Neuro-Ophthalmology

Neuro-Ophthalmology

1st Edition - January 1, 1938

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  • Author: R. Lindsay Rea
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483195636

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Description

Neuro-Ophthalmology provides information pertinent to the neuro-ophthalmological examination of the eye. This book discusses the anatomy and function of the eye as well as its various diseases. Organized into 17 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various equipment and methods used in the examination of the eye, including the Snellen's test type, a 13 dioptre lens, and electric ophthalmoscope. This text then discusses the principal reactions of the normal pupil, including the direct light reflex, reflex to accommodation, the spino-pupillary reflex, the psychical reflex, the orbicularis reflex, and the oculo-sensory reflex. Other chapters consider the anatomy of the muscles and nerves of the eye as well as it adnexa. This book discusses as well the condition of optic atrophy and its various types. The final chapter deals with the distinction between headache and neuralgia. This book is a valuable resource for ophthalmic surgeons and ophthalmologists.

Table of Contents


  • I. Equipment Necessary for the Examination of the Eye

    Test Types

    Lens

    Ophthalmoscopes

    Perimeters

    Scotometer

    Traveling Case

    II. The Pupil and its Reactions

    Anatomy of Iris

    Reactions of the Normal Pupil

    Afferent and Efferent Paths for Light Stimuli

    Wernicke's Hemianopic Pupil Reaction

    Hemikinesimeter

    Hippus

    Tonic Pupils

    Reflex Iridoplegia

    Argyll Robertson Pupil

    Fixed Pupil

    Appearance of Tabetic Iris

    Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Systems

    Anisocoria

    Humoral Transmission of Nerve Impulse

    III. The Muscles and Nerves of the Eye and Its Adnexa

    Extraocular Muscles

    Movements of Eye Muscles

    Paralyses

    Wolffs Kink

    Paralysis of Sixth Nerve

    Paralysis following Spinal Anæsthesia

    Diplopia in Arterio-Sclerosis

    Diplopia following Motor Accidents

    Oculo-Motor Nerve Nucleus

    Lenticular Ganglion

    Charlin's Syndrome of Nasal Nerve

    Neuralgia of Eye

    Paralysis of Facial Nerve

    Vidian Neuralgia

    Petrosal Nerves

    Lacrymal Gland

    Hypersecretion and Diminution of Secretion

    Causes of Ocular Palsies

    Situation of Lesions

    Nystagmus

    Etiology

    Binocular Vision

    Diplopia

    General Symptoms of Paralysis

    Special Symptoms

    Heterophoria

    Examination of Muscle Balance

    Conjugate Ocular Movements

    IV. Papillcedema

    Appearance of Normal Fundus

    The Disc in Papillcedema

    Occurrence

    State of Vision

    Measurement of Papillcedema

    Changes in Development

    Causation

    Pathology

    Etiology

    Pseudo-Papillcedema

    Recurrence

    Associated with Escape of Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Prognosis

    V. Optic Atrophy

    Primary and Consecutive

    Etiology

    Atrophy following Hæmorrhage

    Delayed Atrophy

    Hereditary Optic Atrophy

    Amaurotic Family Idiocy

    Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Types of Optic Atrophy

    Pathology

    VI. Visual Tracts and Cortical Representation of Vision

    Optic Nerves

    Chiasma

    Tracts

    Primary Visual Centers

    Medullary Optic Lamina

    Visual Cortex of Brain

    Central Connections

    Vascular Supply of Visual Pathway

    VII. The Interpretation and Location of Lesions in the Visual Pathway as Shown by the Perimeter

    Self-Recording Perimeter

    Confrontation Perimetry

    Lesions of Optic Nerve

    Lesions of Chiasma

    Quadrantic Hemianopia

    Lesions of Optic Tract, Lateral Geniculate Body and Geniculo-Calcarine Pathway

    Injury to Optic Radiations

    VIII. The Macula

    Structure

    Ophthalmoscopic Appearance

    Related to Diseases of Nervous System

    Infantile and Juvenile Amaurotic Family Idiocy

    Symptoms and Diagnosis

    Niemann-Pick Disease

    Familial Occurrence of Coloboma Associated with Apical Dystrophy of Hands and Feet

