Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse Volume 1 - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128002131, 9780128003763

Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse Volume 1

1st Edition

Foundations of Understanding, Tobacco, Alcohol, Cannabinoids and Opioids

Editors: Victor Preedy
eBook ISBN: 9780128003763
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128002131
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 23rd March 2016
Page Count: 1132
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Description

Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse, Volume One: Foundations of Understanding, Tobacco, Alcohol, Cannabinoids, Opioids and Emerging Addictions provides the latest research in an area that  shows that the neuropathological features of one addiction are often applicable to those of others. The book also details how a further understanding of these commonalties can provide a platform for the study of specific addictions in greater depth, all in an effort to create new modes of understanding, causation, prevention, and treatment.

The three volumes in this series address new research and challenges, offering comprehensive coverage on the adverse consequences of the most common drugs of abuse, with each volume serving to update the reader’s knowledge on the broader field of addiction, while also deepening our understanding of specific addictive substances. Volume One addresses tobacco, alcohol, cannabinoids, and opioids, with each section providing data on the general, molecular/cellular, and structural/functional neurological aspects of a given substance, along with a focus on the adverse consequences of addictions.

Key Features

  • Provides a modern approach on the pathology of substances of abuse, offering an evidence based ethos for understanding the neurology of addictions
  • Fills an existing gap in the literature by proving a one-stop-shopping synopsis of everything to do with the neuropathology of drugs of addiction and substance misuse
  • Includes a list of abbreviations, abstracts, applications to other addictions and substance misuse, mini-dictionary of terms, summary points, 6+ figures and tables, and full references in each chapter
  • Offers coverage of preclinical, clinical, and population studies, from the cell to whole organs, and the genome to whole body

Readership

Researchers and advanced students in behavioral neuroscience, neurology, addiction science, psychology and research psychiatry, with additional interest in biochemistry and pharmacology.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Part I. Setting the Scene: Foundations for Understanding Substance Misuse and Their Effects
    • Chapter 1. The Nervous System and Addictions: Essentials for Clinicians
      • Introduction
      • A Neuroanatomical Compass
      • General Structure of the Neuroanatomical System
      • Psychoactive Substances and the Brain
      • The Neurobehavioral Facets of Addiction: From Recreational Use to Dependence
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse: New Behavioral Disorders?
      • Societal Impact of Substances
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 2. Pathophysiology-Based Neuromodulation for Addictions: An Overview
      • Introduction
      • Finding Targets for Neuromodulation Intervention
      • Pathophysiology of Addiction
      • Neuromodulation Techniques and Brain Network Alterations
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 3. Gateway Hypothesis of Addiction and Substance Misuse: The Role of Neurophysiology and Psychological Mechanisms
      • Introduction
      • Neurophysiological Mechanisms
      • Transition to Addiction and Psychological Mechanisms
      • Personality of the Drug User
      • Conclusion
      • Summary and Key Points
    • Chapter 4. Children of Parents with Substance Use Disorder
      • Introduction
      • Models of Substance Use Disorder Vulnerability
      • From Models to Studies of Neurobiology of Children with Familial Substance Use Disorder
      • Neuroimaging Studies of Children with Familial Substance Use Disorder
      • Future Directions
      • Summary
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 5. Drugs of Abuse and the Internet
      • Introduction
      • Drugs Sold on the Internet
      • Conclusion
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts on the Internet
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 6. Trauma and Neurological Risks of Addiction
      • Introduction
      • Overview of Typology of Trauma
      • Neurobiology of Trauma
      • Basic Neurobiology of Drug Use and Addiction
      • Posttraumatic Stress and Cannabinoid Receptors
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Conclusion
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 7. Emotional Self-Medication and Addiction
      • Introduction
      • ESM and Addiction in Humans
      • PSM and ESM in Nonhuman Animals
      • ESM Induced by Reward Loss
      • Future Directions: Bridging ESM and SUDs
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts about Self-Medication
      • Summary Points
    • Chapter 8. The Neurobiology of Comorbid Drug Abuse in Schizophrenia and Psychotic Disorders
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiological Data
      • Correlates of Comorbid Drug Abuse in Schizophrenia
      • Neurobiology of Comorbid Drug Abuse
      • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
      • Definition of Terms
      • Key Facts of the Neurobiology of Comorbid Drug Abuse in Schizophrenia
      • Summary Points
  • Part II. Tobacco
    • Section A. General Aspects
      • Chapter 9. Nicotine Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Pharmacokinetics
        • Introduction
        • Nicotine Chemistry
        • Nicotine Pharmacology
        • Nicotine Pharmacokinetics
        • Summary
        • Afterword
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts: PET Neuroimaging and Nicotine
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 10. Tobacco-Related Mortality among Individuals with Alcohol or Drug Use Disorders
        • Introduction
        • Prevalence of Tobacco Use in AODUD Populations
        • Tobacco-Related Diseases
        • A Review of Tobacco-Related Mortality among Individuals with AODUD
        • Best-Practice Guidelines Champion Smoking Cessation Integration into Addictions Treatment
        • Barriers to Implementation of Concurrent Smoking Cessation with AODUD Treatment
        • Staff Knowledge and Attitudes about Concurrent Smoking Cessation during AODUD Treatment
        • Attitudes toward Smoking Cessation among AODUD Treatment Clients
        • Effectiveness of Treatment for Nicotine Dependence Concurrent with AODUD Treatment
        • Efforts to Increase Access to Nicotine-Dependence Treatment for AODUD Populations
        • Other Policy Interventions to Reduce Tobacco-Related Mortality among Individuals with AODUD
