Neuromodulation - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123742483, 9780080921396


1st Edition

Editor-in-Chiefs: Elliot Krames P. Hunter Peckham Ali Rezai
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123742483
eBook ISBN: 9780080921396
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 26th June 2009
Page Count: 1088
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Neuromodulation will be the first comprehensive and in-depth reference textbook covering all aspects of the rapidly growing field of neuromodulation. This book provides a complete discussion of the fundamental principles of neuromodulation and therapies applied to the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, autonomic nerves and various organs.
The textbook is highly structured and organized into overarching sections that cover chronic pain, movement disorders, psychiatric disorders, epilepsy, functional electrical stimulation, cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary and organ neuromodulation. The fundamental principles of electricity and infusion, neural tissue interface, biomedical engineering, neuromodulation devices, basic science, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, imaging and mechanisms are emphasized. In addition to providing details pertaining to the state-of-the-art current practice, innovative and emerging applications are discussed in specific chapters. Finally, the textbook provides specific chapters focusing on the technical aspects of the various neuromodulation procedures as well as technical specifications of various implantable devices.
All of the contributors to Neuromodulation represent leading experts in the field. The editors are internationally renowned in their respective fields of neuromodulation, pain management, functional neurosurgery and biomedical engineering. Neuromodulation will be the first and foremost authoritative text on neuromodulation therapies and will establish the gold standard that defines the field for years to come.

Key Features

Key Features

  • The first comprehensive reference on the emerging field of Neuromodulation
  • Editors and authors include all leading figures in the field, and the leaders of the International Neuromodulation Society
  • Over 90 chapters on topics ranging from a layout of the fundamentals (e.g. neuroanatomy, plasticity, bioelectrical effects, infusion therapies), solutions for the biomedical engineering challenges (e.g. materials, how to preserve normal function etc.), to a rundown of the existing applications and their future promise
  • Over 1200 pages in splendid full color, richly illustrated
  • Important areas of application include:
    control of chronic pain
    delivery of drugs to the nervous system via implanted devices
    control of epilepsy, Parkinson, etc.
    functional restoration, e.g. visual, auditory, restoration after stroke, restoration of motor function after traumatic events
    stimulation of body organs via neural devices (incl. the heart, abdominal organs, genitourinary organs)
    overview over newly emerging fields - control of obesity, blood pressure, tinnitus, brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases, brain-machine interfaces


Basic scientists and academic clinicians in neuroscience, particularly neurophysiology, behavioral neuroscience, sensory neuroscience (including audiology, ophthalmology, and particularly pain), neuroanatomy, neurosurgery, neurological diseases, as well as physiologists in Cardiology, Gastroenterology, Urology. Biomedical engineers Clinical specialists: anesthesiology, neurosurgery, neurology, neurophysiology, cardiology, gastroenterology, urology and orthopedics

Table of Contents

Prolog (Joseph Pancrazio)

