Neurobiology of the Locus Coeruleus - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444813947, 9780080862132

Neurobiology of the Locus Coeruleus, Volume 88

1st Edition

Serial Editors: Charles Barnes Pompeiano O.
eBook ISBN: 9780080862132
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 21st November 1991
Page Count: 639
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Table of Contents

Recent volumes in Progress in Brain Research

List of Contributors

Preface

Section I. Anatomy of the Locus Coedeus

Its Afferents and Efferents

Chapter 1: Neurochemicals in the dorsal pontine tegmentum

Introduction

Methods

Results and Discussion

Conclusions

Chapter 2: Noradrenergic locus coeruleus neurons: their distant connections and their relationship to neighboring (including cholinergic and GABAergic) neurons of the central gray and reticular formation

Introduction

Efferent projections

Afferent connections

Relationship to neighboring cholinergic and GABAergic neurons

Chapter 3: Physiological properties and afferent connections of the locus coeruleus and adjacent tegmental neurons involved in the generation of paradoxical sleep in the cat

Introduction

Methods

Results

Conclusions

Chapter 4: Afferent regulation of locus coeruleus neurons: anatomy, physiology and pharmacology

Introduction

Afferents to LC: tract-tracing studies

Physiological characteristics of neurons antidromically identified from LC

Inputs to the pericoerulear area: innervation of LC dendrites, local LC afferents or separate circuits?

Neurochemical identity of afferents to LC

Cellular pharmacology of afferents to LC

Afferents to afferents: inputs to the nucleus paragigantocellularis

Conclusions

Chapter 5: Noradrenergic innervation of somatosensory thalamus and spinal cord

Introduction

Monoamine terminals in the somatosensory thalamus

Origins of brainstem projections to the thalamus

Direct innervation of spinothalamic tract neurons

Conclusions

Chapter 6: Efferent projections of different subpopulations of central noradrenaline neurons

Introduction

Efferents of NA subgroups revisited with transmitter-specific tracing methods

Conclusions

Chapter 7: Pontospinal transmitters and their distribution

Introduction

Results

Discussion

Conclusions

Chapter 8: The projections of locus coeruleus neurons to the spinal cord

Introduction

Evidence for projections of LC neurons to the spinal cord

Functional significance of coeruleospinal neurons

Conclusions

Acknowledgement

Chapter 9: Ultrastructural aspects of the coeruleo-spinal projection

Introduction

Anterograde tracing studies at the ultrastructural level

Ultrastructural identification of noradrenergic terminals in the spinal cord

The issue of non-synaptic transmission

The origin of the noradrenergic terminals in the spinal cord

Discussion

Section II. Properties of Locus Coeruleus Neurons

Chapter 10: Single-unit and physiological analyses of brain norepinephrine function in behaving animals

Introduction

Locus coeruleus neuronal activity in behaving cats

Modulatory actions of NE on a simple reflex

Discussion

Chapter 11: Synaptic potentials in locus coeruleus neurons in brain slices

Introduction

e.p.s.p.s: excitatory amino acid-mediated

i.p.s.p.s: GABA-mediated

i.p.s.p.s: glycine-mediated

i.p.s.p.s: noradrenergic / adrenergic-mediated

Opioids

Serotonin (5-HT)

Acetylcholine

Conclusions

Chapter 12: Developmental aspects of the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline system

Introduction

Electrical properties of LC neurons

Adrenergic responsiveness of LC neurons

Adrenergic receptors: responsiveness in LC target areas

Conclusions

Chapter 13: GABAA and GABAB receptors and the ionic mechanisms mediating their effects on locus coeruleus neurons

Introduction

Results

Conclusions

Chapter 14: Mechanisms of opioid actions on neurons of the locus coeruleus

Introduction

Acute actions of opioids

Opioid tolerance and physical dependence in LC

Conclusions

Chapter 15: Afferent effects on locus coeruleus in opiate withdrawal

Introduction

Activity of the locus coeruleus during opiate withdrawal

The role of afferent inputs to the locus coeruleus in opiate-withdrawal-induced activity

Chapter 16: Angiotensin II and the locus coeruleus

Introduction

Angiotensinergic input to the locus coeruleus

Angiotensin receptor binding in the locus coeruleus

Possible functions of angiotensin II in the locus coeruleus

Conclusions

Note added in proof

Chapter 17: Vasopressin immunoreactive fibers and neurons in the dorsal pontine tegmentum of the rat, monkey and human