    Retinal Abiotrophy

    Macular Disease, Non-Familial

    Lowered Visual Acuity

    IX. Localizing Value of Ocular Symptoms in the Diagnosis of Diseases of the Brain

    Mid-Brain Lesions

    Tumours of Pineal Gland

    Pontine Lesions

    Syndromes: Weber's, Parinaud's, Benedikt's, Millard Gubler's, Foville's, Horner's, Gradenigo's

    Medullary Lesions

    Frontal Lobe

    Temporal Lobe

    Occipital Lobes

    Region of Third Ventricle

    Optic Thalamus

    Cerebellum

    Cerebello-Pontine

    Fourth Ventricle

    Cerebral Abscess

    Tuberculous Meningitis

    Pachymeningitis of Infancy

    Acute Leptomeningitis

    Epidemic Cerebrospinal Meningitis

    Encephalitis Lethargica

    Oculogyral Spasm

    Acute Serous Encephalitis

    Superior Encephalitis

    Strumpet's Encephalitis

    Extrapyramidal Syndrome

    Paralysis Agitane

    Parkinsonianism Sequel to Encephalitis Lethargica

    Arterio-Sclerotic Parkinsonianism

    X. Abnormalities: Congenital and Degenerative Subarachnoid Hæmorrhage

    Hepato-Lenticular Degeneration (Wilson's Disease)

