Withdrawal in Humans and Animal Models
        • Mapping Genetic Determinants of Risk for Sedative-Hypnotic Withdrawal in Mice
        • Neural Circuitry Involved in Sedative-Hypnotic Withdrawal
        • The SNr in Sedative-Hypnotic Actions and Withdrawal
        • Identification of a Quantitative Trait Gene (Mpdz) Involved in Sedative-Hypnotic Physiological Dependence and Associated Withdrawal
        • MUPP1-GABAB Receptor Function in Sedative-Hypnotic Physiological Dependence and Withdrawal
        • Mpdz Actions Beyond Physiological Dependence and Associated Withdrawal
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on the Basal Ganglia Pathway
        • Summary Points
    • Section D. Methods
      • Chapter 35. Assays for Benzodiazepines
        • Introduction
        • Matrices and Sample Pretreatment
        • Extraction
        • Instrumentations
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
  • Part III. Opioids and Morphine Derivatives
    • Section A. General Aspects
      • Chapter 36. Weak Opioid Analgesics Abuse and Addiction: A Comparison of the Pharmacology and Pharmacoepidemiology of Codeine, Dihydrocodeine, and Tramadol
        • Introduction
        • Pharmacological Characteristics of Codeine, Dihydrocodeine, Tramadol, and Their Metabolites in Relation to Their Potential for Abuse and Addiction
        • Evaluation of the Potential for Abuse and Addiction of Codeine and Dihydrocodeine in an Experimental Pharmacology Setting
        • Pharmacoepidemiological Data in Europe
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Weak Opioid Analgesics Abuse and Addiction
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 37. Maternal Codeine and Its Effect on the Fetus and Neonate: A Focus on Pharmacogenomics, Neuropathology, and Withdrawal
        • Introduction
        • Pharmacology of Codeine
        • Pharmacogenomics of Codeine
        • Effect of Codeine on the Fetus during Pregnancy
        • Codeine and Breastfeeding
        • Neonatal Withdrawal Syndrome from Maternal Codeine
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Conclusion
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 38. Methadone Usage, Misuse, and Addiction Processes: An Overview
        • Introduction
        • Neurobiology of Opiate Addiction
        • Methadone Usage
        • Methadone Misuse and Abuse
        • Future Challenges
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Methadone
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 39. Tramadol, Usage, Misuse, and Addiction Processes
        • Introduction
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Adverse Effects
        • Pharmacokinetic Studies
        • Abuse and Addiction Potential
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Pharmacokinetics
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 40. Tramadol Abuse in the Elderly
        • Introduction
        • Risk Factors of Tramadol Abuse in the Elderly
        • Withdrawal Symptoms of Tramadol Abuse in the Elderly
        • Treatment of Tramadol Abuse in the Elderly
        • Prevention of Tramadol Abuse in the Elderly
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Tramadol Abuse in the Elderly
        • Summary Points
    • Section B. Molecular and Cellular Aspects
      • Chapter 41. Oligodendrocyte Responses, Myelination, and Opioid Addiction Treatments
        • Introduction
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Abuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Opioid Addiction
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 42. Opioids and TRPV1 Receptors
        • Introduction
        • Distribution of TRPV1 Receptors
        • Regulation of TRPV1 Activity
        • Physiological Effects of TRPV1 Receptors
        • Opioids and TRPV1 Interaction
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 43. Opioids and Serotonin Syndrome: An Example with Tramadol
        • Tramadol
        • Tramadol Toxicity
        • Serotonin
        • Serotonin Syndrome
        • Opioids and Serotonin Syndrome
        • Tramadol and Serotonin Syndrome
        • Mechanisms by Which Tramadol Can Contribute to Serotonin Syndrome
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on (+)- and (−)-Tramadol
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 44. Opioid Dependence and the Adenylyl Cyclase/cAMP Signaling
        • Introduction
        • Brief Synopsis of cAMP Signaling
        • Opioid Dependence and cAMP Signaling
        • Therapeutic Targets in the cAMP Signaling
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 45. Central Nervous System Penetration of the Opioid Oxycodone