Introduction

Methods

Vasopressinergic innervation of the pontine tegmentum

Immunoelectron microscopical analysis of vasopressin terminal profiles in the locus coeruleus of the rat

Vasopressin neurons in the locus coeruleus of the rat and monkey

Discussion

Chapter 18: Responses of locus coeruleus neurons to neuropeptides

Introduction

The effects of peptides on locus coeruleus neurons

Discussion

Chapter 19: Pharmacology of locus coeruleus spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity

Introduction

Effects of antidepressants on LC spontaneous discharge

Effects of antidepressants on LC sensory-evoked discharge

Effects of antidepressants on LC discharge elicited by stress

Chapter 20: Selective effects of DSP-4 on locus coeruleus axons: are there pharmacologically different types of noradrenergic axons in the central nervous system?

Introduction

Acute effects of DSP-4: evidence for a selective loss of noradrenaline from locus coeruleus axon terminals

Long-term effects of DSP-4: degeneration of LC axon terminals

What is the basis for the selectivity of DSP-4 for locus coeruleus axons?

Evidence that the differential effects of DSP-4 may be due to differences in the pharmacological properties of locus coeruleus and non-coerulean noradrenergic axons

Conclusions

Section III. Noradrenergic Influences on Target Neurons

Chapter 21: Autoradiography of adrenoceptors in rat and human brain: α-adrenoceptor and idazoxan binding sites

Introduction

Current classification of adrenoceptors

Autoradiographic strategy

Distribution of adrenoceptor populations

Conclusions

Chapter 22: Actions of norepinephrine in the cerebral cortex and thalamus: implications for function of the central noradrenergic system

Introduction

Actions of NE in the cerebral cortex

Actions of NE in the thalamus

Functional consequences of noradrenergic actions in the thalamus

Functional implications of noradrenergic responses

Evidence for and against a role of the central noradrenergic system in arousal

Conclusions

Chapter 23: Noradrenergic and locus coeruleus modulation of the perforant path-evoked potential in rat dentate gyrus supports a role for the locus coeruleus in attentional and memorial processes

Introduction

Dentate gyrus-evoked potential modulation by NE

Evoked potential potentiation by LC activation

Locus coeruleus unit activity and dentate gyms-evoked potential modulation

Implications for hippocampal functioning: NE facilitation of synaptic plasticity

Chapter 24: Actions of norepinephrine in the rat hippocampus

Introduction

Norepinephrine in the hippocampus: β-adrenergic actions

Norepinephrine in the hippocampus: α-adrenergic actions

Effects of enhanced NE release on hippocampal reactivity to afferent stimulation

α-Adrenergic modulation of hippocampal reactivity to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)

Chapter 25: The cerebellar norepinephrine system: inhibition, modulation, and gating

Introduction

NE as an inhibitory transmitter

NE as a modulatory neurotransmitter

NE as gating regulator

Conclusions

Chapter 26: Norepinephrine effects on spinal motoneurons

Introduction

Motoneuron recording

Effects of NE on spinal motoneuron excitability

Chapter 27: Second messenger-mediated actions of norepinephrine on target neurons in central circuits: a new perspective on intracellular mechanisms and functional consequences

Introduction

Effects of NE on spontaneous and stimulus-evoked spike train activity

Noradrenergic potentiation of GABA responses

Noradrenergic influences on GABA-induced membrane conductance changes

Candidate intracellular mechanisms for mediating NE influences on GABA efficacy

Functional consequences of NE enhancement of GABAergic synaptic efficacy

Mechanisms underlying NE interactions with excitatory synaptic transmission

Impact of synaptically released NE on functional neuronal arrays

Section IV. Control of Motor and Sensory Systems

Chapter 28: Central noradrenergic neurons: the autonomic connection

Introduction

The A5 noradrenergic cell group

The “adrenergic” cell group of the rostralventrolateral medulla

The A1 noradrenergic cell group and autonomic regulations

Noradrenergic cells of the nucleus tractus solitarius and area postrema

Locus coeruleus and autonomic control

General conclusions

Chapter 29: Descending noradrenergic influences on pain

Introduction

Adrenoceptor agonists and antinociception

Modulation of spinal nociceptive transmission by α-adrenoceptor agonists

The coeruleospinal projection

Termination patterns in the spinal cord

Modulation of spinal nociceptive transmission by coeruleospinal efferents

Physiological conclusions of LC / SC

Chapter 30: Locus coeruleus control of spinal motor output

Introduction

Electrophysiological verification of coeruleospinal projections

Potentiation of lumbar MSRs

Motoneuron responses to synaptically and iontophoretically released NE

Antagonism of recurrent inhibitory pathway

Presynaptic facilitation

Conclusions

Chapter 31: Responses of locus coeruleus neurons to labyrinth and neck stimulation