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Conclusion
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Contraband Tobacco Use in the AODUD Population
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 11. Neurological Effects of Nicotine, Tobacco, and Particulate Matter
        • Introduction
        • Neurobiological Effects of Smoking Tobacco
        • The Rewarding Effects of Nicotine
        • Mechanism of Action: Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors
        • Addictive Properties of Tobacco Smoke
        • Tobacco Particulate Matter and Extracts
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
    • Section B. Molecular and Cellular Aspects
      • Chapter 12. Rho GTPases and Their Regulators in Addiction: A Focus on the Association of a β2-Chimaerin Polymorphism with Smoking
        • Introduction
        • Rho GTPases and Nicotine Addiction
        • Chimaerins and Smoking
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Smoking Addiction
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 13. Brain Orexin Receptors and Nicotine
        • Introduction
        • The Orexinergic System
        • The Hypothalamus and Orexin Receptors
        • Nicotine and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors
        • Nicotine and the Orexinergic System
        • Human Studies of Nicotine on Orexin
        • Paradigms of Nicotine Exposure to Replicate Clinical Conditions
        • Nicotine Exposure on Orexin Expression
        • Nicotine, Orexin, Addiction, and Reward
        • Mechanisms Involved in Nicotine-Induced Orexin Expression Changes
        • Conclusion and Future Directions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts Regarding the Orexinergic System
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 14. Nicotine and Stimulatory Effects on 5-HT DRN Neurons
        • Introduction
        • Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors
        • The Dorsal Raphe Nucleus
        • Effects of Nicotine on 5-HT DRN Neuron Firing Rate and 5-HT Release
        • Behavioral Effects of Nicotine Mediated by Increases in Serotonin Release
        • Concluding Remarks
        • Application to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Microdialysis
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 15. Critical Role of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors in Nicotine Reward and Addiction
        • Introduction
        • Nicotine Reward and Dependence
        • Endocannabinoid System and Signaling
        • Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptors
        • The Role of CB1 Receptors in Brain Reward Processing in Nicotine Administration
        • Effects of CB1 Receptor Agonists and Antagonists on Nicotine Reward
        • CB1 Receptor Ligands and nAChRs
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 16. Targets of Addictive Nicotine in the Central Nervous System and Interactions with Alcohol
        • Introduction
        • Effects of Nicotine
        • Concurrent Effects of Nicotine with Alcohol
        • Dual Effects of Nicotine
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Nicotine and Its Targets
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 17. Cytochrome P450 and Oxidative Stress as Possible Pathways for Alcohol- and Tobacco-Mediated HIV Pathogenesis and NeuroAIDS
        • Introduction
        • Alcohol and NeuroAIDS
        • Tobacco and NeuroAIDS
        • Concluding Remarks
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of NeuroAIDS
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 18. Nicotine and Neurokinin Signaling
        • Introduction
        • Tachykinin Genes and Gene Products
        • Neuropeptide Distribution in the CNS
        • Receptor Distribution in the CNS
        • Neurokinin-Mediated Mechanisms in the CNS
        • Tachykinins and Addiction Mechanisms
        • Neurokinins and nicotine: cellular mechanisms
        • Neurokinins and Nicotine: Regulation of Mood and Affect
        • Neurokinins and the Symptoms of Nicotine Withdrawal
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Conclusions
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 19. Neurotransmitter Systems and the Nicotine Dependence-Induced Withdrawal Syndrome: Dopamine, Glutamate, GABA, Endogenous Opioids, Endocannabinoids, Noradrenaline, Arginine Vasopressin, Neuropeptide Y, MAO, CREB, and Corticotropin-Releasing Factor
        • Introduction
        • Nicotine-Induced Neuroadaptations
        • Neural Basis of Nicotine Withdrawal
        • Neurotransmitters and Mediator Systems Involved in Nicotine Withdrawal
        • Application to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 20. Genetic Findings on the Relationship between Smoking and the Stress System
        • Introduction
        • The HPA Axis and the Molecular Effects of GCs
        • The Glucocorticoid Receptor-Coding Gene (NR3C1)
        • Functional Aspects of NR3C1 Polymorphisms
        • Effects of NR3C1 Polymorphisms on Smoking Behavior
        • The MR Coding Gene
        • Functional Aspects of NR3C2 Polymorphisms
        • Effects of NR3C2 Polymorphisms on Smoking Behavior
        • Potential for MR/GR Interactions beyond the Statistical Level
        • Perspectives
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 21. Genetic Variants of μ Opioid Receptor and Its Interacting Proteins in Smoking: A Focus on OPRM1 A118G, ARRB2, and HINT1
        • Introduction
        • OPRM1 Polymorphisms
        • OPRM1 and Smoking Behaviors
        • Pharmacogenetic Studies of OPRM1 in Smoking Cessation
        • ARRB2 and HINT1
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Smoking Related Phenotypes
        • Summary Points
    • Section C. Structural and Functional Aspects
      • Chapter 22. Characterization of Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Nicotine-Seeking Behavior in Smoking Relapse: Use of Animal Models
        • Introduction
        • Rat Model of Smoking Relapse: Response Reinstatement Paradigm
        • Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Nicotine-Seeking Responses
        • Interactions of Nicotine Cue with Stress and Nicotine Priming
        • Pharmacological Substrates Responsible for Cue-Induced Nicotine-Seeking Behavior
        • Applications to Other Addiction and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Nicotine-Seeking Behavior
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 23. Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Nicotine Addiction
        • Introduction
        • Behavioral Effects of Nicotine in Enriched Animals
        • Neural Effects of Enrichment on Nicotine Effects and Circuits
        • Conclusions and Future Directions
        • Application to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Environmental Enrichment
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 24. Smokers with Severe Mental Illness
        • Introduction
        • Nicotine Addiction
        • Why Do More People with Mental Illness Smoke?