        • Introduction
        • Pharmacokinetics of Oxycodone
        • Pharmacokinetics of Oxycodone in Special Populations
        • Pharmacodynamics of Oxycodone
        • Oxycodone versus Morphine
        • Abuse Potential of Oxycodone
        • Central Nervous System Penetration of Oxycodone
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Oxycodone
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 46. Opioid Modulation of Voltage-Gated Calcium Currents
        • Introduction
        • Pathways to the VGCC
        • Opioid Receptor Modulation of VGCC Subtypes
        • Opioid Receptor Expression in Neurons
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 47. The Neonatal Brain and Opioids
        • Introduction
        • Neonatal Pain
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 48. Contribution of Spinal Cord mTORC1 to Chronic Opioid Tolerance and Hyperalgesia
        • Introduction
        • mTOR and Protein Translation
        • Protein Translation in Opioid Tolerance and Hyperalgesia
        • mTOR and Opioid Tolerance/Hyperalgesia
        • Applications to Other Addiction and Substance Misuse
        • Conclusion
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 49. Interaction of Codeine with DNA
        • Introduction
        • Codeine
        • Opiates and DNA
        • Interaction Between Codeine and Morphine with DNA
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Voltammetry
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 50. Fentanyl and Its Impact on Cell Functions
        • Introduction
        • Pharmacology of Opioids and Fentanyl
        • Opioid Receptors
        • Endogenous Opioid Peptides
        • Analyses of Opioid Receptors Knockout Mice
        • Dependence and Tolerance to Fentanyl
        • Effects of Fentanyl on Various Systems
        • Fentanyl as Anesthetics
        • Mechanism of Analgesia
        • Respiratory Effect
        • Cardiac Effects
        • Endocrinology Effects
        • Immunomodulatory Effects
        • Effect on Cell Death and Proliferation
        • Crosstalk with Other Signaling Systems
        • Key Facts on Fentanyl and Its Impact on Cell Functions
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 51. Morphine and Trafficking of a Mu Opioid Receptor Interacting Protein WLS
        • Introduction
        • Morphine is a Highly Addictive Opioid
        • Wnts and the MOR Interacting Protein, Wntless
        • Expression and Distribution Wntless in the Body Organs and Nervous System
        • Wntless and Mu Opioid Receptor Interaction
        • Opioid Agonists Induce Wntless Trafficking
        • Synaptic Characteristic of WLS and MOR-Containing Striatal and LC Dendrites
        • Functional Implications
      • Chapter 52. Fas, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 Protein and Morphine Addiction
        • Introduction
        • Overview of Morphine and Opioid Receptors
        • Morphine Administration-Induced Neural Damage
        • Neuronal Apoptosis during Morphine Addiction
        • Agents Preventing Opioid-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Apoptosis
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 53. An Overview on Methadone-Intoxicated Patients
        • Introduction
        • Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamics
        • Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Urine Screen Test
        • Treatment
        • Precautions
        • Disposition
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Key Facts on Methadone-Intoxicated Patients
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 54. Genetic Polymorphisms on OPRM1 Involved in Multiple Responses of a Methadone Maintenance Population: Relationships with Insomnia, Libido, Smoking, and Chemokines
        • Introduction
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
    • Section C. Structural and Functional Aspects
      • Chapter 55. Modulation of Opioid Analgesic Reward by Inflammatory Agents
        • Introduction
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 56. Suicidal Behavior and Prescription Opioid Medication
        • Introduction
        • Prescription Opioids and Suicide: Risk Factors
        • Poison Centers as Population-Based Indicators of Suicidal Behavior Using Prescription Opioids
        • Prescription Opioids and the Suicidal Brain
        • Conclusions and Recommendations
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 57. Codeine and Psychomotor Activity
        • Introduction
        • Concentration–Effect Relationship Between Blood Concentrations of Codeine, Morphine, and Other Metabolites and Psychomotor Performance Parameters
