Neuronal Networks in Brain Function, CNS Disorders, and Therapeutics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124158047, 9780124158641

Neuronal Networks in Brain Function, CNS Disorders, and Therapeutics

1st Edition

Editors: Carl Faingold Hal Blumenfeld
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124158047
eBook ISBN: 9780124158641
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 23rd January 2014
Page Count: 512
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Description

Dedications

List of Contributors

Chapter 1. Introduction to Neuronal Networks of the Brain

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

“Silos” in CNS Network Research

Types of Network Interactions

Epilepsy as a Template for Network Studies

Network Technical Approaches

Computational Approaches to Neuronal Networks

Network Exploration Process: An Overview

Neuronal Network versus Neuroanatomy

Emergent Properties of Neuronal Networks

Mechanisms Responsible for Network Control

Neuroplasticity

Emergent Properties of Networks as Therapeutic Targets

References

Chapter 2. Network Models of Absence Seizures

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Experimental Characterization of Generalized Spike-and-Wave Seizures

Network Models of Spike-and-Wave Seizures

Testing the Predictions of the Models

Conclusions: A Corticothalamic Mechanism for Absence Seizures

References

Further Reading

Chapter 3. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Epilepsy: Methods and Applications Using Awake Animals

Abstract

Introduction

Setting Up and Imaging Awake Animals

Spatial Resolution and Neuroanatomical Fidelity

Data Analysis

Awake Seizure Studies

Summary

References

Chapter 4. Network Experimental Approaches: Inactivation, Microinjection, Neuronal Stimulation, and Recording

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Inactivation Techniques

Neuronal Stimulation

Neuronal Recording

Conclusions

References

Chapter 5. Network Experimental Approaches: Ex vivo Recording

Abstract

Introduction

Direct Synchronization via Chemical and Electrical Synapses in the Olfactory Bulb

Inhibition of Asynchrony in Spontaneous Activity of Hypothalamic Histaminergic TM Neurons

Stochastic Enhancement of Neuronal Excitability: Can a Single Ion Channel Excite the Entire Neuron?

Conclusion

References

Chapter 6. Network Imaging

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

The Relationship between Anatomical and Functional Connectivity

Network Properties and Measures

The Neuroenergetic Basis for Small-World Network Functions

Methods for Extracting Network Activity

Electrophysiological Activity is Related to Resting Functional Connectivity

Oscillatory Networks Can Be Measured by EEG and MEG

Networks in Cognition and Consciousness

Network Disruptions in Disease

Conclusion

References

Chapter 7. Network Control Mechanisms: Cellular Inputs, Neuroactive Substances, and Synaptic Changes

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Projection Neuron Inputs

Multiple Inputs

Electrophysiological Mechanisms

Neuroactive Substances

Cytokine Involvement in Network Control

Synaptic Strength Changes, Synaptogenesis, and Neurogenesis

Neurotropic Factors

Axonal Sprouting

Neurogenesis

Conclusions

References

Chapter 8. Volume Transmission and the Russian-Doll Organization of Brain Cell Networks: Aspects of Their Integrative Actions

Abstract

General Premises

Introduction

On the Structural Organization of the CNS

The Dichotomy Distinction between Wiring and Volume Transmission

Concluding Remarks

General Conclusion

References

Chapter 9. Electrophysiological Mechanisms of Network Control: Bursting in the Brain—From Cells to Networks

Abstract

Introduction

Mechanisms Underlying the Single-Unit and Local Field Potential–Measured Bursts

Neuronal Bursting: Seizures

Conclusion

References

Chapter 10. Network Control Mechanisms—Cellular Milieu

Abstract

Introduction

Effects of the Extracellular Ionic Composition on Neuronal Network Activity

Effects of Oxygen on Neuronal Activity

Effects of Osmolarity on Neuronal Activity

Effects of pH on Neuronal Activity

Effects of Temperature on Neuronal Activity

Effects of Glial Cells on Neuronal Activity

Extracellular Ions and Ex vivo Models of Seizure

Evaluation of Distance and Time Dependence of Drug Diffusion in the Extracellular Space