        • Facilitating Smoking Cessation
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Key Facts of Smoking among Those with Mental Illness
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 25. Nicotine Dependence and Schizophrenia
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Features
        • Etiological Relationship between Schizophrenia and Nicotine
        • Management
        • Application to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition Of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 26. Unraveling the Role of the Amygdala in Nicotine Addiction
        • Introduction
        • The Role of Nicotine in Tobacco Addiction
        • The Amygdala
        • Nicotine Craving
        • Functional Neuroimaging Studies on Cue-Induced Nicotine Craving
        • Functional Neuroimaging Studies on Abstinence-Induced Craving
        • Functional Neuroimaging Studies on Altered Emotion Processing in Smokers
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Nicotine Addiction
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 27. Nicotine and Cognition: Effects of Nicotine on Attention and Memory Systems in Humans
        • Introduction
        • Nicotine and Attention
        • Nicotine and Memory
        • Long-term Effects of Nicotine on Cognition
        • Indirect Effects of Nicotine
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 28. The Role of Appetitive and Aversive Smoking Cues in Tobacco Use Disorder with a Focus on fMRI
        • Introduction
        • Reactivity to Appetitive Smoking Cues—Clinical Relevance
        • Neural Correlates of Smokers to Appetitive Smoking Cues
        • Reactivity to Aversive Smoking Cues—Clinical Relevance
        • Neural Reactivity of Smokers to Aversive Smoking Cues
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Tobacco Use Disorder
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 29. Different Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Neuropsychological Performance in Psychiatric Disorders
        • Introduction
        • Smoking and Cognitive Function in Healthy Subjects
        • Smoking and Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia
        • Smoking and Cognitive Function in Major Depressive Disorder
        • Smoking and Cognitive Function in Bipolar Disorder
        • Smoking and Cognitive Function in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 30. Tobacco Smoke Extract-Produced Behavioral Effects: Locomotor Sensitization and Self-Administration Studies
        • Introduction: Tobacco Smoke Extracts in Research
        • Behavioral Tests
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of History of Behavioral Nicotine/Tobacco Addiction Research
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 31. The Psychological Threat of Mortality and Its Implications for Tobacco and Alcohol Misuse
        • Introduction
        • Psychological Defenses against Conscious Mortality Concerns: Implications for Substance Use
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts Concerning the Terror Management Health Model
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 32. Nicotine Dependence and the Anterior Cingulate-Precuneus Pathway: Using Neuroimaging to Test Addiction Theories
        • Physical Dependence
        • Smoking and Brain Structure
        • Learning Theories of Addiction
        • Biological Theories of Addiction
        • Hypothesis Testing
        • What Impact Does This Have for Addiction Theorists?
        • Application to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Physical Nicotine Dependence
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 33. Neural Effects of Nicotine: Peripheral Sensory Systems and Experience-Dependent Neural Sensitization
        • Introduction
        • Rapid Neural Activation Induced by Intravenous Nicotine
        • The Role of Peripheral Actions of Nicotine in Mediating Its Acute Neural Effects
        • Experience-Dependent Changes in the Neural, Physiological, and Behavioral Effects of Nicotine
        • The Role of Peripheral Actions of Nicotine in the Development of Nicotine-Induced Neural Sensitization
        • General Discussion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
    • Section D. Methods
      • Chapter 34. Cotinine Urinalysis for Tobacco Use
        • Introduction
        • Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
        • Assays for Detection
        • Research and Clinical Applications of Urine Cotinine Detection
        • Sensitivity and Specificity Issues
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Comparison with Other Biomarkers of Tobacco Use
        • Conclusions
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
  • Part III. Alcohol
    • Section A. General Aspects
      • Chapter 35. Ethanol Metabolism and Implications for Disease
        • Introduction
        • The Physical Properties of Ethanol
        • International Variations in Alcohol Consumption
        • Alcohol and the Burden of Disease
        • Absorption and Distribution of Ethanol
        • Metabolism of Ethanol
        • Blood Ethanol Concentration
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Summary
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Acetaldehyde
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 36. Heavy Episodic Drinking or Binge Drinking: A Booming Consumption Pattern
        • Introduction
        • Definition of Binge Drinking
        • Consequences on Health and Possible Early Markers
        • Risk and Protection Factors Associated with BD
        • Personality Traits, Circadian Typology, and BD
        • Neuropsychological Impact of BD
        • Future Research on Prevention and/or Treatment on BD
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Neuropsychology in Binge Drinkers
        • Summary Points
    • Section B. Molecular and Cellular Aspects
      • Chapter 37. Alcohol and Endogenous Opioids
        • Neuropeptides as Target System
        • The Endogenous Opioid System
        • The Opioid–Alcohol Link
        • Endogenous Opioids in AUD
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Opioids
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 38. Effects of Alcohol on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Impact on Addiction
        • Introduction
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Conclusion