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Codeine and Psychomotor Activity
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 58. Neurobehavior of Neonates Born to Mothers Receiving Opioid Maintenance Treatment: Methadone and Buprenorphine
        • Introduction
        • Opioid Substitution Treatment
        • Neurobehavioral Outcomes of Neonates Exposed to MMT and BMT
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Opioid Substitution Treatment During Pregnancy
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 59. Prenatal Methadone and Behavioral Sensitization Induced by Methamphetamine
        • Introduction
        • Methadone Maintenance Treatment for Opiate-Dependent Pregnant Women
        • Methadone Maintenance Treatment-Induced Short-Term Developmental Outcomes
        • Mu Opioid Receptor and METH-Induced Behavioral Sensitization
        • Prenatal Methadone Enhances METH-Induced Addictive-Like Behavior in Later Life
        • Possible Effects Contribute to Addictive-Like Behaviors Following Prenatal Methadone Treatment
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MTT)
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 60. Treatments for Opioid Dependence and Methadone: Neurological and Behavioral Aspects
        • Main Approaches to Pharmacological Treatment of Opioid Dependence
        • Pharmacotherapeutic Medications Based on Receptor Pharmacology
        • Recommendations About the Treatment of Opioid Withdrawal
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Methadone
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 61. Cognitive Functioning in Methadone Use
        • Introduction
        • Cognitive Function in Opioid Dependence
        • Limitations of Studies to Date
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 62. Sleep Disturbances in Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) Patients
        • Introduction
        • Methadone Maintenance Treatment
        • Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
    • Section D. Methods
      • Chapter 63. The Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse: Assays for Fentanyl
        • Introduction
        • Early Methods for Assay of Fentanyl in the 1980s
        • Useful Methods for Assay of Fentanyl in the 1990s
        • Analytical Development and Validation for Fentanyl in the 2000s
        • Recent and Future Analytical Methods for Fentanyl
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Fentanyl Abuse
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 64. Assays for Tramadol and Its Metabolites
        • Introduction
        • Analytical Procedures
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Tramadol and Its Pharmacokinetics
        • Summary Points
  • Part IV. Stimulants and Other Compounds
    • Section A. General Aspects
      • Chapter 65. Methylphenidate Abuse: An Overview
        • Introduction
        • Pharmacokinetics
        • Pharmacodynamics
        • Psychotropic and Behavioral Effects of MPH
        • Abuse of MPH
        • Summary
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key facts
        • Summary Points
    • Section B. Molecular and Cellular Aspects
      • Chapter 66. The Impact of Methylphenidate on Circadian Rhythms and Clock Gene Expression
        • Introduction to Circadian Rhythms and Clock Genes
        • Introduction to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Pharmacotherapy
        • ADHD, Circadian Rhythms, and Sleep
        • Methylphenidate, Clock Genes, Circadian Rhythms, and Sleep
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
    • Section C. Structural and Functional Aspects
      • Chapter 67. The Characteristics of Acute and Chronic Methylphenidate, Dose, and Route on Female and Male Animal Behavior
        • Introduction
        • Methylphenidate
        • Methylphenidate Dose
        • Behavioral Assay
        • Route of Administration
        • Gender/Sex Differences
        • Behavioral Sensitization
        • Does Behavioral Sensitization Indicate an Increased or Decreased Risk of Substance Abuse?
        • Why is Behavioral Sensitization Rarely Expressed in Patients Treated with MPD?
        • Cross-Sensitization
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Methylphenidate
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 68. Methylphenidate and Cognitive Performance
        • Introduction
        • Aspects of Performance Affected by MPH
        • Is MPH an ADHD Treatment or a Cognitive Enhancer?
        • Who Benefits from MPH and Under What Circumstances?