Conclusion

References

Chapter 11. Neuronal Network Mechanisms—Sex and Development

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Basal Ganglia

Corticothalamic Network

Conclusions

References

Chapter 12. Astrocytic Regulation of Synapses, Neuronal Networks, and Behavior

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Astrocytic-Neuronal Structural Association

Gliotransmission: The Release of Chemical Transmitters by Astrocytes

Complexity of Astrocyte-to-Neuron Communication

Vesicular ATP Release from Astrocytes and its Functional Consequences on Neuronal Function

Gliotransmission Modulates Network Activity and Cortical Rhythms In vivo

Astrocytes Regulate Sleep-Related Behaviors

Astrocytic Neuromodulation Contributes to Feedback Control of Breathing

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 13. The Fear Memory Network

Abstract

Acknowledgments

An Overview of Pavlovian Fear Conditioning

The Amygdala and Fear Conditioning

Synaptic Plasticity in the Amygdala and Fear Conditioning

Distributed versus Local Plasticity in the Amygdala

Plasticity beyond the Amygdala

Contextual Fear Conditioning

Turning Fear Off: Fear Extinction

Fear Learning in Humans and Its Relevance to Anxiety Disorders

Conclusions

References

Chapter 14. Orchestration of the Circadian Clock Network by the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

Abstract

Introduction

The Cellular Basis of Circadian Rhythmicity

SCN as the Master Clock

Input to the SCN

Gating of the SCN

SCN Output

SCN Control of Locomotor Activity

SCN Control of the Adrenal Gland

SCN Control of the Female Reproductive Cycle

SCN Control of the Pineal Gland

SCN Control of Metabolism

Circadian Rhythms in Health and Disease

Conclusions

References

Chapter 15. mTOR Signaling in Cortical Network Development

Abstract

Introduction

Background

Methods: In utero Electroporation

Current Research

Unanswered Questions and Future Research

Conclusion

References

Chapter 16. Network Control Mechanisms—Synaptogenesis and Epilepsy Development

Abstract

References

Chapter 17. The Brain and Spinal Cord Networks Controlling Locomotion

Abstract

Descending Control of Locomotion

The Locomotor Areas of the Brain for Selection of Locomotion

CPG Interneurons

Interneurons Identified on the Basis of Progenitor Domain

Sensory Control of Locomotion

Clinical Applications

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 18. The Brainstem Respiratory Network

Abstract

Functions of the Brainstem Respiratory Network

Anatomy of the Respiratory System

Dorsal Respiratory Group

Ventral Respiratory Column

Interactions with Other Networks and Reconfiguration for Airway Protection

Summary

References

Chapter 19. Visual Network

Abstract

Introduction

Retinal Circuits for Initial Visual Processing

Subcortical Visual Pathways

The Colliculo-Pulvinar-Cortical Pathway

The Primary Visual Cortex

Ventral and Dorsal Cortical Pathways for Visual Processing

The Neural Basis of Conscious Visual Experience

Loss of Visual Awareness following Localized Lesions in the Vision Network

Neural Correlates of Perceived Stimulus Properties

Conceptual Model: Brain Networks for Visual Awareness

References

Chapter 20. Auditory Neuronal Networks and Chronic Tinnitus

Abstract

Acknowledgment

Tinnitus Phenomenology and Epidemiology

Processing Acoustic Information: The Auditory Pathway

De-afferentation and Homeostatic Compensation

Animal Models

Compensation and Overcompensation in the Brainstem

Loss of Inhibition

Auditory Cortex and Amygdala

Nonauditory Brain Areas

A Cellular Component of Tinnitus

Conclusions

References

Chapter 21. Consciousness and Subcortical Arousal Systems

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Acetylcholine

Norepinephrine

Histamine

Serotonin

Orexin

Glutamate

Dopamine

Conclusions

List of Abbreviations

References

Chapter 22. Networks of Normal and Disordered Sleep

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Mechanisms Involved in Waking (Figure 22.1)

Mechanisms Involved in NREM (SWS) Induction and Maintenance (Figure 22.2)

Mechanisms Controlling the Activity of NREM (SWS) Sleep-Inducing Neurons

Overview of the Neuronal Network Responsible for SWS (NREM) Sleep

Mechanisms Involved in Paradoxical (REM) Sleep Genesis (Figure 22.3)