        • Definition of Terms
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 39. Alcohol and Its Impact on Myelin
        • Introduction
        • The Myelination Process and Brain Development
        • Composition of Myelin
        • Pathophysiology of the Demyelination and Remyelination Processes in the CNS
        • Alcohol Abuse and White Matter Disturbances
        • Mechanisms of Alcohol-Induced Myelin Alterations
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Therapeutic Approaches
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 40. The Effects of Acute and Chronic Ethanol Exposure on GABAergic Neuroactive Steroid Immunohistochemistry: Relationship to Ethanol Drinking
        • Introduction
        • Immunohistochemistry Methodology and Strengths in Neuroactive Steroid Research
        • GABAergic Neuroactive Steroids and Ethanol Interactions in Rats
        • Neuroactive Steroids and Ethanol Drinking in Rats
        • GABAergic Neuroactive Steroids and Ethanol Interactions in Mice
        • Neuroactive Steroids and Ethanol Drinking in Nonhuman Primates
        • Neuroactive Steroids and Ethanol Drinking in Humans
        • GABRA2 Genetic Polymorphisms
        • Genetic Polymorphisms and Neuroactive Steroids
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 41. Ethanol and Its Impact on the Brain’s Electrical Activity
        • Alcohol Abuse and Its Neurological Consequences
        • Influence of Alcohol on the Electrical Activity of the Brain
        • CSD as a Tool to Study the Effects of Alcohol on the Brain
        • Ethanol Influences CSD Propagation: The Role of Antioxidant Molecules
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definitions and Explanations of Key Terms or Words Used in the Chapter
        • Key Facts of Electrophysiology
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 42. Alcohol and Neuroimmune Interactions
        • Introduction
        • Microglia
        • Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
        • Adolescent and College-Age Alcohol Consumption
        • Adult Alcohol Consumption
        • Neuroimmune Signaling
        • Anti-inflammatory Therapeutics for Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders
        • Summary
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 43. Role of Glutamate Transport in Alcohol Withdrawal
        • Introduction
        • Glutamate Signaling Under Normal Physiological Conditions
        • Glutamate Signaling During Alcohol Withdrawal
        • Contribution of Genetic Variation in Glutamate Signaling to Alcohol Withdrawal Risk and Severity
        • Preclinical Evidence for the Use of Ceftriaxone to Treat Acute AWS
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Summary and Conclusions
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 44. Ethanol, Vitamins, and Brain Dysfunction
        • Brain Atrophy Affects Both White Matter and Gray Matter
        • Functional Consequences
        • Pathogenesis of Neurotoxicity in Alcoholics
        • Liposoluble Vitamins
        • Hydrosoluble Vitamins
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 45. Phospholipase D: A Central Switch in the Development of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
        • Fetal Alcohol Spectrum
        • Phospholipases D
        • Regulation of PLDs
        • Enzymatic Reactions of PLDs
        • Brain Cells and PLD
        • PLD Function
        • Effects of Ethanol In Vitro
        • Effects of Ethanol and PLD Deletion In Vivo
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Conclusion
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Phospholipases D
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 46. N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Subunits and Alcohol
        • Introduction
        • Ethanol’s Actions at the NMDAR: Role in the Subjective and Behavioral Effects of Alcohol
        • NMDAR Subunits and Ethanol
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Concluding Remarks
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Glutamate
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 47. Alcohol Dehydrogenase Alleles and Impact on Neuropathology
        • Introduction
        • Alcohol Metabolism
        • ADH Alleles and Alcohol Use Disorders
        • ADH Alleles and Effects on Neuropathology
        • Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
        • ADH Alleles and Neuropathology in FASD
        • Role of the ADH Alleles in the Fetus
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 48. ADH Cluster Genes, Genome-Wide Association Studies, and Alcohol Dependence
        • Introduction
        • Alcohol Metabolism and Major Genetic Factors
        • Genome-Wide Association Study and ADH Gene Cluster
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts about Alcohol Dependence
        • Summary
      • Chapter 49. Neuropathology of Gene Expression during Alcohol Withdrawal
        • Introduction
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts on the History of Alcohol Consumption
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 50. The Quest of Candidate Gene in Alcohol Dependence: The Dopamine D2 Receptor (DRD2) Gene
        • Introduction
        • Molecular Genetics of Alcoholism
        • Subtypes of Alcoholism Identified in Han Chinese
        • Association Studies of the DRD2 Gene with Alcoholism Subtypes
        • The DRD2 Gene and Temperament Interaction in Subtyped Alcoholism
        • Summary
        • DEFINITION of Terms
        • Key Facts of Subtyped Alcoholism
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 51. Acetaldehyde: A Reactive Metabolite
        • Introduction
        • Endogenous Aldehydes
        • Exogenous Acetaldehydes
        • Acetaldehyde Reactivity
        • Protein Adduct Formation
        • Damage to DNA
        • Protein Carbonylation/Oxidation and Cytotoxicity
        • Molecular Cytotoxic Mechanisms of Aldehydes
        • Acetaldehyde or Ethanol?
        • Human Health Risks
        • Concluding Remarks
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Brain Metabolism
        • Summary Points
    • Section C. Structural and Functional Aspects
      • Chapter 52. Cortical Morphology in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Insights from Computational Neuroimaging
        • Introduction
        • What Is Cortical Morphology?