        • Long-Term Effects of MPH
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 69. Methylphenidate and Suicide
        • Introduction
        • Suicidal Behavior Due to Exacerbation of Existing Psychiatric Conditions
        • Suicidal Behavior Due to ADHD
        • Suicidal Behaviors and Methylphenidate
        • Reasons for MPH–Associated Suicidality
        • Assessment of Suicidality
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Conclusion
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Impulsivity
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 70. The Effect of Methylphenidate on the Ventral Tegmental Area in Adolescent and Adult Animals
        • Introduction
        • Methylphenidate and VTA
        • MPD Dose
        • Behavioral and Neurophysiological Recording in the VTA Following MPD Exposure
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on the Effect of Methylphenidate on the Ventral Tegmental Area
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 71. Dextromethorphan and Dextrorphan as Heuristic Rapid-Acting, Conventional, and Treatment-Resistant Antidepressants, with Substance Abuse Considerations
        • Introduction
        • DM Pharmacodynamic Similarities to the Rapid-Acting Antidepressant Ketamine
        • Key Facts on Dextromethorphan and Dextrorphan
        • Summary Points
  • Part V. Caffeine and Areca (Betal Nut)
    • Section A. General Aspects
      • Chapter 72. Caffeine and Taurine and Energy Drink Abuse
        • Introduction
        • Addiction
        • Neurobiology and Neuropsychology of Addiction
        • Caffeine and Taurine Effects: Caffeine
        • Taurine
        • Combined Effects in Energetic Beverages
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Conclusions
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Energetic Beverages and Hyperactivity Disorders
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 73. General Aspects of Areca Nut Addiction
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Reports on Areca Nut Addiction
        • Preclinical Reports on Areca Nut Addiction
        • Areca Nut Consumers
        • Areca Nut Addiction and Other Health Implications
        • Applications to Other Addiction and Substance Abuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
    • Section B. Molecular and Cellular Aspects
      • Chapter 74. Caffeine, Adenosine A1 Receptors, and Brain Cortex. Molecular Aspects
        • Brain and Psychostimulants: Caffeine
        • Molecular Targets of Caffeine in the Brain
        • Adenosine Receptors and Caffeine
        • Molecular Effects of Caffeine on Cognitive Functions
        • Molecular Effects of Caffeine on Sleep and Wakefulness
        • Allosteric Interactions Between Caffeine and Adenosine Receptors
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Adenosine Receptors
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 75. Caffeine and the Developing Brain: Molecular and Cellular Effects
        • Introduction
        • Caffeine during Pregnancy and Birth Outcome
        • Effect of Caffeine on the Developing Fetal Brain
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Human Brain Development
        • Summary Points
    • Section C. Structural and Functional Aspects
      • Chapter 76. Effects of Caffeine and Its Cortical Response Studied by Functional Brain Imaging
        • Introduction
        • Caffeine Effects with PET
        • Caffeine Effects with MRI
        • Caffeine Effects on the Resting State Human Brain
        • Clinical Applications Using PET and MRI in Humans
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Functional Brain Imaging
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 77. Neurobehavioral Aspects of Caffeine
        • Introduction
        • Mechanisms of CNS Action for Caffeine’s Behavioral Effects
        • Caffeine Tolerance and Dependence
        • Effects of Caffeine on Psychomotor Performance
        • Caffeine Enhancement of Memory
        • Effects of Caffeine on Anxiety and Mood
        • Effects of Caffeine on Development
        • Conclusions
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Caffeine
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 78. Oral and Systemic Health Effects of Compulsive Areca Nut Use
        • Introduction
        • Defining “Arecoline” as a Drug of Addiction?
        • Active Agents in the Areca Nut
        • Psychoactive Effects of Arecoline and Arecaidine
        • The Association between Addiction and Socioeconomic Status
        • Addiction and the Adolescent Chewer
        • Arecoline Withdrawal Syndrome?
