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Nerves and Nerve Injuries - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124103900, 9780124104471

Nerves and Nerve Injuries

1st Edition

Vol 1: History, Embryology, Anatomy, Imaging, and Diagnostics

Editors: R. Shane Tubbs Elias Rizk Mohammadali Shoja Marios Loukas Nicholas Barbaro Robert Spinner
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124103900
eBook ISBN: 9780124104471
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 15th April 2015
Page Count: 700
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Nerves and Nerve Injuries is the first comprehensive work devoted to the nerves of the body. An indispensable work for anyone studying the nerves or treating patients with nerve injuries, these books will become the ‘go to’ resource in the field. The nerves are treated in a systematic manner, discussing details such as their anatomy (both macro- and microscopic), physiology, examination (physical and imaging), pathology, and clinical and surgical interventions. The authors contributing their expertise are international experts on the subject. The books cover topics from detailed nerve anatomy and embryology to cutting-edge knowledge related to treatment, disease and mathematical modeling of the nerves.

Nerves and Nerve Injuries Volume 1 focuses on the history of nerves, embryology, anatomy, imaging, and diagnostics. This volume provides a greatly detailed overview of the anatomy of the peripheral and cranial nerves as well as comprehensive details of imaging modalities and diagnostic tests.

Key Features

  • Detailed anatomy of the peripheral and cranial nerves including their history and ultrastructure
  • Comprehensive details of the imaging modalities and diagnostic tests used for viewing and investigating the nerves
  • Authored by leaders in the field around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available


Advanced students, researchers and clinicians; neuroanatomists, neurosurgeons, neurologists, pathologists, clinicians dealing with pathology of the PNS

