Neuronal Networks in Brain Function, CNS Disorders, and Therapeutics

Neuronal Networks in Brain Function, CNS Disorders, and Therapeutics

1st Edition - December 26, 2013

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  • Editors: Carl Faingold, Hal Blumenfeld
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124158047
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124158641

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Description

Neuronal Networks in Brain Function, CNS Disorders, and Therapeutics, edited by two leaders in the field, offers a current and complete review of what we know about neural networks. How the brain accomplishes many of its more complex tasks can only be understood via study of neuronal network control and network interactions. Large networks can undergo major functional changes, resulting in substantially different brain function and affecting everything from learning to the potential for epilepsy. With chapters authored by experts in each topic, this book advances the understanding of: How the brain carries out important tasks via networks How these networks interact in normal brain function Major mechanisms that control network function The interaction of the normal networks to produce more complex behaviors How brain disorders can result from abnormal interactions How therapy of disorders can be advanced through this network approach This book will benefit neuroscience researchers and graduate students with an interest in networks, as well as clinicians in neuroscience, pharmacology, and psychiatry dealing with neurobiological disorders.

Key Features

  • Utilizes perspectives and tools from various neuroscience subdisciplines (cellular, systems, physiologic), making the volume broadly relevant
  • Chapters explore normal network function and control mechanisms, with an eye to improving therapies for brain disorders
  • Reflects predominant disciplinary shift from an anatomical to a functional perspective of the brain
  • Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available

Readership

Neuroscience researchers, clinical neuroscience practitioners, neuropharmacologists

Table of Contents

  • Dedications

    List of Contributors

    Chapter 1. Introduction to Neuronal Networks of the Brain

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    “Silos” in CNS Network Research

    Types of Network Interactions

    Epilepsy as a Template for Network Studies

    Network Technical Approaches

    Computational Approaches to Neuronal Networks

    Network Exploration Process: An Overview

    Neuronal Network versus Neuroanatomy

    Emergent Properties of Neuronal Networks

    Mechanisms Responsible for Network Control

    Neuroplasticity

    Emergent Properties of Networks as Therapeutic Targets

    References

    Chapter 2. Network Models of Absence Seizures

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Experimental Characterization of Generalized Spike-and-Wave Seizures

    Network Models of Spike-and-Wave Seizures

    Testing the Predictions of the Models

    Conclusions: A Corticothalamic Mechanism for Absence Seizures

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 3. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Epilepsy: Methods and Applications Using Awake Animals

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Setting Up and Imaging Awake Animals

    Spatial Resolution and Neuroanatomical Fidelity

    Data Analysis

    Awake Seizure Studies

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 4. Network Experimental Approaches: Inactivation, Microinjection, Neuronal Stimulation, and Recording

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Inactivation Techniques

    Neuronal Stimulation

    Neuronal Recording

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 5. Network Experimental Approaches: Ex vivo Recording

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Direct Synchronization via Chemical and Electrical Synapses in the Olfactory Bulb

    Inhibition of Asynchrony in Spontaneous Activity of Hypothalamic Histaminergic TM Neurons

    Stochastic Enhancement of Neuronal Excitability: Can a Single Ion Channel Excite the Entire Neuron?

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 6. Network Imaging

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    The Relationship between Anatomical and Functional Connectivity

    Network Properties and Measures

    The Neuroenergetic Basis for Small-World Network Functions

    Methods for Extracting Network Activity

    Electrophysiological Activity is Related to Resting Functional Connectivity

    Oscillatory Networks Can Be Measured by EEG and MEG

    Networks in Cognition and Consciousness

    Network Disruptions in Disease

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 7. Network Control Mechanisms: Cellular Inputs, Neuroactive Substances, and Synaptic Changes

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Projection Neuron Inputs

    Multiple Inputs

    Electrophysiological Mechanisms

    Neuroactive Substances

    Cytokine Involvement in Network Control

    Synaptic Strength Changes, Synaptogenesis, and Neurogenesis

    Neurotropic Factors

    Axonal Sprouting

    Neurogenesis

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 8. Volume Transmission and the Russian-Doll Organization of Brain Cell Networks: Aspects of Their Integrative Actions

    Abstract

    General Premises

    Introduction

    On the Structural Organization of the CNS

    The Dichotomy Distinction between Wiring and Volume Transmission

    Concluding Remarks

    General Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 9. Electrophysiological Mechanisms of Network Control: Bursting in the Brain—From Cells to Networks

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Mechanisms Underlying the Single-Unit and Local Field Potential–Measured Bursts

    Neuronal Bursting: Seizures

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 10. Network Control Mechanisms—Cellular Milieu

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Effects of the Extracellular Ionic Composition on Neuronal Network Activity

    Effects of Oxygen on Neuronal Activity

    Effects of Osmolarity on Neuronal Activity

    Effects of pH on Neuronal Activity

    Effects of Temperature on Neuronal Activity

    Effects of Glial Cells on Neuronal Activity

    Extracellular Ions and Ex vivo Models of Seizure

    Evaluation of Distance and Time Dependence of Drug Diffusion in the Extracellular Space