Paradoxical (REM) Sleep-Generating Neurons: The Switch from Acetylcholine to Glutamate

Mechanisms Responsible for SLD PS-on Neuron Activation during PS

Neurons Inhibiting the GABAergic and Monoaminergic PS-off Neurons at the Onset of and during PS

Role of the MCH and GABAergic Neurons of the Lateral Hypothalamic Area in PS Control

Conclusion

References

Chapter 23. Networks for the Modulation of Acute and Chronic Pain

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Pain-Processing Pathways

Processing Changes in Chronic Pain

The mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA)

Discovery of the MPTA

MPTA Connectivity: Interrelationships with the Pain Control Network

Network Interactions and Therapeutic Implications

Summary

References

Chapter 24. Networks in Mood and Anxiety Disorders

Abstract

Acknowledgment

Amygdala

Hippocampus

Prefrontal Cortex

Basal Ganglia

Conclusion

References

Chapter 25. Neuronal Networks and Therapeutics in Neurodegenerative Disorders

Abstract

Introduction

Basal Ganglia

Parkinson's Disease

Essential Tremor

Primary Torsion Dystonia

Tourette's Syndrome

Huntington's Disease

Alzheimer's Disease

Conclusion

References

Chapter 26. Neuronal Networks in Epilepsy: Comparative Audiogenic Seizure Networks

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Developmental Epilepsy Networks

Networks for Absence Epilepsy Models

Networks for Epilepsy Kindling Models

Status Epilepticus Networks

Networks for Generalized Human Epilepsy

Forms of AGS

Genetic Forms of AGS Susceptibility

Induced Forms of AGS

Thyroid-Deficient Form of AGS Susceptibility

Ischemia-Induced Form of AGS Susceptibility

Alcohol Withdrawal (ETX)-Induced AGS Susceptibility

AGS Severity

Neuronal Networks in AGS

AGS Neuronal Network Studies

Blockade Studies of the IC in Induced AGS Models

Blockade of the IC in the Ischemia Model

The DLSC in AGS Networks

Role of the PAG in AGS Networks

The PRF in AGS Networks

Role of the Substantia Nigra Reticulata in AGS Networks

Forebrain Structures in AGS

Hierarchical Organization of the AGS Network

Conclusions

References

Chapter 27. Physiological and Pathophysiological Expansion of Neuronal Networks

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Neuronal Network Expansion Mechanisms

Conclusions

References

Chapter 28. Neuronal Network Plasticity and Network Interactions are Critically Dependent on Conditional Multireceptive (CMR) Brain Regions

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Common Characteristics of CMR Neurons

Specific Characteristics and Comparison of Neurons in Different CMR Regions

Interaction of CMR Regions

Conclusions

References

Chapter 29. Neuronal Network Interactions in the Startle Reflex, Learning Mechanisms, and CNS Disorders, Including Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Dual Network Interactions

Multinetwork Interactions

Conclusions

References

Chapter 30. Emergent Properties of Neuronal Networks

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Emergent Properties of Neuronal Networks

Types of Emergent Properties

Levels of Emergent Properties

Respiratory Networks of the Brainstem

Motor Control

Sensory Processing

Normal Brain State Transitions

Cognition and Memory

Neurological Disorders—Epilepsy

Psychiatric Disorders

Conclusions

References

Chapter 31. Neuronal Network Involvement in Stimulation Therapies for CNS Disorders

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Noninvasive Stimulation Modalities

Invasive Stimulation Modalities

General Neuronal Network Mechanisms of Stimulation Therapies

Conclusion

References

Chapter 32. Neuronal Network Effects of Drug Therapies for CNS Disorders

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

The Brainstem Reticular Formation Arousal Network

The Centrencephalic Theory of Generalized Epilepsy

CNS Drug Dosage

Mesoscopic Networks and CNS Drugs

The Brain You Anesthetize May Be Your Own

Drug Effects on Network Emergent Properties

Selective Effects of CNS Drugs: Therapeutic Doses

Drug Effects on Rhythmic Oscillations of the Brain

Pharmacological Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies

Drug Effects on Intact Neuronal Networks

Stimulant Drug Effects on Neuronal Network Neurons

Stimulant Drug Effects and Cognition

Depressant and Anesthetic Drug Effects on Neuronal Networks

Effects of Ethanol on Neurons in Neuronal Networks

Ethanol and Emergent Properties of Neurons

Effects of Anticonvulsant Drugs on Intact Neuronal Networks for Seizures

Anticonvulsant Actions on IC Neurons

Anticonvulsant Actions on PAG and BRF Neurons

Anticonvulsant Actions on the Substantia Nigra Reticulata (SNr)