        • Cortical Morphology in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 53. Abnormalities of Cerebellar Structure and Function in Alcoholism and Other Substance Use Disorders
        • Introduction
        • Prevalence of Substance Use Disorders
        • The Cerebellum and Addiction Connection
        • Structure and Function of the Cerebellum
        • Development of the Cerebellum
        • Alcohol Use Disorders and the Cerebellum
        • Cerebellar Abnormalities in SUD: Cause or Consequence?
        • Cerebellar Structure and Function in Other Substance Use Disorders
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of the Cerebellum
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 54. Brain Volumes in Adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorder
        • Introduction
        • Voxel-Based Morphometry and Related Methods of Structural Brain Imaging
        • Hippocampal Volume Is Reduced in Adolescents with AUD
        • Prefrontal Cortex Volume Is Differential in Adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorder
        • Other Brain Regions Showing Differential Volumes in Adolescent AUD Compared to Controls
        • Moderating and Mediating Factors—Gender, Psychiatric Comorbidities, Family History of Alcohol Abuse, Childhood Trauma
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts about Brain Volume Differences in Alcohol Use Disorder
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 55. Central Pontine Myelinolysis in Alcoholism: An Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome
        • Introduction
        • Pathophysiology
        • Pathology
        • Neuroimaging
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Treatment and Prognosis
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Key Facts of the Blood–Brain Barrier
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 56. The Role of Brain Glucocorticoid Systems in Alcohol Dependence
        • Introduction
        • Alcohol Activates the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Axis
        • Chronic Alcohol Exposure Disrupts HPA Axis Function
        • Role of Brain Glucocorticoid Receptor Activity in the Transition to Alcohol Dependence
        • GR Structure, Chaperone Proteins, and Nuclear Cofactors
        • Induction of Transcriptional Activation by GR
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts Related to Alcohol Misuse
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 57. Neuropathobiology of Alcohol-Induced Cognitive Deficits
        • Introduction
        • Neuropathological Mechanisms Associated with Alcohol-Induced Cognitive Deficits
        • Future Scope and Conclusions
        • Definition of terms
        • Key Facts on Alcohol-Induced Cognitive Deficit and Its Neuropathobiology
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 58. Neuropathology in Neuropsychiatric Disorders Secondary to Alcohol Misuse
        • Wernicke Encephalopathy
        • Korsakoff Syndrome
        • Marchiafava–Bignami Disease
        • Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome
        • Alcohol-Related Dementia
        • Alcoholic Cerebellar Degeneration
        • Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders
        • Application to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 59. Social Isolation and Ethanol Drinking: A Preclinical Model of Addiction Vulnerability in Males, but Not Females
        • Introduction
        • Sex Differences: From Acute Response to Alcohol to Neurobiological Consequences of Alcohol Dependence
        • Epidemiology by Sex: Association with Alcohol Use Disorders
        • Sex Differences: Neuroendocrine Responses in Vulnerable and Addicted Populations
        • Social Isolation as a Model of Addiction Vulnerability in Male Rodents
        • Hormones in Male and Female Rodents Exposed to Early Life Stress
        • Sex Differences in Alcohol Models: Females Drink More!
        • Models of an Addiction-Vulnerable Phenotype in Female Rats
        • Sex Differences in Addiction Vulnerability: Future Directions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Consequences Following Adolescent Social Isolation Model in Male versus Female Rats
        • Summary Points
    • Section D. Methods
      • Chapter 60. The Ultrarapid Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST-Lite) and Implications for Neuropathology
        • Introduction
        • Development of the ASSIST
        • ASSIST-Lite Protocol
        • Neuropathology as a Reason for Screening and Intervention
        • Conducting a Brief Intervention with an Illicit Drug User
        • Conclusion
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
  • Part IV. Cannabinoids
    • Section A. General Aspects
      • Chapter 61. Overview of Cannabis Use, Misuse, and Addiction
        • Introduction
        • Acute and Long-term Effects of Cannabis Use
        • Cannabis Misuse and the Risk of Addiction
        • Translational Research on Cannabis Use in Animal Models
        • Therapies for Cannabis Use and Withdrawal
        • Is There a Potential Therapeutic Value for Medical Cannabis?
        • Policy Changes in Cannabis Regulation
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of the Cannabinoid Tetrad Test
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 62. An Overview of Major and Minor Phytocannabinoids
        • Introduction
        • Tetrahydrocannabinol Acid, Tetrahydrocannabivarinic Acid, and Cannabigerol Acid
        • Cannabigerol
        • Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
        • Tetrahydrocannabivarin
        • Cannabidiol
        • Cannabichromene
        • Cannabinol
        • β-Caryophyllene
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Summary
      • Chapter 63. Treating the Phenomenon of New Psychoactive Substances: Synthetic Cannabinoids and Synthetic Cathinones
        • Introduction
        • Synthetic Cannabinoids
        • Synthetic Cathinones
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Synthetic Cannabinoids and Psychosis
        • Summary Points
    • Section B. Molecular and Cellular Aspects
      • Chapter 64. Role of Lipid Rafts and the Underlying Filamentous-Actin Cytoskeleton in Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Signaling
        • Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Signaling: A Forceful Regulator of Neuronal Development and Function
        • CB1 Signaling to the Major Effector Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase
        • CB1 Signaling to ERK Emanates from Lipid Rafts
        • Lipid Rafts, Filamentous-Actin Networks, and Microtubules Regulate CB1 Signaling and Localization
        • Formation of CB1 Signaling Complexes and Transactivation of Tyrosine Kinase Receptors in Lipid Rafts
        • Concluding Remarks
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of CB1
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 65. Cannabinoid Agonists
        • Introduction
        • Endocannabinoids
        • Phytocannabinoids: Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
        • Synthetic Cannabinoids
        • Cannabinoid Agonists in the Clinic
        • Application to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 66. Molecular Pharmacology of CB1 and CB2 Cannabinoid Receptors
        • Introduction
        • Introduction to Cannabinoid Receptor Research
        • Overview of Endocannabinoid System Molecular Biology
        • Overview of Cannabinoid Signaling in Cells
        • Summary and Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 67. Does Agonist Efficacy Alter the In Vivo Effects of Cannabinoids: Girl, Could We Get Much “Higher”?