        • Chewers’ Attitudes to and Beliefs About Addiction
        • Conclusion
        • Future Perspectives
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 79. Areca Alkaloids and Schizophrenia
        • Introduction
        • Botany
        • Pharmacology
        • Clinical Effects
        • Areca and Schizophrenia
        • Future Perspectives
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Chronic Areca Consumption
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 80. Attentional Biases for Betel Nut Cues
        • Betel Nut: Eastern Delicacy, Western Carcinogen
        • Attentional Biases in Addictive Behaviors
        • Attentional Biases for Betel Nut Cues
        • Cognitive Neuroscience in Betel Nut Study
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Arecoline
        • Summary Points
    • Section D. Methods
      • Chapter 81. Quantitative Measurement of Caffeine by Optical Methods
        • Introduction
        • Sensing of Caffeine by Supramolecular Coordination
        • Sensing of Caffeine by Electrostatic π-Interaction
        • Sensing of Caffeine by Other Optical Methods
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on Optical Sensors
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 82. Betel Quid Dependence Scale
        • Introduction
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on the Betel Quid Dependence Scale
        • Summary Points
  • Part VI. Dual and Polydrug Abuse
    • Chapter 83. Types of Polydrug Usage
      • Introduction
      • Types of Adolescent Polydrug Users
      • Types of Adult Polydrug Users
      • Considerations About Studies Focusing on Types of Polydrug Use among Adolescents and Adults
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts on Polydrug Use
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 84. Polypharmacy of Potentially Addictive Medications and the Elderly
      • Introduction
      • Use of Addictive Prescription Medications in an Elderly Population
      • Amount of Addictive Medication Used by Patients
      • Multiple Prescribers
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Conclusions
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts on the Pharmacoepidemiology of Opioid Use
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 85. New Insight into Alcohol and Nicotine Addiction: Neurobiological Findings and Therapeutical Perspectives
      • Introduction to the Phenomenology and the Neurobiology of Addiction
      • Co-Occurrence of Nicotine and Alcohol Addiction: Clinical and Neurobiological Features
      • Varenicline: A Selective Partial Agonist at Alpha4-Beta2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse (Varenicline and Alcohol Addiction: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies)
      • Clinical Perspectives and Future Directions
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts on Alcohol and Nicotine Comorbidity
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 86. Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Neuroimaging and Cognition in Polysubstance Users
      • Introduction
      • Prevalence
      • Brain Alterations in PSU
      • Summary and Implications of Our Most Recent PSU Research
      • Future Studies in PSU
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts on Polysubstance Use Disorder
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 87. Neuropathological Studies in Polydrug Abusers
      • Introduction
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts on Brain Alterations in Polydrug Abuse
      • Summary Points
  • Part VII. Emerging Addictions and Drugs of Abuse
    • Chapter 88. Novel Drugs of Abuse: Cannabinoids, Stimulants, and Hallucinogens
      • Introduction
      • Synthetic Cannabinoids
      • Synthetic Cathinones
      • Other Novel Phenethylamines
      • Piperazines
      • Novel Tryptamines
      • Discussion
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 89. Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Use, Addiction Potential, and Legal Status
      • Introduction
      • Chemistry
      • Prevalence of Use
      • Kratom Abuse and Addiction
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substances of Abuse
      • Routes of Administration
      • Dosing and Effects
      • Price
      • Legal Status
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 90. Methylxanthines and Drug Dependence: Interactions and Toxicity
      • Introduction
      • Usage, Misuse, and Addiction Processes
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts on Caffeine
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 91. The Neuropathology of Movement Disorders in 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and Methcathinone (Ephedrone) Addictions
      • Introduction
      • MPTP
      • Methcathinone (Ephedrone)
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 92. 25C-NBOMe as a New Hallucinogen
      • “Classical” and Novel Hallucinogens
      • Serotonin Receptor Subtype 2A and the Action of Novel Hallucinogens
      • NBOMe Compounds
      • Chemistry and Dosage Forms of 25C-NBOMe
      • Prevalence of Use
      • Evaluation of Dosages and Routes of Administration
      • Pharmacodynamics
      • Abuse and Dependence Potential
      • Pharmacokinetics
      • Acute Toxicity Associated with 25C-NBOMe
      • Identification of 25C-NBOMe in Biological and Nonbiological Samples
      • Levels of 25C-NBOMe and Other NBOMe Compounds in Biological Material