SECTION I AN INTRODUCTION TO NEUROMODULATION Introduction Elliot S. Krames 1 What Is Neuromodulation? Elliot S. Krames, Ali R. Rezai, P. Hunter Peckham, and Farag Aboelsaad 2 Neuromodulation: A Historical Perspective Philip L. Gildenberg 3 Neuromodulation Technologies: Whom Do We Serve? Allen R. Dyer and Mary Pat Aardrup 4 Challenges in Moving Toward Product Development Paul Meadows 5 The Birth of an Industry James Cavuoto 6 Beginnings of the Societies Ross Davis, Philip L. Gildenberg, Giancarlo Barolat, Elliot Krames, Dejan Popovic, and Paul Meadows 7 Clinical Study Design Daniel B. Carr and Anthony Eidelman 8 Psychological Issues and Evaluation for Patients Undergoing Implantable Technology Daniel M. Doleys 9 Deep Brain Stimulation: Ethical Issues in Clinical Practice and Neurosurgical Research Joseph J. Fins SECTION II FUNDAMENTALS OF NEUROMODULATION Introduction Narendra Bhadra, J. Thomas Mortimer, and Hunter Peckham 10 Anatomy of the Nervous System Joshua M. Rosenow 11 Fundamentals of Electrical Stimulation J. Thomas Mortimer and Narendra Bhadra 12 Neuromodulation and Neuronal Plasticity Alon Y. Mogilner 13 Gene-Based Neuromodulation Thais Federici, Jonathan Riley, and Nicholas Boulis SECTION IIA MECHANISMS Introduction 14 Principals of Electric Field Generation for Stimulation of the Central Nervous System Warren M. Grill 15 Mechanisms of Action of Deep Brain Stimulation: A Review Kendall Lee, Charles Blaha, and Jonathan M. Bledsoe 16 Computational Modeling of Deep Brain Stimulation Cameron C. McIntyre SECTION III BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS Introduction Joseph Pancrazio and Hunter Peckham 17 Electrodes for the Neural Interface Dustin J. Tyler and Katharine H. Polasek 18 Implantable Neural Stimulators P. Hunter Peckham and D. Michael Ackermann, Jr 19 Designing a Neural Interface System to Restore Mobility John P. Donoghue and Leigh Hochberg 20 MRI Safety and Neuromodulation Systems Frank G. Shellock SECTION IV NEUROMODULATION FOR PAIN Introduction Elliot S. Krames and Andre Machado 21 Physiology and Pathophysiology of Chronic Pain Joshua M. Rosenow 22 The Endogenous Neuromodulation System Allan I. Basbaum, Joao Braz, Michael H. Ossipov and Frank Porreca 23 Management Strategies for Chronic Pain Rollin M. Gallagher Section IVA Intrathecal Therapies Introduction 24 Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS): A Review Kathleen Sluka, Howard S. Smith and Deirdre M. Walsh 25 Mechanisms of Spinal Cord Stimulation in Neuropathic and Ischemic Pain Syndromes Bengt Linderoth, Robert D. Foreman, Björn A. Meyerson 26 The Cost-Effectiveness of Spinal Cord Stimulation Richard B. North, Jane Shipley and Rod S. Taylor 27 SCS for Painful Neuropathies Giancarlo Barolat 28 Neurostimulation in the Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Joshua P. Prager 29 Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) for Pain Peripheral Neuralgia and CRPS Michael Stanton-Hicks 30 Occipital Neurostimulation (ONS) for Treatment of Intractable Headache Syndromes Richard L. Weiner and Kenneth M. Alo` 31 Subcutaneous Targeted Stimulation Teodor Goroszeniuk and Sandesha Kothari Section IVB Neuromodulation for Pain Introduction 32 Relevant Anatomy for Spinal Delivery Timothy R Deer, Matthew Ranson and Douglas Stewart 33 The Rational Use of Intrathecal Opioid Analgesics Elliot S. Krames and Mouchir Harb 34 Intrathecal Analgesics, Choice of System Marshall D. Bedder 35 Intrathecal Non-Opioid Analgesics for the Control of Pain Enrique Reig, David Abejón, and Elliot S. Krames 36 Compounding Intrathecal Drugs Richard L. Rauck 37 Intracerebroventricular Opioid Administration for Chronic Pain Katherine E. Groothuis and Robert M. Levy