Emergent Properties: Differences between In vivo and In vitro Studies

Understanding Emergent Properties as Critical Drug Targets

“Anticonvulsant” Drug Effects on Networks for Multiple CNS Disorders

CNS Drugs and Long-Lasting Network Changes

Conclusion

References

Chapter 33. Future Trends in Neuronal Networks—Selective and Combined Targeting of Network Hubs

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

General Approach to Neuronal Network Exploration

Mechanistic Studies of Drug Actions on Networks

Specific Approaches to Neuronal Network Mechanisms

Network Effects of Competitive NMDA Receptor Antagonists

Generalized Convulsive Seizure Network

Absence Epilepsy Networks

Temporal Lobe Complex Partial Seizure Networks

Examples of Potential Future Applications

Conclusion

References

Color Plates

Index

Key Features

  • Utilizes perspectives and tools from various neuroscience subdisciplines (cellular, systems, physiologic), making the volume broadly relevant
  • Chapters explore normal network function and control mechanisms, with an eye to improving therapies for brain disorders
  • Reflects predominant disciplinary shift from an anatomical to a functional perspective of the brain
  • Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available

Readership

Neuroscience researchers, clinical neuroscience practitioners, neuropharmacologists

Table of Contents

Dedications

List of Contributors

Chapter 1. Introduction to Neuronal Networks of the Brain

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

“Silos” in CNS Network Research

Types of Network Interactions

Epilepsy as a Template for Network Studies

Network Technical Approaches

Computational Approaches to Neuronal Networks

Network Exploration Process: An Overview

Neuronal Network versus Neuroanatomy

Emergent Properties of Neuronal Networks

Mechanisms Responsible for Network Control

Neuroplasticity

Emergent Properties of Networks as Therapeutic Targets

References

Chapter 2. Network Models of Absence Seizures

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Experimental Characterization of Generalized Spike-and-Wave Seizures

Network Models of Spike-and-Wave Seizures

Testing the Predictions of the Models

Conclusions: A Corticothalamic Mechanism for Absence Seizures

References

Further Reading

Chapter 3. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Epilepsy: Methods and Applications Using Awake Animals

Abstract

Introduction

Setting Up and Imaging Awake Animals

Spatial Resolution and Neuroanatomical Fidelity

Data Analysis

Awake Seizure Studies

Summary

References

Chapter 4. Network Experimental Approaches: Inactivation, Microinjection, Neuronal Stimulation, and Recording

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Inactivation Techniques

Neuronal Stimulation

Neuronal Recording

Conclusions

References

Chapter 5. Network Experimental Approaches: Ex vivo Recording

Abstract

Introduction

Direct Synchronization via Chemical and Electrical Synapses in the Olfactory Bulb

Inhibition of Asynchrony in Spontaneous Activity of Hypothalamic Histaminergic TM Neurons

Stochastic Enhancement of Neuronal Excitability: Can a Single Ion Channel Excite the Entire Neuron?

Conclusion

References

Chapter 6. Network Imaging

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

The Relationship between Anatomical and Functional Connectivity

Network Properties and Measures

The Neuroenergetic Basis for Small-World Network Functions

Methods for Extracting Network Activity

Electrophysiological Activity is Related to Resting Functional Connectivity

Oscillatory Networks Can Be Measured by EEG and MEG

Networks in Cognition and Consciousness

Network Disruptions in Disease

Conclusion

References

Chapter 7. Network Control Mechanisms: Cellular Inputs, Neuroactive Substances, and Synaptic Changes

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Projection Neuron Inputs

Multiple Inputs

Electrophysiological Mechanisms

Neuroactive Substances

Cytokine Involvement in Network Control

Synaptic Strength Changes, Synaptogenesis, and Neurogenesis

Neurotropic Factors

Axonal Sprouting

Neurogenesis

Conclusions

References

Chapter 8. Volume Transmission and the Russian-Doll Organization of Brain Cell Networks: Aspects of Their Integrative Actions