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts on New Psychoactive Substances
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 93. Pregabalin Abuse and Addiction
      • Introduction: Pharmacology of Pregabalin
      • Clinical Efficacy and Therapeutic Use
      • Addiction Potential
      • Pregabalin Withdrawal
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Conclusions
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts on Pregabalin Abuse and Addiction
      • Summary Points
  • Part VIII. Non-Drug Addictions as Comparative Neuropathology
    • Chapter 94. Internet Gaming Disorder
      • Introduction
      • Neuroimaging Studies
      • Neurophysiological Studies in Internet Gaming Disorder
      • Family History and Genetics in Internet Gaming Disorder
      • Conclusion and Future Directions
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 95. The Neuropathology of Internet Addiction
      • Introduction
      • Impulsivity
      • Inhibitory and Executive Control and Error Monitoring Ability
      • Reward and Loss Sensitivity
      • Disembodiment
      • Neuroimaging Findings in IAD
      • Molecular Aspect of IAD
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts on Internet Addiction
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 96. Workaholism: An Addiction to Work
      • Introduction and Workaholism Defined
      • Related and Differential Phenomena of Workaholism
      • Epidemiology of Workaholism
      • Workaholism Typologies
      • Measurement of Workaholism
      • Contemporary Explanations of Workaholism
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts on Burnout
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 97. Exercise Addiction
      • Introduction
      • Concluding Remarks
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts on Exercise Addiction
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 98. Compulsive Buying—Features and Characteristics of Addiction
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Characteristics
      • Assessment of Compulsive Buying
      • Psychological Factors
      • Neurobiological Factors
      • Treatment
      • Conclusions
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Key Facts on Compulsive Buying
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 99. Food Addiction: Applying Substance Use Disorder Criteria and Characteristics to Identify Instances of Addictive-Like Eating
      • Introduction
      • “Food Addiction” and the DSM-5
      • Applying the DSM Criteria to Create a Clinical Food Addiction Diagnostic Tool
      • Animal Models of Food Addiction
      • Neurochemical Evidence for Food Addiction
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Conclusions
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts on Food Addiction
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 100. Bulimia Nervosa as an Addiction
      • Introduction
      • Animal Models of Drug Addiction
      • Neuroadaptations Produced by Drug Addiction
      • Animal Models of Bulimia Nervosa
      • Neuroadaptations Produced by Bulimia Nervosa
      • Human Adaptations in Drug Addiction and Bulimia Nervosa
      • Conclusions
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 101. Gambling Disorders: A Focus on Genetic Aspects
      • Introduction
      • Twin Studies
      • Molecular Genetic Studies
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts on Gambling Disorders
      • Summary Points
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
1106
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128006771
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128006344

About the Editor

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is a senior member of King's College London. He is also Director of the Genomics Centre and a member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine.

Professor Preedy has longstanding academic interests in substance misuse especially in relation to health and well being. He is a member of the Editorial Board of Drug and Alcohol Dependence and a founding member of the Editorial Board of Addiction Biology. In his career Professor Preedy was Reader at the Addictive Behaviour Centre at The University of Roehampton, and also Reader at the School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London; UCL). Professor Preedy is Editor of the influential works The Handbook Of Alcohol Related Pathology, The Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse and The Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies (all published by Academic Press-Elsevier).

Professor Preedy graduated in 1974 with an Honours Degree in Biology and Physiology with Pharmacology. He gained his University of London PhD in 1981. In 1992, he received his Membership of the Royal College of Pathologists and in 1993 he gained his second doctoral degree (DSc). Professor Preedy was elected as a Fellow of the Institute of Biology in 1995 and also as a Fellow to the Royal College of Pathologists in 2000. He was then elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (2004) and The Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene (2004). In 2009, Professor Preedy became a Fellow of the Royal Society for Public Health and in 2012 a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 600 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Dietetics, King's College London, UK