    Kayser-Fleischer Ring

    Torsion Spasm

    Chorea

    Oxycephaly

    Dysostosis Cranio-Facialis

    Corneal Opacities with Bony Changes and Mental Deficiency

    Ocular Hypertelorism

    Morquio's Disease

    Osteitis Deformane

    Diabetic Exophthalmos Dysostosis

    Laurence-Moon-Biedl Syndrome

    Leontiasis Ossea

    Mongolian Idiocy

    Hydrocephalus

    Little's Disease

    Otitic Hydrocephalus

    Fractures of Base of Skull

    Dermoid and Hydatid Cysts of Cranial Bone

    Intracranial Aneurysms

    Subarachnoid Hæmorrhage

    Diagnosis before and after Rupture

    Intracranial Hæmorrhage in Infancy and Childhood

    Pulsating Exophthalmos

    Thrombosis of Cavernous Sinus, Superior Longitudinal and Lateral Sinuses

    Word-Blindness, Acquired and Congenital

    Mirror-Writing

    Mind-Blindness

    Amnesic Color Blindness

    Visual Hallucinations

    Albers-Schönberg's Disease

    Morgagni's Intracranial Hyperostosis

    XI. Tumours of the Optic Nerve

    Intraocular, Intraorbital and Intracranial Involvement

    Types of Tumor

    Hudson's Cases

    Endotheliomata

    Age Incidence

    Symptomatology

    Causes of Unilateral Exophthalmos

    Hertel's Exophthalometer

    Visual Fields

    Fundus Changes

    Defective Muscular Movement

    Enlargement of Optic Canal

    X-Ray Technique

    Skiagrams

    Tumors of Intracranial Portion of Optic Nerve

    Diagnosis

    Fields of Vision

    Radiography

    Inflammatory Pseudo-Tumors of Orbit

    Treatment of Tumors of Optic Nerve

    XII. The Region of the Optic Chiasm and Pituitary Body

    Principal Types of Chiasm

    Intrasellar and Suprasellar Tumors

    Aneurysms

    Chronic Basal Arachnoiditis

    Signs and Symptoms of Pituitary Disease

    Skiagram of Pituitary Fossa

    Table showing Differential Diagnosis

    Treatment of Pituitary Tumors by X-Ray Therapy

    XIII. Ocular Manifestations in Diseases of the Nervous System

    Syphilis of the Nervous System

    Third-Generation Syphilis

    Secondary Neurosyphilis

    Tertiary Meningo-Vascular Syphilis

    Hemiplegia

    Gumma of the Brain

    Tabes Dorsalis

    Congenital Neurosyphilis

    Juvenile Tabes

    Juvenile Paresis

    General Paralysis

    Retrobulbar Neuritis

    Disseminated Sclerosis

    Neuro-Myelitis Optica

    Migraine

    Ophthalmoplegic Migraine

    Epilepsy

    Primary Thyrotoxicosis

    Secondary Thyrotoxicosis

    Myasthenia Gravis

    Ocular Lesions associated with the Trigeminal Nerve

    Neuroparalytic Keratitis

    Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus

    Herpes Febrilis

    The Phakomatoses: Tuberose Sclerosis

    Lindau's Disease

    von Recklinghausen's Disease

    Spasmus Nutans

    Gerlier's Disease

    Chronic Progressive Ophthalmoplegia

    Hereditary Ophthalmoplegia Externa

    Irido-Cyclitis-Parotitis-Polyneuritis

    Uveitis with Associated Alopecia, Poliosis, Vitiligo and Deafness

    Spinal Cord

    Injuries

    Thrombosis

    Hæmatomyelia

    Klumpke's Syndrome

    Acute Anterior Poliomyelitis

    Acute Ascending Paralysis

    Subacute Combined Degeneration of the Cord

    Hypertrophic Cervical Meningitis

    Friedreich's Ataxia

    Marie's Ataxia

    Sanger-Brown's Ataxia

    Myelitis

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Syringomyelia

    The Amyotrophies

    Myotonia Congenita

    Myotonia Atrophica

    Cataract in

    Facio-Scapulo-Humeral Type

    MyopathiC Atrophy

    Neuritic Muscular Atrophy

    Functional Nervous Disease

    Neurasthenia

    Anxiety Neurosis

    Hysteria

    Traumatic Neurosis

    Psychoses

    Melancholia

    Paranoia

    Dementia Præcox

    Epileptic Insanity

    Delirium Tremens

    XIV. Affections of the Vegetative Nervous System

    Diencephalic Autonomic Epilepsy

    Cervical Sympathetic

    Homer's Syndrome

    Angioneurotic (Edema —Progressive Facial Hemiatrophy

    Surgery of the Sympathetic Nervous System

    XV. Ocular Manifestations of Head Injuries

    Classification of Cerebral Traumas

    Traumatic Orbital Aneurysm

    Ocular Symptoms

    Delayed Blindness

    Cranial Nerve Palsies

    Summary of Symptoms of Fracture of Base of Skull

    Extradural Hæemorrhage

    Subdural Hæmorrhage

    Chronic Subdural Hæmatoma

    Head Injuries in Children

    Corneal Reflex

    Arteriography

    XVI. Poisons Which Affect Vision

    Acetylcholine

    Alcohol

    Methyl-Alcohol Poisoning

    Arsenic

    Atropine

    Carbon-Monoxide Poisoning

    Cocaine

    Filix Mas

    Iodoform

    Lead

    Morphine and Opium

    Physostigmine

    Quinine

    Quinidine

    Optochin

    Santonin

    Sodium Salicylate

    Strychnine

    Sulphonal and Barbitone

    Tobacco

    Vitamins in Ophthalmology and Neurology

    Pellagra

    Beri-Beri

    Central Neuritis of Jamaica

    Diabetes

    Nervous and Mental Complications in Diabetes

    Diphtheria

    Cerebrospinal Fever

    Leprosy

    Botulism

    XVII. Headache and Amaurosis

    Headache and Neuralgia

    Intracranial Regulation of Pressure

    Pituitary Headache

    Migraine

    Intracranial Hæmorrhage and Thrombosis

    Gun Headache

    Subacute Serous Meningitis

    Encephalitis Lethargica

    Syphilis

    Ocular Causes of Headache

    Refraction

    Retinal Irritation

    Organic Disease

    Eyestrain

    Amaurosis

    Hysterical

    Brain Fatigue

    Malingering

    Neuro-Ophthalmological Examination of the Eyes

Product details

  • No. of pages: 590
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1938
  • Published: January 1, 1938
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483195636

About the Author

R. Lindsay Rea

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