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 11. Neuronal Network Mechanisms—Sex and Development

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Basal Ganglia

    Corticothalamic Network

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 12. Astrocytic Regulation of Synapses, Neuronal Networks, and Behavior

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Astrocytic-Neuronal Structural Association

    Gliotransmission: The Release of Chemical Transmitters by Astrocytes

    Complexity of Astrocyte-to-Neuron Communication

    Vesicular ATP Release from Astrocytes and its Functional Consequences on Neuronal Function

    Gliotransmission Modulates Network Activity and Cortical Rhythms In vivo

    Astrocytes Regulate Sleep-Related Behaviors

    Astrocytic Neuromodulation Contributes to Feedback Control of Breathing

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 13. The Fear Memory Network

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    An Overview of Pavlovian Fear Conditioning

    The Amygdala and Fear Conditioning

    Synaptic Plasticity in the Amygdala and Fear Conditioning

    Distributed versus Local Plasticity in the Amygdala

    Plasticity beyond the Amygdala

    Contextual Fear Conditioning

    Turning Fear Off: Fear Extinction

    Fear Learning in Humans and Its Relevance to Anxiety Disorders

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 14. Orchestration of the Circadian Clock Network by the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    Abstract

    Introduction

    The Cellular Basis of Circadian Rhythmicity

    SCN as the Master Clock

    Input to the SCN

    Gating of the SCN

    SCN Output

    SCN Control of Locomotor Activity

    SCN Control of the Adrenal Gland

    SCN Control of the Female Reproductive Cycle

    SCN Control of the Pineal Gland

    SCN Control of Metabolism

    Circadian Rhythms in Health and Disease

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 15. mTOR Signaling in Cortical Network Development

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Background

    Methods: In utero Electroporation

    Current Research

    Unanswered Questions and Future Research

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 16. Network Control Mechanisms—Synaptogenesis and Epilepsy Development

    Abstract

    References

    Chapter 17. The Brain and Spinal Cord Networks Controlling Locomotion

    Abstract

    Descending Control of Locomotion

    The Locomotor Areas of the Brain for Selection of Locomotion

    CPG Interneurons

    Interneurons Identified on the Basis of Progenitor Domain

    Sensory Control of Locomotion

    Clinical Applications

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 18. The Brainstem Respiratory Network

    Abstract

    Functions of the Brainstem Respiratory Network

    Anatomy of the Respiratory System

    Dorsal Respiratory Group

    Ventral Respiratory Column

    Interactions with Other Networks and Reconfiguration for Airway Protection

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 19. Visual Network

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Retinal Circuits for Initial Visual Processing

    Subcortical Visual Pathways

    The Colliculo-Pulvinar-Cortical Pathway

    The Primary Visual Cortex

    Ventral and Dorsal Cortical Pathways for Visual Processing

    The Neural Basis of Conscious Visual Experience

    Loss of Visual Awareness following Localized Lesions in the Vision Network

    Neural Correlates of Perceived Stimulus Properties

    Conceptual Model: Brain Networks for Visual Awareness

    References

    Chapter 20. Auditory Neuronal Networks and Chronic Tinnitus

    Abstract

    Acknowledgment

    Tinnitus Phenomenology and Epidemiology

    Processing Acoustic Information: The Auditory Pathway

    De-afferentation and Homeostatic Compensation

    Animal Models

    Compensation and Overcompensation in the Brainstem

    Loss of Inhibition

    Auditory Cortex and Amygdala

    Nonauditory Brain Areas

    A Cellular Component of Tinnitus

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 21. Consciousness and Subcortical Arousal Systems

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Acetylcholine

    Norepinephrine

    Histamine

    Serotonin

    Orexin

    Glutamate

    Dopamine

    Conclusions

    List of Abbreviations

    References

    Chapter 22. Networks of Normal and Disordered Sleep

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Mechanisms Involved in Waking (Figure 22.1)

    Mechanisms Involved in NREM (SWS) Induction and Maintenance (Figure 22.2)

    Mechanisms Controlling the Activity of NREM (SWS) Sleep-Inducing Neurons

    Overview of the Neuronal Network Responsible for SWS (NREM) Sleep

    Mechanisms Involved in Paradoxical (REM) Sleep Genesis (Figure 22.3)

    Paradoxical (REM) Sleep-Generating Neurons: The Switch from Acetylcholine to Glutamate

    Mechanisms Responsible for SLD PS-on Neuron Activation during PS

    Neurons Inhibiting the GABAergic and Monoaminergic PS-off Neurons at the Onset of and during PS

    Role of the MCH and GABAergic Neurons of the Lateral Hypothalamic Area in PS Control

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 23. Networks for the Modulation of Acute and Chronic Pain

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Pain-Processing Pathways

    Processing Changes in Chronic Pain

    The mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA)