        • Introduction
        • Cannabinoid Agonist Classification
        • Herbal Incense: Not Your Parents’ Marijuana?
        • Preclinical Studies
        • Marijuana Dependence Studies in Humans
        • Dependence and Withdrawal Studies in Animals
        • Tolerance
        • Drug Discrimination
        • Reinforcement
        • If Not Efficacy, What, Then?
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 68. Cannabis, Cannabinoid Receptors, and Stress-Induced Excitotoxicity
        • Introduction
        • Endocannabinoid System and Stress: A Bidirectional Relationship
        • Stress and Cellular Damage/Death by Excitotoxicity
        • Cannabinoid Receptor Activation and Stress-Induced Excitotoxicity
        • Therapeutic Potential in Stress-Related Neuropsychopathologies
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Excitotoxicity
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 69. Cannabis, Endocannabinoid CB1 Receptors, and the Neuropathology of Vision
        • Introduction
        • Psychophysical Effects of Cannabinoids on Vision
        • Electrophysiological Effects of Cannabinoids on Vision
        • Conclusions and Future Directions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of the Cannabinoid System
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 70. Cannabidiol and 5-HT1A Receptors
        • Introduction
        • Multiple Effects of Cannabidiol and Its Therapeutic Potential
        • Cannabidiol and 5HT1A Receptors
        • How Does Cannabidiol Interact with 5HT1A Receptors?
        • Are All Cannabidiol Effects Mediated by 5-HT1A Receptors?
        • Conclusion
        • Application to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 71. CB1 Receptor-Mediated Signaling Mechanisms in the Deleterious Effects of Spice Abuse
        • Introduction
        • Cannabinoid Receptors
        • Signal Transduction Mechanism of CB1R
        • CB2R Signaling
        • Spice Signaling
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Spice Products
        • Summary Points
    • Section C. Structural and Functional Aspects
      • Chapter 72. Cannabis Use Disorders and Brain Morphology
        • Introduction
        • Nosology of Cannabis Use Disorder
        • Neurocognitive Aspects of Cannabis Use Disorder
        • Structural Neuroimaging Studies Investigating Cannabis Use Disorder
        • Discussion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Concluding Key Facts on the Association between Gray Matter and Cannabis Use Disorder
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of the Striatum
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 73. Imaging Dopamine Alterations in Cannabis Dependence
        • Introduction
        • Imaging Methods Used to Study Dopamine in Humans
        • Effect of Acute Cannabinoid Administration on the Dopamine System
        • Effect of Chronic Cannabis Use on the Dopamine System
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts about Imaging the Dopamine System in Humans Using PET
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 74. Cannabis and the Mesolimbic System
        • The Dopaminergic Mesolimbic System
        • Cannabinoids in the Reward Circuitry
        • Cannabis Dependence
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of the “Addictive” Spines in the Nucleus Accumbens
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 75. Role of the Endocannabinoid System and Major Cannabis Constituents in the Reconsolidation and Extinction of Rewarding Drug-Associated Memories
        • Introduction
        • Essential Aspects about Learning and Memory Processing
        • Overview of the Endocannabinoid System
        • Using the Conditioned Place Preference Paradigm to Investigate the Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Memory Reconsolidation and Extinction
        • Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Learning and Memory Processing
        • The Endocannabinoid System and Reconsolidation of Rewarding Drug-Related Memories
        • The Endocannabinoid System and Reconsolidation of Aversive Memories
        • Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Reconsolidation of Drug, Appetitive, and Aversive Memories
        • Concluding Remarks
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Memory Reconsolidation
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 76. Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, Synthetic Cannabinoids, and Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitors on Mood and Serotonin Neurotransmission
        • Introduction
        • How to Assess If a Putative Drug Modulates Mood Using Animal Models
        • Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Serotonin Firing Activity
        • The Effect of WIN 55,212-2 on 5-HT Firing and Antidepressant-Like Activity
        • Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibition, 5-HT Firing, and Antidepressant-Like Activity
        • Chronic Administration of CB1R Agonists in Adolescence and Adulthood: Implications for 5-HT Firing Activity
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 77. CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors and Aggression: Relationship to Cannabis Use
        • Introduction
        • The Endocannabinoid System
        • Cannabis and Aggression in Humans
        • Relation between Aggression and CB1 Receptor in Animal Studies
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Aggression
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 78. Cannabis and Bipolar Manic Episodes
        • Substance Use and Bipolar Disorder
        • Childhood Trauma, Cannabis, and Bipolar Disorders
        • Impact of Cannabis Use on Mania Phenomenology
        • Impact of Cannabis Use on Bipolar Disorder Outcome
        • Cannabis Use and Onset Manic Episode
        • Cannabis Use and Psychosis
        • Mechanisms Underlying Cannabis Use and Manic Symptoms
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substances Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Mania and Bipolar Disorders
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 79. White Matter, Schizophrenia, and Cannabis
        • Introduction
        • White Matter Changes in Schizophrenia
        • White Matter Changes with Cannabis Use
        • White Matter Changes with Cannabis Use in People with Schizophrenia
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 80. Electroencephalography and Cannabis: From Event-Related Potentials to Oscillations
        • Introduction
        • The Brain Cannabinoid System
        • Electroencephalography
        • Cannabinoids and ERPs
        • Cannabinoids and Neural Oscillations
        • Conclusion and Future Directions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Defintion of Terms
        • Key Facts of Cannabis and Electroencephalography
        • Summary Points
  • Part V. Opioids
    • Section A. General Aspects
      • Chapter 81. Street Level Heroin, an Overview on Its Components and Adulterants
        • Introduction
        • An Overview of Opiates
        • Historical Review of Heroin
        • A Focus on the Heroin Production Process
        • Definition of Controlled Substances
        • Controlled Substances Act Schedules
        • Heroin Pharmacology
        • What Does Heroin Look Like?
        • Routes of Administration for Heroin
        • Body Packing of Heroin
        • Street Names and Slang Terms for Heroin
        • Component Analysis of Heroin
        • Medical Consequences of Street Heroin Abuse
        • Concluding Remarks
        • Application to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Key Facts
      • Chapter 82. Opioid Prescription Drug Abuse and Its Relation to Heroin Trends
        • Introduction
        • Trends
        • Heroin Availability on the World Market
        • Global Trends in Opioid and Opiate Abuse
        • Opiate and Opioid Overdose Deaths
        • United States
        • Trends in Treatment for Opiates and Opioids
        • Harm Reduction Response to Increasing Opioid and Heroin Abuse
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Conclusion
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
    • Section B. Molecular and Cellular Aspects
      • Chapter 83. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Signaling at the Intersection of Pain and Opioid Addiction
        • Introduction
        • The Addicted Phenotype
        • Animal Models of Opioid Intake Escalation and Addiction
        • Chronic Opioid Exposure and Hyperalgesia
        • Opioid Addiction in Relation to Pain Management
        • Shared Neural Mechanisms and Neurocircuitry Underlying Pain and Opioid Addiction
        • Role of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor in Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia and the Transition to Opioid Dependence
        • Role of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Signaling in Chronic Pain States
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts Related to Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia and Addiction
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 84. The Role of the δ Opioid Receptor Gene, OPRD1, in Addiction
        • Introduction
        • OPRD1 and Human Addiction
        • Rodent Models and Addiction
        • Drugs and δ Opioid Receptor Function
        • Heterodimerization of μ and δ Opioid Receptors
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Pharmacogenetics of Addiction
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 85. Genome-Wide Association Studies and Human Opioid Sensitivity
        • Introduction
        • Association Studies on Specific Candidate Genes for Human Opioid Sensitivity
        • Genome-Wide Association Studies of Human Opioid Sensitivity
        • Genome-Wide Association or Linkage Studies of Human Opioid Dependence
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 86. Opiate Receptors and Gender and Relevance to Heroin Addiction
        • Introduction
        • Opiate Receptors
        • Classification and Localization of Opiate Receptors
        • Structure of Opiate Receptors and Signal Transduction
        • Tolerance, Dependence, and Addiction
        • Gender Differences in the Pharmacological Effects of Opiates
        • Gender Differences in Heroin Addiction
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Opiate Abuse
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 87. Transcriptional Effects of Heroin and Methamphetamine in the Striatum
        • Introduction
        • Patterns of Gene Expression Regulated by the Acute Administration of Psychostimulants or Opioids
        • Drug-Induced Regulation of Activity-Dependent Genes
        • Activation of Stress-Related Genes by Drugs of Abuse
        • Glucocorticoid Receptor-Dependent Genes Induced by Drugs of Abuse Are Expressed in Astrocytes
        • Gene Expression Regulated by Chronic Administration of Psychostimulants or Opioids
        • Chronic Methamphetamine and Heroin Treatment Activated Genes Enriched in the Nucleus Accumbens
        • Transcriptional Effects of Chronic Methamphetamine and Heroin Treatment in the Striatum Display Similarity
        • Regulation of Glucocorticoid Receptor-Dependent Genes in Response to Chronic Treatment
        • Alteration of Circadian Genes by Chronic Methamphetamine and Heroin Treatment
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Polydrug Abuse
        • Summary Points
    • Section C. Structural and Functional Aspects
      • Chapter 88. Neurological Abnormalities in Opiate Addicts
        • Introduction
        • Classification
        • Causes of Neurological Disease in Opiate Addicts
        • Neurological Abnormalities in Opiate Addicts
        • Ischemic Stroke in Opiate Addicts
        • Cerebral Bleeding in Opiate Addicts
        • Epilepsy in Opiate Addicts
        • Trauma
        • Infections
        • Cognitive Impairment
        • Other CNS Abnormalities in Opiate Addicts
        • PNS Disease
        • Neurological Withdrawal Symptoms in Opiate Addicts and in Neonates
        • CNS Imaging in Opiate Addicts
        • Neuropathology in Opiate Addicts
        • Premorbid Neurological Vulnerabilities Fostering the Development of Opiate Addiction
        • Dependency of Neurological Abnormalities on the Mode of Opiate Administration, the Duration of Addiction, and the Opiate Dosage
        • Neurological Complications during General Anesthesia
        • Secondary Disease that Causes Tertiary Neurological Abnormalities
        • Conclusions
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 89. Clinical and Preclinical Molecular Imaging in Chronic Pain—Implications for Analgesic Use and Misuse
        • Introduction
        • Pathophysiology Relevant to Pain Imaging
        • Functional and Molecular Imaging of the Brain
        • Functional and Molecular Imaging of Peripheral Structures
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Molecular Imaging
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 90. Single-Photon-Emission Computed Tomography Studies with Dopamine and Serotonin Transporters in Opioid Users
        • Introduction
        • Dopamine
        • Serotonin
        • Discussion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Conclusion
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts Related to Opioid Dependency
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 91. Personality Dimensions, Impulsivity, and Heroin
        • Introduction
        • Impulsivity and Heroin Dependence
        • Temperament and Character Dimensions of Personality
        • Relationships of Personality Dimensions with Impulsivity in Heroin Dependents
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Impulsivity, Temperament, and Character
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 92. fMRI of Heroin and Ketamine Addiction
        • Introduction
        • Application to Types of Addictions
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 93. Heroin-Induced Cerebrovascular Ischemia and Leukoencephalopathy: Role of Mitochondria
        • Stroke and Heroin: A Chronological Review of Cases
        • Heroin-Induced Leukoencephalopathy: A Chronological Review of Cases
        • Discussion of Possible Pathophysiologies
        • Hypoxia Is a Common Pathway to Induce Leukoencephalopathy
        • Conclusion
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Spongiform Leukoencephalopathy
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 94. The Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Axis and Related Brain Stress-Response Systems and Heroin
        • Introduction
        • HPA Axis in Human Heroin Addiction and Rodent Models
        • Arginine Vasopressin and V1b Receptor Systems
        • Endogenous Opioid Systems
        • Orexin and Dynorphin in the Lateral Hypothalamus
        • Summary
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Stress Responses in Opiate Addiction
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 95. Accelerated Aging in Heroin Abusers: Readdressing a Clinical Anecdote Using Telomerase and Neuroimaging
        • Introduction
        • Neuropathology and Neuropsychology of Heroin Addiction
        • Biological Indicators of Aging
        • Heroin, Telomerase, and Neuroimaging: Crossroads between Molecular and Brain System Pathology
        • A Paradigm Shift in the Understanding of Addiction Pathology
        • Overall Summary
        • Definition of Terms
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 96. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Substance Use Disorders, and Heroin Addiction
        • Introduction
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Conclusion
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of ADHD and Other Psychiatric Disorders
        • Summary
      • Chapter 97. Impaired Cognition Control and Inferior Frontal Cortex Modulation in Heroin Addiction
        • Introduction
        • Behavioral Impairments of Cognitive Control in Heroin Addiction
        • Inferior Frontal Gyrus, Response Inhibition, and Heroin Addiction
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Conclusions
        • Suggestions for Further Research
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Cognitive Control Functions in Heroin Addiction and the Relation to the Inferior Frontal Gyrus
        • Summary Points
    • Section D. Methods
      • Chapter 98. Assay for Opium Alkaloids
        • Introduction
        • Types of Biological Material Used for Determination of Opioids
        • Sample Preparation for Bioanalysis of Opioids
        • Detection and Quantification of Opioids in Biological Samples
        • Review of Analytical Methods for Bioassay of Opium Alkaloids and Related Opioids
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Substance Misuse
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Bioassay of Opium Alkaloids and Opioid-Related Compounds
        • Summary Points
      • Chapter 99. Features of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire Associated with Heroin Users
        • Introduction
        • The Concepts of the TPQ and the TCI
        • The TPQ Dimensions and Heroin Use
        • Categorical Views of Personality in Relation to Heroin Use: the Switch from the TPQ
        • The Autonomic Basis of Borderline Personality Trait and Heroin Use Disorder
        • Applications to Other Addictions and Other Substance Misuse
        • Conclusions
        • Definition of Terms
        • Key Facts of Personality Features in Heroin Users
        • Summary Points
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
1132
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128003763
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128002131

About the Editor

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is a senior member of King's College London. He is also Director of the Genomics Centre and a member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine.

Professor Preedy has longstanding academic interests in substance misuse especially in relation to health and well being. He is a member of the Editorial Board of Drug and Alcohol Dependence and a founding member of the Editorial Board of Addiction Biology. In his career Professor Preedy was Reader at the Addictive Behaviour Centre at The University of Roehampton, and also Reader at the School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London; UCL). Professor Preedy is Editor of the influential works The Handbook Of Alcohol Related Pathology, The Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse and The Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies (all published by Academic Press-Elsevier).

Professor Preedy graduated in 1974 with an Honours Degree in Biology and Physiology with Pharmacology. He gained his University of London PhD in 1981. In 1992, he received his Membership of the Royal College of Pathologists and in 1993 he gained his second doctoral degree (DSc). Professor Preedy was elected as a Fellow of the Institute of Biology in 1995 and also as a Fellow to the Royal College of Pathologists in 2000. He was then elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (2004) and The Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene (2004). In 2009, Professor Preedy became a Fellow of the Royal Society for Public Health and in 2012 a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 600 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Dietetics, King's College London, UK