Section IVC Intracranial Procedures for Chronic Pain Introduction 38 Deep Brain Stimulation for Pain Erlick A.C. Pereira, Sarah L.F. Owen, Alexander L. Green and Tipu Z. Aziz 39 Deep-Brain Stimulation of the Posterior Hypothalamus in Chronic Cluster Headache A. Franzini, G. Messina, M. Leone, G. Bussone, C. Marras, G. Tringali and G. Broggi 40 Motor Cortex Stimulation for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain J.P. Nguyen, J.P. Lefaucheur, S. Raoul, V. Roualdes, Y. Péréon, and Y. Keravel SECTION V - Movement Disorders 41 Movement Disorders: Anatomy and Physiology Relevant to Deep Brain Stimulation Brian Harris Kopell, Gregory F. Molnar and Bradley Hiner 42 Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease Karl Sillay and Philip Starr 43 Deep Brain Stimulation for Tremor Adam P. Burdick, Michael S. Okun and Kelly D. Foote 44 Infusion Therapy for Movement Disorders Joseph C. Hsieh and Richard D. Penn 45 Deep Brain Stimulation for Torsion Dystonia Ron L. Alterman and Michele Tagliati 46 Deep Brain Stimulation in Tourette Syndrome Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Yasin Temel and Linda Ackermans 47 Surgical Management of Hemifacial Spasm and Meige Syndrome Hyun Ho Jung and Jin Woo Chang 48 Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the Medial Thalamus for Movement Disorders: The role of the Centromedianum - Parafascicular complex Paolo Mazzone, E Scarnati and G Della Marca SECTION VI NEUROSTIMULATION FOR EPILEPSY Introduction Ash Sharan and Ali Rezai 49 Epilepsy: Anatomy, Physiology, Pathophysiology and Disorders David King-Stephens 50 Vagus Nerve Stimulation Arun Paul Amar, Michael L. Levy, Charles Y. Liu and Michael L.J. Apuzzo 51 Deep Brain Stimulation for Epilepsy Casey H. Halpern, Uzma Samadani, Brian Litt, Jurg L. Jaggi and Gordon H. Baltuch 52 Cerebellar Stimulation for Epilepsy Steven Falowksi, Ashwini D. Sharan, Amanda Celii and Ross Davis 53 Closed Loop Stimulation in the Control of Focal Epilepsy J. Smith, K. Fountas, M. Murro, Y. Park, P. Jenkins, D. Greene and R. Esteller SECTION VII Neuromodulation in Psychiatry Introduction Benjamin D. Greenberg 54 Electroconvulsive Therapy, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, and Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Depression Linda L Carpenter,, Margaret C. Wyche, Gerhard M. Friehs and John O’Reardon 55 Electrical brain stimulation in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder: parcellation, and cyto- and chemoarchitecture of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, a review Kris van Kuyck, Loes Gabriëls, and Bart Nuttin 56 Deep brain stimulation for highly refractory depression Benjamin D. Greenberg 57 Surgical Treatment for Refractory Drug Addictions Bomin Sun, Shikun Zhan, Dianyou Li, and Hemmings Wu SECTION VIII NEUROMODULATION FOR FUNCTIONAL RESTORATION Introduction P. Hunter Peckham 58 Stimulation for the Return of Hearing Blake S. Wilson and Michael F. Dorman 59 The Development of Visual Prosthetic Devices to Restore Vision to the Blind Muhammad Memon and Joseph F. Rizzo III 60 Stimulation for Return of Function after Stroke John Chae, Jayme Knutson and Lynne Sheffler 61 Cortical Stimulation for the Treatment of Motor Deficits following Ischemic Stroke Janna Silverstein and Robert M. Levy 62 Stimulation for Return of Upper and Lower Extremity Function Kevin L. Kilgore, Michael W. Keith and P. Hunter Peckham 63 A Neural Prosthesis for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Dominique M. Durand SECTION IX NEUROMODULATION FOR ORGAN SYSTEMS Introduction Elliot S. Krames 64 Neuronal Control of the Heart: Neuromodulation Jeffrey L. Ardell and Robert D. Foreman 65 Disorders of Pacing Thomas Dresing 66 Cardiac Pacemakers - Past, Present, and Future Guy Amit and Kara J. Quan 67 Cardiac Defibrillators Thomas Dresing 68 SCS for Peripheral Vascular Disorders Svante Horsch and Stefan Schulte 69 Spinal Cord Stimulation for Refractory Angina Mike J.L. DeJongste and Robert D. Foreman 70 Neuromodulation and Hypertension T.M. Mastracci and R.K. Greenberg 71 Neuromodulation of Cardiac Dysfunction Sandra Machado, Kwangdeok Lee and Marc S. Penn 72 Neural Control of the Colon Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld and Robert D. Foreman 73 Spinal Cord Stimulation for Gastrointestinal Painful Disorders Leonardo Kapural 74 Gastric Stimulation for Dysmotility Disorders and Obesity Cristian Sevcencu 75 Intestinal Electrical Stimulation: Methodologies, Effects, Mechanisms,and Applications Jieyun Yin and Jiande D Z Chen 76 Neurophysiology of the Genitourinary Organs William C. de Groat and Firouz Daneshgari 77 Sacral Nerve Root Stimulation for Painful Bladder Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis Adnan A. Al-Kaisy and K. Riaz Khan 78 Neuromodulation for Voiding Dysfunction Sarah McAchran, Raymond Rackley and Sandip Vasavada SECTION X NEUROMODULATION FOR EMERGING APPLICATIONS Introduction Elliot S. Krames and Ali Rezai 79 Deep Brain Stimulation for Obesity Michael Y. Oh 80 Deep Brain Stimulation for Blood Pressure Control Erlick A.C. Pereira, Alexander L. Green and Tipu Z. Aziz 81 Tinnitus Brian Harris Kopell and David Friedland 82 Brain and Cerebrospinal Fluid Infusion Therapies for the Treatment of CNS Disease Daniel J. Abrams 83 Deep Brain Stimulation for Cognitive Neuromodulation Nicholas D. Schiff 84 Novel Neuromodulation Approaches for Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Conditions Julie G. Pilitsis and Roy A.E. Bakay SECTION XI TECHNIQUES FOR IMPLANTATION Introduction Elliot S. Krames 85 Deep Brain Stimulation: Surgical Technique Andre G Machado, Alon Y. Mogilner and Ali Rezai 86 Spinal Cord Stimulation: Placement of Surgical Leads via Laminotomy - Techniques and Benefits Krishna Kumar, Goran Lind, Jaleh Winter, Shivani Gupta, Sharon Bishop and Bengt Linderoth 87 Peripheral Nerve Stimulation Michael Stanton-Hicks 88 Subcutaneous Peripheral Nerve Field Stimulation for Intractable Pain Giancarlo Barolat 89 Surgical Placement of Occipital Leads Richard L. Weiner 90 Surgical Technique: Intrathecal Medication Delivery System Implantation Joshua M. Rosenow 91 The Surgical Technique of Vagus Nerve Stimulator Implantation Jeffrey W. Cozzens Appendices