    Discovery of the MPTA

    MPTA Connectivity: Interrelationships with the Pain Control Network

    Network Interactions and Therapeutic Implications

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 24. Networks in Mood and Anxiety Disorders

    Abstract

    Acknowledgment

    Amygdala

    Hippocampus

    Prefrontal Cortex

    Basal Ganglia

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 25. Neuronal Networks and Therapeutics in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Basal Ganglia

    Parkinson's Disease

    Essential Tremor

    Primary Torsion Dystonia

    Tourette's Syndrome

    Huntington's Disease

    Alzheimer's Disease

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 26. Neuronal Networks in Epilepsy: Comparative Audiogenic Seizure Networks

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Developmental Epilepsy Networks

    Networks for Absence Epilepsy Models

    Networks for Epilepsy Kindling Models

    Status Epilepticus Networks

    Networks for Generalized Human Epilepsy

    Forms of AGS

    Genetic Forms of AGS Susceptibility

    Induced Forms of AGS

    Thyroid-Deficient Form of AGS Susceptibility

    Ischemia-Induced Form of AGS Susceptibility

    Alcohol Withdrawal (ETX)-Induced AGS Susceptibility

    AGS Severity

    Neuronal Networks in AGS

    AGS Neuronal Network Studies

    Blockade Studies of the IC in Induced AGS Models

    Blockade of the IC in the Ischemia Model

    The DLSC in AGS Networks

    Role of the PAG in AGS Networks

    The PRF in AGS Networks

    Role of the Substantia Nigra Reticulata in AGS Networks

    Forebrain Structures in AGS

    Hierarchical Organization of the AGS Network

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 27. Physiological and Pathophysiological Expansion of Neuronal Networks

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Neuronal Network Expansion Mechanisms

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 28. Neuronal Network Plasticity and Network Interactions are Critically Dependent on Conditional Multireceptive (CMR) Brain Regions

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Common Characteristics of CMR Neurons

    Specific Characteristics and Comparison of Neurons in Different CMR Regions

    Interaction of CMR Regions

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 29. Neuronal Network Interactions in the Startle Reflex, Learning Mechanisms, and CNS Disorders, Including Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Dual Network Interactions

    Multinetwork Interactions

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 30. Emergent Properties of Neuronal Networks

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Emergent Properties of Neuronal Networks

    Types of Emergent Properties

    Levels of Emergent Properties

    Respiratory Networks of the Brainstem

    Motor Control

    Sensory Processing

    Normal Brain State Transitions

    Cognition and Memory

    Neurological Disorders—Epilepsy

    Psychiatric Disorders

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 31. Neuronal Network Involvement in Stimulation Therapies for CNS Disorders

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Noninvasive Stimulation Modalities

    Invasive Stimulation Modalities

    General Neuronal Network Mechanisms of Stimulation Therapies

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 32. Neuronal Network Effects of Drug Therapies for CNS Disorders

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    The Brainstem Reticular Formation Arousal Network

    The Centrencephalic Theory of Generalized Epilepsy

    CNS Drug Dosage

    Mesoscopic Networks and CNS Drugs

    The Brain You Anesthetize May Be Your Own

    Drug Effects on Network Emergent Properties

    Selective Effects of CNS Drugs: Therapeutic Doses

    Drug Effects on Rhythmic Oscillations of the Brain

    Pharmacological Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies

    Drug Effects on Intact Neuronal Networks

    Stimulant Drug Effects on Neuronal Network Neurons

    Stimulant Drug Effects and Cognition

    Depressant and Anesthetic Drug Effects on Neuronal Networks

    Effects of Ethanol on Neurons in Neuronal Networks

    Ethanol and Emergent Properties of Neurons

    Effects of Anticonvulsant Drugs on Intact Neuronal Networks for Seizures

    Anticonvulsant Actions on IC Neurons

    Anticonvulsant Actions on PAG and BRF Neurons

    Anticonvulsant Actions on the Substantia Nigra Reticulata (SNr)

    Emergent Properties: Differences between In vivo and In vitro Studies

    Understanding Emergent Properties as Critical Drug Targets

    “Anticonvulsant” Drug Effects on Networks for Multiple CNS Disorders

    CNS Drugs and Long-Lasting Network Changes

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 33. Future Trends in Neuronal Networks—Selective and Combined Targeting of Network Hubs

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    General Approach to Neuronal Network Exploration

    Mechanistic Studies of Drug Actions on Networks

    Specific Approaches to Neuronal Network Mechanisms

    Network Effects of Competitive NMDA Receptor Antagonists

    Generalized Convulsive Seizure Network

    Absence Epilepsy Networks

    Temporal Lobe Complex Partial Seizure Networks

    Examples of Potential Future Applications

    Conclusion

    References

    Color Plates

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 512
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
  • Published: December 26, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124158047
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124158641

About the Editors

Carl Faingold

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Pharmacology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, USA

Hal Blumenfeld

Affiliations and Expertise

Departments of Neurology, Neurobiology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA

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