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Part I: History, Histology and Development of the Peripheral Nerves
    • Chapter 1: History of the Peripheral and Cranial Nerves
      • Abstract
      • Some Further Historical Concepts Related to Peripheral Nerve Anastomosis
      • Further Thoughts on Peripheral Nerve Tumors
      • Classification of the Different Grades of Peripheral Nerve Injury and Introduction of Electrophysiological Techniques for the Assessment of Nerve Injuries
    • Chapter 2: History of Peripheral Nerve Repair
      • Abstract
    • Chapter 3: Embryology of the Peripheral Nerves
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Histology of a Peripheral Nerve
      • Embryology of the Connective Tissue Component of Peripheral Nerves
      • Embryology of Peripheral Nerves
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 4: Development of the Cranial Nerves
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • What are the Cranial Nerves?
      • General Points of Central Nervous System Development and Cranial Nerves
      • Specific Actors of Cranial Nerve Development
      • Molecular Aspects of Cranial Nerve Development
      • Congenital Diseases of the Cranial Nerves
    • Chapter 5: Comparative Anatomy of the Peripheral Nerves
      • Abstract
      • Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
      • Brachial Plexus
      • Lumbar and Sacral Plexuses
      • Birds
      • Reptiles and Amphibians
    • Chapter 6: Histologic Examination of Peripheral Nerves
      • Abstract
      • Characteristics of Microscopic Features of a Peripheral Nerve for Histological Techniques
      • Classical Histological Techniques Used in Light Microscopy
      • Peripheral Nerves and Transmission Electron Microscopy
      • Peripheral Nerves and Scanning Electron Microscopy
    • Chapter 7: Microscopic Morphology and Ultrastructure of Human Peripheral Nerves
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Axons
      • The Covering Layers of the Peripheral Nerves
      • Topograms in Peripheral Nerves
      • Blood Supply
    • Chapter 8: Nerve Fiber Types
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Myelinated and Nonmyelinated Nerve Fibers
      • Afferent and Efferent Nerve Fibers
      • Type A, B, and C of Nerve Fibers
      • The Vagus Nerve as an Example of Complex Peripheral Nerve
  • Part II: Testing/Diagnostic
    • Chapter 9: Techniques for Intraoperative Peripheral Nerve Assessment and Implications for Treatment
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Basics of Surgery for Nerve Injuries
      • Intraoperative Techniques
      • Histochemical and Radioisotopic Analysis
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 10: Nerve Conduction Studies and Needle EMG
      • Abstract
      • Nerve Conduction Studies
      • Needle EMG
      • Application of Nerve Conduction Studies and Needle EMG to Clinical Diagnosis
    • Chapter 11: Regional Nerve Blocks of the Head and Neck
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Medications
      • Benefits
      • Complications
      • Other points
      • Anatomy
      • Overview of the trigeminal nerve
    • Chapter 12: Principles of Major Nerve Blockade for the Perioperative Clinician: Indications, Common Side Effects, and Complications
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Interscalene Brachial Plexus Block
      • Axillary Brachial Plexus Block
      • Femoral
      • Sciatic Nerve Block
    • Chapter 13: Imaging of Entrapped Peripheral Nerves
      • Abstract
      • Upper Extremity
      • Lower Extremity
    • Chapter 14: Imaging Anatomy of the Cranial Nerves
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Technical Considerations for Imaging the Cranial Nerves
      • General Remarks About the Pathology of the Cranial Nerves
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 15: Clinical Examination of the Cranial Nerves
      • Abstract
      • Cranial Nerve II
      • Cranial Nerves II & III: The Pupils
      • Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI
      • Cranial Nerve XI
      • Cranial Nerve XII
      • Cranial Nerve V
      • Cranial Nerve VII
      • Cranial Nerves V & VII: The Corneal Reflex
      • Cranial Nerves IX & X
      • Cranial Nerve VIII
      • Cranial Nerve I
      • Correlative Anatomy
      • Cranial Nerve II
      • Cranial Nerves II & III: Anatomy of the Pupils
      • Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI: Anatomy
      • Cranial Nerve XII
      • Cranial Nerve XI
      • Cranial Nerve V
      • Cranial Nerve VII
      • Cranial Nerves IX & X
      • Cranial Nerve VIII
      • Cranial Nerve I
    • Chapter 16: Ultrasound of the Peripheral Nerves
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Relevant US Basics
      • Diagnostic Ultrasound of Peripheral Nerves
      • Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia
      • Intraneural Injection—Potential for Nerve Damage
    • Chapter 17: Anesthesia of the Peripheral Nerves
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Overview of Peripheral Nerve Blockade
      • The Magnitude of Risk of Nerve Injury
      • Mechanisms of Nerve Injury in Peripheral Nerve Blockade