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About the Editor-in-Chief

Elliot Krames

Affiliations and Expertise

Pacific Pain Treatment Centers, San Francisco, CA, USA Medical Director, Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine

P. Hunter Peckham

Dr. Peckham is the Donnell Institute Professor of Biomedical Engineering and Orthopaedics at Case Western Reserve University and Director, Cleveland Functional Electrical Stimulation Center. The major area of Dr. Peckham's research is in rehabilitation engineering and neuroprostheses. He’s also the Founder for the Institute for Functional Restoration at the Case Western School of Medicine and the Co-Director of MetroHealth Rehabilitation Institute of Ohio. A holder of eight patents, he is a member of multiple councils, Dr. Peckham is also a fellow of the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering.

Affiliations and Expertise

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA

Ali Rezai

Dr. Rezai is currently executive chair and vice president of neurosciences for WVU Medicine. He also serves as associate dean and the John D. Rockefeller IV tenured professor in neurosciences at the WVU School of Medicine. Dr. Rezai has published over 150 peer reviewed articles, more than 30 book chapters, and serves on the editorial board of five journals. Dr. Rezai is currently the Past President of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons (CNS), the largest neurosurgical societies in the world, as well as the Past President North American Neuromodulation Society (NANS), and the American Society of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery (ASSFN).Dr. Rezai’s research focuses on mechanisms of neurostimulation, and developing neuromodulation devices and novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of neurological disorders.