Abstract

General Premises

Introduction

On the Structural Organization of the CNS

The Dichotomy Distinction between Wiring and Volume Transmission

Concluding Remarks

General Conclusion

References

Chapter 9. Electrophysiological Mechanisms of Network Control: Bursting in the Brain—From Cells to Networks

Abstract

Introduction

Mechanisms Underlying the Single-Unit and Local Field Potential–Measured Bursts

Neuronal Bursting: Seizures

Conclusion

References

Chapter 10. Network Control Mechanisms—Cellular Milieu

Abstract

Introduction

Effects of the Extracellular Ionic Composition on Neuronal Network Activity

Effects of Oxygen on Neuronal Activity

Effects of Osmolarity on Neuronal Activity

Effects of pH on Neuronal Activity

Effects of Temperature on Neuronal Activity

Effects of Glial Cells on Neuronal Activity

Extracellular Ions and Ex vivo Models of Seizure

Evaluation of Distance and Time Dependence of Drug Diffusion in the Extracellular Space

Conclusion

References

Chapter 11. Neuronal Network Mechanisms—Sex and Development

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Basal Ganglia

Corticothalamic Network

Conclusions

References

Chapter 12. Astrocytic Regulation of Synapses, Neuronal Networks, and Behavior

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Astrocytic-Neuronal Structural Association

Gliotransmission: The Release of Chemical Transmitters by Astrocytes

Complexity of Astrocyte-to-Neuron Communication

Vesicular ATP Release from Astrocytes and its Functional Consequences on Neuronal Function

Gliotransmission Modulates Network Activity and Cortical Rhythms In vivo

Astrocytes Regulate Sleep-Related Behaviors

Astrocytic Neuromodulation Contributes to Feedback Control of Breathing

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 13. The Fear Memory Network

Abstract

Acknowledgments

An Overview of Pavlovian Fear Conditioning

The Amygdala and Fear Conditioning

Synaptic Plasticity in the Amygdala and Fear Conditioning

Distributed versus Local Plasticity in the Amygdala

Plasticity beyond the Amygdala

Contextual Fear Conditioning

Turning Fear Off: Fear Extinction

Fear Learning in Humans and Its Relevance to Anxiety Disorders

Conclusions

References

Chapter 14. Orchestration of the Circadian Clock Network by the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

Abstract

Introduction

The Cellular Basis of Circadian Rhythmicity

SCN as the Master Clock

Input to the SCN

Gating of the SCN

SCN Output

SCN Control of Locomotor Activity

SCN Control of the Adrenal Gland

SCN Control of the Female Reproductive Cycle

SCN Control of the Pineal Gland

SCN Control of Metabolism

Circadian Rhythms in Health and Disease

Conclusions

References

Chapter 15. mTOR Signaling in Cortical Network Development

Abstract

Introduction

Background

Methods: In utero Electroporation

Current Research

Unanswered Questions and Future Research

Conclusion

References

Chapter 16. Network Control Mechanisms—Synaptogenesis and Epilepsy Development

Abstract

References

Chapter 17. The Brain and Spinal Cord Networks Controlling Locomotion

Abstract

Descending Control of Locomotion

The Locomotor Areas of the Brain for Selection of Locomotion

CPG Interneurons

Interneurons Identified on the Basis of Progenitor Domain

Sensory Control of Locomotion

Clinical Applications

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 18. The Brainstem Respiratory Network

