Neuro-Ophthalmology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483168159, 9781483195636

Neuro-Ophthalmology

1st Edition

Authors: R. Lindsay Rea
eBook ISBN: 9781483195636
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st January 1938
Page Count: 590
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Description

Neuro-Ophthalmology provides information pertinent to the neuro-ophthalmological examination of the eye. This book discusses the anatomy and function of the eye as well as its various diseases. Organized into 17 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various equipment and methods used in the examination of the eye, including the Snellen's test type, a 13 dioptre lens, and electric ophthalmoscope. This text then discusses the principal reactions of the normal pupil, including the direct light reflex, reflex to accommodation, the spino-pupillary reflex, the psychical reflex, the orbicularis reflex, and the oculo-sensory reflex. Other chapters consider the anatomy of the muscles and nerves of the eye as well as it adnexa. This book discusses as well the condition of optic atrophy and its various types. The final chapter deals with the distinction between headache and neuralgia. This book is a valuable resource for ophthalmic surgeons and ophthalmologists.

Table of Contents


I. Equipment Necessary for the Examination of the Eye

Test Types

Lens

Ophthalmoscopes

Perimeters

Scotometer

Traveling Case

II. The Pupil and its Reactions

Anatomy of Iris

Reactions of the Normal Pupil

Afferent and Efferent Paths for Light Stimuli

Wernicke's Hemianopic Pupil Reaction

Hemikinesimeter

Hippus

Tonic Pupils

Reflex Iridoplegia

Argyll Robertson Pupil

Fixed Pupil

Appearance of Tabetic Iris

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Systems

Anisocoria

Humoral Transmission of Nerve Impulse

III. The Muscles and Nerves of the Eye and Its Adnexa

Extraocular Muscles

Movements of Eye Muscles

Paralyses

Wolffs Kink

Paralysis of Sixth Nerve

Paralysis following Spinal Anæsthesia

Diplopia in Arterio-Sclerosis

Diplopia following Motor Accidents

Oculo-Motor Nerve Nucleus

Lenticular Ganglion

Charlin's Syndrome of Nasal Nerve

Neuralgia of Eye

Paralysis of Facial Nerve

Vidian Neuralgia

Petrosal Nerves

Lacrymal Gland

Hypersecretion and Diminution of Secretion

Causes of Ocular Palsies

Situation of Lesions

Nystagmus

Etiology

Binocular Vision

Diplopia

General Symptoms of Paralysis

Special Symptoms

Heterophoria

Examination of Muscle Balance

Conjugate Ocular Movements

IV. Papillcedema

Appearance of Normal Fundus

The Disc in Papillcedema

Occurrence

State of Vision

Measurement of Papillcedema

Changes in Development

Causation

Pathology

Etiology

Pseudo-Papillcedema

Recurrence

Associated with Escape of Cerebrospinal Fluid

Prognosis

V. Optic Atrophy

Primary and Consecutive

Etiology

Atrophy following Hæmorrhage

Delayed Atrophy

Hereditary Optic Atrophy

Amaurotic Family Idiocy

Retinitis Pigmentosa

Types of Optic Atrophy

Pathology

VI. Visual Tracts and Cortical Representation of Vision

Optic Nerves

Chiasma

Tracts

Primary Visual Centers

Medullary Optic Lamina

Visual Cortex of Brain

Central Connections

Vascular Supply of Visual Pathway

VII. The Interpretation and Location of Lesions in the Visual Pathway as Shown by the Perimeter

Self-Recording Perimeter

Confrontation Perimetry

Lesions of Optic Nerve

Lesions of Chiasma

Quadrantic Hemianopia

Lesions of Optic Tract, Lateral Geniculate Body and Geniculo-Calcarine Pathway

Injury to Optic Radiations

VIII. The Macula

Structure

Ophthalmoscopic Appearance

Related to Diseases of Nervous System

Infantile and Juvenile Amaurotic Family Idiocy

Symptoms and Diagnosis

Niemann-Pick Disease

Familial Occurrence of Coloboma Associated with Apical Dystrophy of Hands and Feet

Retinal Abiotrophy

Macular Disease, Non-Familial

Lowered Visual Acuity

IX. Localizing Value of Ocular Symptoms in the Diagnosis of Diseases of the Brain

Mid-Brain Lesions

Tumours of Pineal Gland

Pontine Lesions

Syndromes: Weber's, Parinaud's, Benedikt's, Millard Gubler's, Foville's, Horner's, Gradenigo's

Medullary Lesions

Frontal Lobe

Temporal Lobe

Occipital Lobes

Region of Third Ventricle

Optic Thalamus

Cerebellum

Cerebello-Pontine

Fourth Ventricle

Cerebral Abscess

Tuberculous Meningitis

Pachymeningitis of Infancy

Acute Leptomeningitis

Epidemic Cerebrospinal Meningitis

Encephalitis Lethargica

Oculogyral Spasm

Acute Serous Encephalitis

Superior Encephalitis

Strumpet's Encephalitis

Extrapyramidal Syndrome

Paralysis Agitane

Parkinsonianism Sequel to Encephalitis Lethargica

Arterio-Sclerotic Parkinsonianism

X. Abnormalities: Congenital and Degenerative Subarachnoid Hæmorrhage

Hepato-Lenticular Degeneration (Wilson's Disease)

Kayser-Fleischer Ring

Torsion Spasm

Chorea

Oxycephaly

Dysostosis Cranio-Facialis

Corneal Opacities with Bony Changes and Mental Deficiency

Ocular Hypertelorism

Morquio's Disease

Osteitis Deformane

Diabetic Exophthalmos Dysostosis

Laurence-Moon-Biedl Syndrome

Leontiasis Ossea

Mongolian Idiocy

Hydrocephalus

Little's Disease

Otitic Hydrocephalus

Fractures of Base of Skull

Dermoid and Hydatid Cysts of Cranial Bone

Intracranial Aneurysms

Subarachnoid Hæmorrhage

Diagnosis before and after Rupture

Intracranial Hæmorrhage in Infancy and Childhood

Pulsating Exophthalmos

Thrombosis of Cavernous Sinus, Superior Longitudinal and Lateral Sinuses

Word-Blindness, Acquired and Congenital

Mirror-Writing

Mind-Blindness

Amnesic Color Blindness

Visual Hallucinations

Albers-Schönberg's Disease

Morgagni's Intracranial Hyperostosis

XI. Tumours of the Optic Nerve

Intraocular, Intraorbital and Intracranial Involvement

Types of Tumor

Hudson's Cases

Endotheliomata

Age Incidence

Symptomatology

Causes of Unilateral Exophthalmos

Hertel's Exophthalometer

Visual Fields

Fundus Changes

Defective Muscular Movement

Enlargement of Optic Canal

X-Ray Technique

Skiagrams

Tumors of Intracranial Portion of Optic Nerve

Diagnosis

Fields of Vision

Radiography

Inflammatory Pseudo-Tumors of Orbit

Treatment of Tumors of Optic Nerve

XII. The Region of the Optic Chiasm and Pituitary Body

Principal Types of Chiasm

Intrasellar and Suprasellar Tumors

Aneurysms

Chronic Basal Arachnoiditis

Signs and Symptoms of Pituitary Disease

Skiagram of Pituitary Fossa

Table showing Differential Diagnosis

Treatment of Pituitary Tumors by X-Ray Therapy

XIII. Ocular Manifestations in Diseases of the Nervous System

Syphilis of the Nervous System

Third-Generation Syphilis

Secondary Neurosyphilis

Tertiary Meningo-Vascular Syphilis

Hemiplegia

Gumma of the Brain

Tabes Dorsalis

Congenital Neurosyphilis

Juvenile Tabes

Juvenile Paresis

General Paralysis

Retrobulbar Neuritis

Disseminated Sclerosis

Neuro-Myelitis Optica

Migraine

Ophthalmoplegic Migraine

Epilepsy

Primary Thyrotoxicosis

Secondary Thyrotoxicosis

Myasthenia Gravis

Ocular Lesions associated with the Trigeminal Nerve

Neuroparalytic Keratitis

Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus

Herpes Febrilis

The Phakomatoses: Tuberose Sclerosis

Lindau's Disease

von Recklinghausen's Disease

Spasmus Nutans

Gerlier's Disease

Chronic Progressive Ophthalmoplegia

Hereditary Ophthalmoplegia Externa

Irido-Cyclitis-Parotitis-Polyneuritis

Uveitis with Associated Alopecia, Poliosis, Vitiligo and Deafness

Spinal Cord

Injuries

Thrombosis

Hæmatomyelia

Klumpke's Syndrome

Acute Anterior Poliomyelitis

Acute Ascending Paralysis

Subacute Combined Degeneration of the Cord

Hypertrophic Cervical Meningitis

Friedreich's Ataxia

Marie's Ataxia

Sanger-Brown's Ataxia

Myelitis

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Syringomyelia

The Amyotrophies

Myotonia Congenita

Myotonia Atrophica

Cataract in

Facio-Scapulo-Humeral Type

MyopathiC Atrophy

Neuritic Muscular Atrophy

Functional Nervous Disease

Neurasthenia

Anxiety Neurosis

Hysteria

Traumatic Neurosis

Psychoses

Melancholia

Paranoia

Dementia Præcox

Epileptic Insanity

Delirium Tremens

XIV. Affections of the Vegetative Nervous System

Diencephalic Autonomic Epilepsy

Cervical Sympathetic

Homer's Syndrome

Angioneurotic (Edema —Progressive Facial Hemiatrophy

Surgery of the Sympathetic Nervous System

XV. Ocular Manifestations of Head Injuries

Classification of Cerebral Traumas

Traumatic Orbital Aneurysm

Ocular Symptoms

Delayed Blindness

Cranial Nerve Palsies

Summary of Symptoms of Fracture of Base of Skull

Extradural Hæemorrhage

Subdural Hæmorrhage

Chronic Subdural Hæmatoma

Head Injuries in Children

Corneal Reflex

Arteriography

XVI. Poisons Which Affect Vision

Acetylcholine

Alcohol

Methyl-Alcohol Poisoning

Arsenic

Atropine

Carbon-Monoxide Poisoning

Cocaine

Filix Mas

Iodoform

Lead

Morphine and Opium

Physostigmine

Quinine

Quinidine

Optochin

Santonin

Sodium Salicylate

Strychnine

Sulphonal and Barbitone

Tobacco

Vitamins in Ophthalmology and Neurology

Pellagra

Beri-Beri

Central Neuritis of Jamaica

Diabetes

Nervous and Mental Complications in Diabetes

Diphtheria

Cerebrospinal Fever

Leprosy

Botulism

XVII. Headache and Amaurosis

Headache and Neuralgia

Intracranial Regulation of Pressure

Pituitary Headache

Migraine

Intracranial Hæmorrhage and Thrombosis

Gun Headache

Subacute Serous Meningitis

Encephalitis Lethargica

Syphilis

Ocular Causes of Headache

Refraction

Retinal Irritation

Organic Disease

Eyestrain

Amaurosis

Hysterical

Brain Fatigue

Malingering

Neuro-Ophthalmological Examination of the Eyes

Details

No. of pages:
590
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 2038
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483195636

About the Author

R. Lindsay Rea

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