Neglected Factors in Pharmacology and Neuroscience Research

Neglected Factors in Pharmacology and Neuroscience Research

Biopharmaceutics, Animal Characteristics, Maintenance, Testing Conditions

1st Edition - January 1, 1994

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  • Author: V. Claassen
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483145891

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Techniques in the Behavioral and Neural Sciences, Volume 12: Neglected Factors in Pharmacology and Neuroscience Research: Biopharmaceutics, Animal Characteristics, Maintenance, Testing Conditions can be used as reference in the improvement of test designs for biochemists and physiologists in the control of test conditions. The book is divided into five sections. The introduction deals with the uncertainty of animal characteristics and test conditions as hindrances to the development of general insight into biological regulatory mechanism. The first section discusses biopharmaceutics — the interaction of drugs when interacting with molecules or enzymes in sufficient concentration at a specific site of action. The second section reviews animal characteristics in terms of strain differences, sex differences, and changes during development and aging of the subject. The third section discusses the maintenance of experimental animals such as housing conditions, food composition, and water intake as these kinds of environmental factors may shape the phenotype and responsiveness of the experimental animal. The fourth section explains the testing conditions such as metabolic effects and drug interactions, anesthesia, stress, and even the effects on circadian rhythms. The last section is a discussion on the importance of experimental results. This section covers internal and external validities and statistical inference. The author concludes that the design of any experiment should include a power analysis so that reliable and valuable conclusions can follow. Biochemists, physiologists, pharmacokineticists, toxicologists, chemical researchers, and others for whom drugs are their main focus of study will find this book valuable.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1 Introduction: Reproducibility of Animal Experiments

    Section A Biopharmaceutics

    Chapter 2 Intravenous Drug Administration

    Rate of Drug Administration

    Administration Volume

    Tonicity of Injection Fluid

    Drug Distribution After Intravenous Administration

    Plasma Drug Concentration


    Chapter 3 Intramuscular Drug Administration

    Intramuscular Depot and Drug Absorption

    Absorption from Aqueous Solutions

    Absorption from Oily Solutions

    Absorption from Suspensions

    Tissue Vulnerability

    Chapter 4 Subcutaneous Drug Administration

    Subcutaneous Depot and Drug Absorption

    Absorption from Aqueous Solutions

    Absorption from Oily Solutions

    Absorption from Aqueous Suspensions

    Pellet Absorption

    Chapter 5 Intraperitoneal Drug Administration

    Errors of Intraperitoneal Injections

    Drug Absorption Pathway

    Absorption from Aqueous Formulations


    Chapter 6 Oral Drug Administration

    Intraluminal Aspects

    Volume of Drug Solution

    Viscosity of Drug Solution

    Osmotic Pressure of Drug Solution


    Solubilized Systems

    Lipoidal Vehicles

    Solid Dosage Forms

    Section B Animal Characteristics

    Chapter 7 Inbred Strains and Outbred Stocks

    Inbred Strains

    Random-Bred Stocks

    Chapter 8 Male - Female Differences

    Oestrous Cycle

    Sex-Related Differences

    Chapter 9 Changes During Development and Aging

    Growing Older

    Pharmacokinetic Aspects

    Pharmacodynamic Aspects

    Toxicological Aspects

    Section C Maintenance of Experimental Animals

    Chapter 10 Housing Conditions

    Animal Cage and Animal Room

    Social Environment

    Chapter 11 Food Composition

    Diet Formulas

    Natural Ingredient Diets

    Purified Diets

    Diet and Biological Response

    Diet Monitoring

    Chapter 12 Food and Water Intake

    Food and Water Intake of Individually Housed Sedentary Animals

    Maintenance Conditions Affecting Feeding Behavior

    Variables Modulating Drug Effects on Feeding Behavior

    Section D Testing Conditions

    Chapter 13 Fasting

    Water Intake and Hypovolaemia

    Body Weight Loss on Food Deprivation and Food Intake on Refeeding

    Metabolic Effects

    Hormonal and Neuronal Adaptations


    Changes of Drug Effects

    Chapter 14 Food Restriction

    Adjustment to Restricted Feeding Schedules

    Adaptation to The Restriction of Energy Intake

    Metabolic Consequences of Restricted Feeding

    Effect on Circadian Rhythms

    Dietary Restriction and Longevity

    Effect on Pharmacokinetics

    Interactions With Drug Effects

    Chapter 15 Circadian and Other Rhythms

    Daily and Circadian Rhythms

    Other Rhythms

    Chapter 16 Anaesthesia

    Induction of Anaesthesia

    Effects on The Cardiovascular System

    Autonomie Effects

    Effect on Metabolic Processes

    Influence of Sampling Procedure on Blood and Tissue Composition

    Effects of Anaesthesia on Pharmacokinetics

    Influence of Anaesthesia on Drug Effects

    Chapter 17 Stress

    Stress Response to Preliminary Experimental Procedures

    Recovery from Acute Stress Experience

    Stress Response After Repeated Stress Exposure

    Repeated Handling

    Response Differences Between Naive and Experienced Animals

    Stress Responses In Dependence on Animal Characteristics

    Section E Import of Experimental Results


Product details

  • No. of pages: 500
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 1994
  • Published: January 1, 1994
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483145891

About the Author

V. Claassen

Affiliations and Expertise

Solvay Duphar BV, Weesp, The Netherlands

About the Editor

J.P. Huston

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