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

Chapter 32: Locus coeruleus and dorsal pontine reticular influences on the gain of vestibulospinal reflexes

Introduction

Results

Discussion

Chapter 33: Noradrenergic agents into the cerebellar anterior vermis modify the gain of vestibulospinal reflexes in the cat

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Chapter 34: Effects of GABAergic and noradrenergic injections into the cerebellar flocculus on vestibulo-ocular reflexes in the rabbit

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

Section V. Locus Coeruleus Influences on Higher Functions and Plasticity

Chapter 35: Discharge of noradrenergic locus coeruleus neurons in behaving rats and monkeys suggests a role in vigilance

Introduction

Background

LC discharge in unanesthetized rats and monkeys

Afferent circuits responsible for discharge properties of LC neurons

Effects of excitatory amino acid antagonists on morphine withdrawal behaviors

Effects of prefrontal cortex stimulation on LC activity

A view of LC function based on cellular attributes: the vigilance / response initiation hypothesis

Chapter 36: Electrophysiological evidence for the involvement of the locus coeruleus in alerting, orienting, and attending

Introduction

LC activation alters forebrain EEG characteristics

LC activation alters sensory responses of neocortical neurons

LC lesions alter monkey P3 event-related potentials

Interpretations and hypotheses

Chapter 37: The role of noradrenergic locus coeruleus neurons and neighboring cholinergic neurons of the pontomesencephalic tegmentum in sleep-wake states

Introduction

Distribution of noradrenergic neurons in the pontomesencephalic tegmentum of the cat

The role of noradrenergic and cholinergic pontomesencephalic neurons in waking

The role of noradrenergic and cholinergic pontomesencephalic neurons in paradoxical sleep

Conclusions

Chapter 38: Effects of local pontine injection of noradrenergic agents on desynchronized sleep of the cat

Introduction

Methods

Results

Histology

Discussion

Chapter 39: Facilitation of learning consecutive to electrical stimulation of the locus coeruleus: cognitive alteration or stress-reduction?

Introduction

Stimulation studies

Locus coeruleus projections mediating the behavioral effects of stimulation

Cognitive enhancement or decreased neophobia?

Chapter 40: Plasticity of sensory responses of locus coeruleus neurons in the behaving rat: implications for cognition

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

Chapter 41: Axonal sprouting of noradrenergic locus coeruleus neurons following repeated stress and antidepressant treatment

Introduction

Electrophysiological evidence for axonal sprouting of LC neurons following repeated mild stress

Functional significance of stress-induced sprouting of noradrenergic LC axons

The effects of antidepressants upon axonal regeneration of noradrenergic LC neurons

The functional implication of antidepressant-induced axonal sprouting

The mechanisms for axonal sprouting of central noradrenergic neurons

Chapter 42: Adrenergic regulation of visuocortical plasticity: a role of the locus coeruleus system

Introduction

Visual cortical plasticity: hypothesis and tests

β-Adrenoceptor as a key step

Involvement of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors

NA activation of β-adrenoceptors in adult cortex

Acute preparations: a new paradigm

Neural mechanisms of ocular dominance changes: critical evaluation

Conclusions

Chapter 43: Regulation of the development of locus coeruleus neurons in vitro

Introduction

Target regulation of [3H]NE uptake

The effect of the intracellular cAMP level on [3H]NE uptake versus [3H]GABA uptake

Discussion

Chapter 44: Alterations in the locus coeruleus in dementias of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease

Introduction

Material and methods

Fixation and immunocytochemistry

Computer-assisted quantitative morphological analyses

Results

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
639
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 1991
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9780080862132

About the Serial Editors

Charles Barnes Serial Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Veterinaty and Comparative Anatomy, Pharmacology and Physiology, Washington State University

Pompeiano O. Serial Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

Dipartimento di Fisiologia e Biochimica, Universitci di Pisa