      • Strategies for Risk Reduction in Peripheral Nerve Blockade
      • Diagnosis and Management of Neurologic Injury After Peripheral Nerve Blockade
      • Conclusion
  • Part III: Anatomy of the Cranial Nerves
    • Chapter 18: Anatomy of the Olfactory Nerves
      • Abstract
      • Olfactory Epithelium
      • Olfactory Bulb
      • Olfactory Tract
      • Blood Supply
      • Variations
      • Injury
    • Chapter 19: Anatomy of the Optic Nerve and Visual Pathway
      • Abstract
      • The Optic Nerve and Visual Pathway
      • Optic Nerve Physiology
      • Optic Nerve Pathology
      • Evaluation of Optic Nerve Disease
      • Electrophysiologic Testing of Optic Nerve Disease
      • Laboratory Evaluation of Optic Nerve Disease
      • Management of Optic Neuropathies
    • Chapter 20: The Oculomotor Nerve
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Oculomotor Nerve Tract Overview
      • Oculomotor and Edinger-Westphal Nuclei
      • Oculomotor Nerve Fascicles
      • Subarachnoid Cistern
      • Cavernous Sinus
      • Orbit
      • Oculomotor Nerve Palsy—Mechanism of Injuries
    • Chapter 21: Anatomy of the Trochlear Nerve
      • Abstract
      • Segments of the Trochlear Nerve
    • Chapter 22: Anatomy of the Trigeminal Nerve
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Peripheral Anatomy
      • Central Anatomy
      • Lesions of the Trigeminal Nerve
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 23: Anatomy of the Abducens Nerve
      • Abstract
      • Subarachnoid or Cisternal Segment
      • Petroclival (Gulfar) Segment
      • Intracavernous Segment
      • Fissural Segment
      • Intraconal Segment
      • Anatomic Variations of the Abducens Nerve
      • Blood Supply
      • Abducens Nerve Palsy
    • Chapter 24: Anatomy of the Facial Nerve
      • Abstract
    • Chapter 25: Anatomy of the Vestibulocochlear Nerve
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Anatomy
      • Sensorineural Hearing Loss
      • Schwannomas
      • Vestibular Neuritis
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 26: Anatomy of the Glossopharyngeal Nerve
      • Abstract
      • Tympanic Branch
      • Lesser Petrosal Nerve
      • Otic Ganglion
      • Carotid Branches
      • Pharyngeal Branches
      • Muscular Branches
      • Tonsillar Branches
      • Lingual Branches
      • Meningeal Branches
      • Variations of the Glossopharyngeal Nerve
      • Relationships
      • Relationships and Course
      • Glossopharyngeal to Facial Nerve Connections
      • Glossopharyngeal to Vagus Nerve Connections
      • Arnold’s Nerve and its Communications
      • Injury
    • Chapter 27: Anatomy of the Vagus Nerve
      • Abstract
      • History of the Vagus Nerve
      • Overview of Anatomical Course
      • Origin
      • Jugular Foramen
      • Neck
      • Intrathoracic
      • Intra-abdominal
      • Branches
      • Similarities Between the Glossopharyngeal and Vagus Nerves
      • Fiber Types and Functional Components
      • Afferent
      • Efferent
      • Neurological Physical Exam
      • Testing
    • Chapter 28: The Accessory Nerve (CN XI)
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Cranial Root of the Accessory Nerve
      • Chronological Studies of Note
      • The Accessory Nerve Proper
      • The Spinal Accessory (Transitional Nerve)
      • Summary
    • Chapter 29: The Hypoglossal Nerve
      • Abstract
      • Gross Anatomy
      • Variations
      • Hypoglossal Tract
      • Function
      • Pathology
    • Chapter 30: Blood Supply of the Cranial Nerves
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Olfactory Nerve (I)
      • Optic Nerve (II)
      • Oculomotor Nerve (III)
      • Trochlear Nerve (IV)
      • Trigeminal Nerve (V)
      • Abducens Nerve (VI)
      • Facial Nerve (VII)
      • Vestibulocochlear Nerve (VIII)
      • Glossopharyngeal Nerve (IX)
      • Vagus Nerve (X)
      • Spinal Accessory Nerve (XI)
      • Hypoglossal Nerve (XII)
      • Conclusions
  • Part IV: Anatomy of the Spinal Nerves and Cervical Plexus
    • Chapter 31: Anatomy of the Cervical Plexus and Its Branches
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Lesser Occipital Nerve
      • Great Auricular Nerve
      • Transverse Cervical Nerve
      • Supraclavicular Nerves
      • Ansa Cervicalis
      • Phrenic Nerve
      • Muscular Branches
    • Chapter 32: The Dorsal Rootlets, Ventral Rootlets, Spinal Nerve, and Rami
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Ventral and Dorsal Rootlets
      • Spinal Ganglion (Dorsal Rootlet Ganglion)
      • Anatomy of the Spinal Nerve
      • The Four Branches of the Spinal Nerve: Anterior and Posterior Rami, and Visceral and Meningeal Branches
      • Ventral Ramus of the Spinal Nerve
      • Ramus Intermedius and the Thoracic Trunk Muscles
      • Discussion
    • Chapter 33: Anatomy of the Dorsal Root Ganglion
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Location
      • Blood Supply
      • Cervical Dorsal Root Ganglion
      • Thoracic Dorsal Root Ganglion
      • Lumbar Dorsal Root Ganglion
      • Sacral and Coccygeal Dorsal Root Ganglion
      • Pathologies of the Dorsal Root Ganglia
    • Chapter 34: Human Dermatomes
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Head and Neck