Abstract

Functions of the Brainstem Respiratory Network

Anatomy of the Respiratory System

Dorsal Respiratory Group

Ventral Respiratory Column

Interactions with Other Networks and Reconfiguration for Airway Protection

Summary

References

Chapter 19. Visual Network

Abstract

Introduction

Retinal Circuits for Initial Visual Processing

Subcortical Visual Pathways

The Colliculo-Pulvinar-Cortical Pathway

The Primary Visual Cortex

Ventral and Dorsal Cortical Pathways for Visual Processing

The Neural Basis of Conscious Visual Experience

Loss of Visual Awareness following Localized Lesions in the Vision Network

Neural Correlates of Perceived Stimulus Properties

Conceptual Model: Brain Networks for Visual Awareness

References

Chapter 20. Auditory Neuronal Networks and Chronic Tinnitus

Abstract

Acknowledgment

Tinnitus Phenomenology and Epidemiology

Processing Acoustic Information: The Auditory Pathway

De-afferentation and Homeostatic Compensation

Animal Models

Compensation and Overcompensation in the Brainstem

Loss of Inhibition

Auditory Cortex and Amygdala

Nonauditory Brain Areas

A Cellular Component of Tinnitus

Conclusions

References

Chapter 21. Consciousness and Subcortical Arousal Systems

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Acetylcholine

Norepinephrine

Histamine

Serotonin

Orexin

Glutamate

Dopamine

Conclusions

List of Abbreviations

References

Chapter 22. Networks of Normal and Disordered Sleep

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Mechanisms Involved in Waking (Figure 22.1)

Mechanisms Involved in NREM (SWS) Induction and Maintenance (Figure 22.2)

Mechanisms Controlling the Activity of NREM (SWS) Sleep-Inducing Neurons

Overview of the Neuronal Network Responsible for SWS (NREM) Sleep

Mechanisms Involved in Paradoxical (REM) Sleep Genesis (Figure 22.3)

Paradoxical (REM) Sleep-Generating Neurons: The Switch from Acetylcholine to Glutamate

Mechanisms Responsible for SLD PS-on Neuron Activation during PS

Neurons Inhibiting the GABAergic and Monoaminergic PS-off Neurons at the Onset of and during PS

Role of the MCH and GABAergic Neurons of the Lateral Hypothalamic Area in PS Control

Conclusion

References

Chapter 23. Networks for the Modulation of Acute and Chronic Pain

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Pain-Processing Pathways

Processing Changes in Chronic Pain

The mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA)

Discovery of the MPTA

MPTA Connectivity: Interrelationships with the Pain Control Network

Network Interactions and Therapeutic Implications

Summary

References

Chapter 24. Networks in Mood and Anxiety Disorders

Abstract

Acknowledgment

Amygdala

Hippocampus

Prefrontal Cortex

Basal Ganglia

Conclusion

References

Chapter 25. Neuronal Networks and Therapeutics in Neurodegenerative Disorders

Abstract

Introduction

Basal Ganglia

Parkinson's Disease

Essential Tremor

Primary Torsion Dystonia

Tourette's Syndrome

Huntington's Disease

Alzheimer's Disease

Conclusion

References

Chapter 26. Neuronal Networks in Epilepsy: Comparative Audiogenic Seizure Networks

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Developmental Epilepsy Networks

Networks for Absence Epilepsy Models

Networks for Epilepsy Kindling Models

Status Epilepticus Networks

Networks for Generalized Human Epilepsy

Forms of AGS

Genetic Forms of AGS Susceptibility

Induced Forms of AGS

Thyroid-Deficient Form of AGS Susceptibility

Ischemia-Induced Form of AGS Susceptibility

Alcohol Withdrawal (ETX)-Induced AGS Susceptibility

AGS Severity

Neuronal Networks in AGS

AGS Neuronal Network Studies

Blockade Studies of the IC in Induced AGS Models

Blockade of the IC in the Ischemia Model

The DLSC in AGS Networks

Role of the PAG in AGS Networks

The PRF in AGS Networks

Role of the Substantia Nigra Reticulata in AGS Networks

Forebrain Structures in AGS

Hierarchical Organization of the AGS Network

Conclusions

References

Chapter 27. Physiological and Pathophysiological Expansion of Neuronal Networks

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Neuronal Network Expansion Mechanisms

Conclusions

References

Chapter 28. Neuronal Network Plasticity and Network Interactions are Critically Dependent on Conditional Multireceptive (CMR) Brain Regions

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Common Characteristics of CMR Neurons

Specific Characteristics and Comparison of Neurons in Different CMR Regions

Interaction of CMR Regions

Conclusions

References

Chapter 29. Neuronal Network Interactions in the Startle Reflex, Learning Mechanisms, and CNS Disorders, Including Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Dual Network Interactions