Affiliations and Expertise

West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV USA


"This reference is the product of a varied and exceptionally diverse collection of multidisciplinary, leading experts in the field who have added their significant contributions to the field of neuromodulation." - Elmer "Al" Pinzone, M.D., M.P.H., in Practical Pain Management, October 1, 2009 

"Neuromodulation will be the go-to-it reference work for this rapidly expanding and fascinating field. The editors have assembled an all-star group of contributors who comprehensively cover all aspects of neuromodulation in the treatment of human disease and dysfunction." - John D. Loeser, M.D., Departments of Neurological Surgery and Anesthesiology, University of Washington, Seattle, USA

"The greater than 40 year history of scientific inquiry into the interface between neural tissue and therapeutic electrical fields or targeted drug infusion has resulted in a body of rapidly growing evidence for positive effects when these technologies are applied to selected patients who suffer from chronic neurological diseases. The editors of Neuromodulation have organized a definitive knowledge resource for this growing and complex field by assembling many of the world leaders in basic neuroscience, electrical engineering and drug infusion technologies, and clinical investigation. Any new paradigm in medicine, such as neuromodulation, deserves such an outstanding text to help the clinician and researcher to navigate through novel concepts, clinical outcomes and promising new applications." -Richard E. Kuntz, M.D., M.Sc., Sr. Vice President and President, Medtronic Neuromodulation, Minneapolis, USA

"As it has become possible to directly interact with neural tissue, neuromodulation as a new and very promising field of therapeutic approaches has emerged on a very steep path of development. Since the first applications to the treatment of pain with electrical stimulation numerous newly developed methods, including direct electrical stimulation and drug infusion, targeting neural tissue from the cortex to the basal ganglia, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves have made it possible to develop new very powerful therapeutic approaches to serious clinical conditions. Every new branch soon produces its own ramifications and the neuromodulation looks like a very fast-growing tree. This timely publication provides a global and comprehensive review of the current state of the art technology from new and exciting perspectives. This book will be a milestone in the development of neuromodulation." - Alim Louis Benabid, Member Institut Universitaire de France, French Academy of Sciences, French Academy of Medicine, Royal Academy of Medicine of Belgium, Professor Emeritus of Biophysics at the Joseph Fourier University in Grenoble, Scientific Advisor at French Atomic Energy Commission, Grenoble, France

"Neuromodulation therapy has advanced dramatically in recent years and promises to grow into a multi-indication modality that will help millions who suffer from chronic pain and other – neurological diseases.…As, the awareness, acceptance, and use of Neuromodulation technologies grow, the thoughtful publication and updating of reference books like Neuromodulation will play a vital role in the sharing of knowledge and best practices, enabling the modality to reach its full clinical potential.…This book draws from the giants of Neuromodulation who have contributed greatly to the field’s expansion. It broadly captures the wisdom of many talented and caring people and shares it with the world. We will use this book and its future updates as a core resource to further strengthen our educational programs. I thank the editors and authors for their vision and ambitious efforts in making this important book a reality." - Christopher G. Chavez, President, Neuromodulation Division, St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, USA

"Scientific progress is accelerated when ground breaking developments are put into context for the next generation to explore. The editors of Neuromodulation have assembled a foundation of evidence that will spur the curious minds of scientists, clinicians, researchers and industry. This document will lead to new discoveries that reinforce the spirit of innovation and challenge our current beliefs. Congratulations to the authors and editors on assembling a reference for the ages." - Michael Onuscheck, Senior Vice President and President of Neuromodulation, Boston Scientific Corporation, Boston, USA

Ratings and Reviews