      • Upper Extremity
      • Trunk
      • Lower Extremities and Genitalia
      • The Basis of Various Dermatome Maps
      • The Evidence-Based Dermatome Map
    • Chapter 35: History of the Dermatomes
      • Abstract
      • History of the Dermatomes
    • Chapter 36: Anatomy of the Sympathetic Nervous System
      • Abstract
      • Autonomic Nervous System
      • Sympathetic Nervous System
      • Sympathetic Nervous System Divisions
      • Sympathetic Nervous System Injury
    • Chapter 37: The Microcirculation of Peripheral Nerves: The Vasa Nervorum
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Historical Background
      • Macroscopic and Microscopic Anatomy of the Peripheral Nerve
      • The Microcirculation of the Peripheral Nerves: The Vasa Nervorum
      • Venae Nervorum
      • Topographical Variations of the Vasa Nervorum: Specific Circulations
      • Physiology of the Vasa Nervorum
      • Surgical and Diagnostic Applications of the Vasa Nervorum
  • Part V: Anatomy of the Brachial Plexus and Its Branches
    • Chapter 38: Anatomy of the Ventral Rami, Upper Trunk, and Its Divisions and Branches
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • Introduction
      • Schematic Anatomy
      • Surgical Anatomy
      • Anatomical Variations
    • Chapter 39: Anatomy of the Medial Cord and Its Branches
      • Abstract
      • Medial Pectoral Nerve
      • Injury to the Medial Pectoral Nerve
      • Medial Brachial Cutaneous Nerve
      • Medial Antebrachial Cutaneous Nerve
      • Injury to the Medial Brachial and Antebrachial Cutaneous Nerves
      • The Ulnar Nerve
    • Chapter 40: Anatomy of the Lateral Cord and Its Branches
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • Introduction
      • Schematic Anatomy
      • Surgical Anatomy
      • Nerve Transfers and Grafts
      • Anatomical Variations
    • Chapter 41: Anatomy of the Median Nerve and Its Branches
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • Introduction
      • Schematic Anatomy
      • Surgical Anatomy
      • Anatomical Variations
    • Chapter 42: Anatomy of the Posterior Cord and Its Branches
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • Introduction
      • Schematic Anatomy
      • Surgical Anatomy
      • Variations in the Posterior Cord and Its Branches
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 43: Anatomic Landmarks for Selected Nerves of the Head, Neck, and Upper and Lower Limbs
      • Abstract
      • Scalp Nerves
      • Facial Nerve
      • Glossopharyngeal Nerve
      • Vagus Nerve
      • Spinal Accessory Nerve
      • Hypoglossal Nerve
      • Cervical Sympathetics
      • Spinal Nerves
      • Superficial Cutaneous Nerves
      • Phrenic Nerve
      • Ansa Cervicalis
      • Brachial Plexus
      • Dorsal Scapular Nerve
      • Long Thoracic Nerve
      • Anterior Interosseous Nerve
      • Axillary Nerve
      • Radial Nerve
      • Posterior Interosseous Nerve
      • Cluneal Nerves
      • Lumbar Plexus
    • Chapter 44: Clinical Importance of Anatomic Variation of the Nerves of the Upper Extremity
      • Abstract
      • Variation in Nerve Anatomy
      • Variation in Adjacent Anatomy
      • Conclusion
  • Part VI: Anatomy of the Lumbosacral and Pelvic Plexuses
    • Chapter 45: Anatomy of the Lumbar Plexus
      • Abstract
      • Ilioihypogastric Nerve (T12, L1)
      • Ilioinguinal Nerve (L1)
      • Genitofemoral Nerve (L1, 2)
      • General Mechanisms of Injury
      • Context of Injury
      • Effects of Injury
      • Lateral Cutaneous Nerve of the Thigh (L2, 3)
      • Obturator Nerve (L2, 3, 4)
      • Femoral Nerve (L2, 3, 4)
    • Chapter 46: Anatomy of the Sacral Plexus L4-S4
      • Abstract
      • Sciatic Nerve (L4, 5, S1-3)
      • Tibial Nerve (L4, 5, S1-3)
      • Common Fibular Nerve (L4, 5, S1, 2)
      • Deep Fibular Nerve
      • Superficial Fibular Nerve
      • General Mechanisms of Injury
      • Context of Iatrogenic Injury
      • Effects of Injury
      • Superior Gluteal Nerve (L4, 5, S1)
      • Inferior Gluteal Nerve (L5, S1, 2)
      • General Mechanisms of Injury
      • Context of Iatrogenic Injury
      • Effects of Injury
      • Pudendal Nerve (S2, 3, 4)
      • Posterior Cutaneous Nerve of Thigh (S1, 2, 3)
      • Perforating Cutaneous Nerve (S2, 3)
      • Nerve to Obturator Internus (L5, S1, 2)
      • Nerve to Quadratus Femoris (L4, 5, S1)
      • Nerve to Piriformis (S1, 2)
    • Chapter 47: Variations of the Lumbar and Sacral Plexuses and Their Branches
      • Abstract
      • Lumbar Plexus
      • Branches of the Lumbar Plexus
      • Sacral Plexus
      • Branches of the Sacral Plexus
      • Pudendal Plexus
      • Coccygeal Plexus
    • Chapter 48: Abdominal Pre- and Para-aortic and Inferior Hypogastric Plexuses
      • Abstract
      • Autonomic Nervous System: Overview
      • Visceral Plexuses of the Abdominopelvic Region
      • Visceral Pain Pathways of the Abdominopelvic Region
    • Chapter 49: Anatomy of the Coccygeal Plexus
      • Abstract
      • Embryology
      • Site of Origin
      • Termination
      • Innervation
      • Blood Supply and Drainage
      • Lymphatic Drainage
      • Variations
      • Injury
  • Index


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© Academic Press 2015
15th April 2015
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
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About the Editors

R. Shane Tubbs

R. Shane Tubbs

Dr. Tubbs is lead researcher in Pediatric Neurosurgery. He is Editor-in-Chief of the journal Clinical Anatomy, is author/editor of multiple books, and is a new editor for the 41st edition of Gray’s Anatomy.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Chief Scientific Officer, and Vice President, Seattle Science Foundation, Seattle, Washington, USA

Elias Rizk

Dr. Rizk is a neurosurgeon at the Penn State Hershey Medical Center with a clinical specialty in pediatric peripheral nerve surgery. He has multiple publications on the PNS and is active in basic science research regarding peripheral nerve regeneration.

Affiliations and Expertise

Neurosurgeon, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA, USA

Mohammadali Shoja

Physician and anatomist for the Department of Ophthalmology at the Indiana University School of Medicine who has written extensively in the field of anatomy and on the peripheral nerves.

Affiliations and Expertise

Children's Hospital of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA

Marios Loukas

Dr. Marios Loukas was appointed Chairman of the Department of Anatomical Sciences at St. Georges University Medical School in 2008. He is responsible for managing the anatomy department, developing curriculum, supervising research and inspiring scholarly activities. Under his guidance, the department publishes approximately 70 to 80 academic papers a year. In addition, Dr. Loukas is the University’s Dean of Research and Assistant Dean of Basic and Allied Health Sciences. Prior to joining SGU, Dr. Loukas taught anatomy, histology, and radiology at Harvard Medical School’s Department of Education and Development for seven years. He also taught anatomy at the American University of the Caribbean and was Course Director and Chairman of the Department of Anatomy for one year. Dr. Loukas served on the Student Evaluation and Promotion, and Faculty Evaluation Committees and was Chair of the Information Technology Committee at the American University of the Caribbean. Dr. Loukas has won several awards for research and teaching and has published over 300 works in a variety of publications including Gray’s Anatomy Review, Gray’s Photographic Dissector, and Netter’s Introduction to Clinical Procedures.

Affiliations and Expertise

Dean of Basic Sciences, Dean of Research, Professor and Co-chair, Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, St.George's University, Grenada WI

Nicholas Barbaro

Affiliations and Expertise

IU Health Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN, USA

Robert Spinner

Dr. Robert Spinner is a neurosurgeon in Rochester, Minnesota. He is affiliated with multiple hospitals in the area, including Mayo Clinic and Mayo Clinic - Saint Marys Hospital. He received his medical degree from Mayo Medical School and has been in practice for 25 years. He is one of 17 doctors at Mayo Clinic and one of 13 at Mayo Clinic - Saint Marys Hospital who specialize in Neurological Surgery.

Affiliations and Expertise

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

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