Multinetwork Interactions

Conclusions

References

Chapter 30. Emergent Properties of Neuronal Networks

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Emergent Properties of Neuronal Networks

Types of Emergent Properties

Levels of Emergent Properties

Respiratory Networks of the Brainstem

Motor Control

Sensory Processing

Normal Brain State Transitions

Cognition and Memory

Neurological Disorders—Epilepsy

Psychiatric Disorders

Conclusions

References

Chapter 31. Neuronal Network Involvement in Stimulation Therapies for CNS Disorders

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Noninvasive Stimulation Modalities

Invasive Stimulation Modalities

General Neuronal Network Mechanisms of Stimulation Therapies

Conclusion

References

Chapter 32. Neuronal Network Effects of Drug Therapies for CNS Disorders

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

The Brainstem Reticular Formation Arousal Network

The Centrencephalic Theory of Generalized Epilepsy

CNS Drug Dosage

Mesoscopic Networks and CNS Drugs

The Brain You Anesthetize May Be Your Own

Drug Effects on Network Emergent Properties

Selective Effects of CNS Drugs: Therapeutic Doses

Drug Effects on Rhythmic Oscillations of the Brain

Pharmacological Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies

Drug Effects on Intact Neuronal Networks

Stimulant Drug Effects on Neuronal Network Neurons

Stimulant Drug Effects and Cognition

Depressant and Anesthetic Drug Effects on Neuronal Networks

Effects of Ethanol on Neurons in Neuronal Networks

Ethanol and Emergent Properties of Neurons

Effects of Anticonvulsant Drugs on Intact Neuronal Networks for Seizures

Anticonvulsant Actions on IC Neurons

Anticonvulsant Actions on PAG and BRF Neurons

Anticonvulsant Actions on the Substantia Nigra Reticulata (SNr)

Emergent Properties: Differences between In vivo and In vitro Studies

Understanding Emergent Properties as Critical Drug Targets

“Anticonvulsant” Drug Effects on Networks for Multiple CNS Disorders

CNS Drugs and Long-Lasting Network Changes

Conclusion

References

Chapter 33. Future Trends in Neuronal Networks—Selective and Combined Targeting of Network Hubs

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

General Approach to Neuronal Network Exploration

Mechanistic Studies of Drug Actions on Networks

Specific Approaches to Neuronal Network Mechanisms

Network Effects of Competitive NMDA Receptor Antagonists

Generalized Convulsive Seizure Network

Absence Epilepsy Networks

Temporal Lobe Complex Partial Seizure Networks

Examples of Potential Future Applications

Conclusion

References

Color Plates

Index

Details

No. of pages:
512
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124158641
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124158047

About the Editor

Carl Faingold

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Pharmacology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, USA

Hal Blumenfeld

Affiliations and Expertise

Departments of Neurology, Neurobiology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA

Reviews

"The book is a welcome and scholarly recognition of the growing importance of networks in neuroscience and neurological care." "Students and practitioners of Neuroscience, Neurology, Psychiatry, Pharmacology and Information Science as applied to the brain will find this to be a useful summary of systems data and a new conceptual framework." - Robert S. Fisher, MD, PhD, Professor of Neurology and Director, Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University Medical Center.

"This volume, edited by Carl Faingold and Hal Blumenfeld, focuses on neural networks – what they are, how we study them, and why they are important for understanding normal brain function and treating neuropathologies. The topic is timely and important. Indeed, there is a wealth of information (and a large number of ongoing studies) that deals with the identification and understanding of brain networks, and this volume attempts to bring much of that information together in a coherent package. Of particular importance is the concept of "emergent properties" of a network – characteristics of a network’s function that are not observed in the member elements and may not be predictable simply by looking at the members of the network…research on network modulation/disruption will contribute powerful new tools to our therapeutic armamentarium." - Philip A. Schwartzkroin, Ph.D., Professor emeritus, Department of Neurological Surgery University of California, Davis

"Many of the chapters provide outstanding thoughtful, timely, and information-packed reviews of interesting topics…this book will be useful and important to anyone interested in mammalian systems neurobiology, and especially to those to whom basic science/clinical implications matter deeply." - Roger D. Traub, M.D., Dept. Physical Sciences, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY