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Neglected Factors in Pharmacology and Neuroscience Research - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444818713, 9781483145891

Neglected Factors in Pharmacology and Neuroscience Research

1st Edition

Biopharmaceutics, Animal Characteristics, Maintenance, Testing Conditions

Author: V. Claassen
Editor: J.P. Huston
eBook ISBN: 9781483145891
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1994
Page Count: 500
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Techniques in the Behavioral and Neural Sciences, Volume 12: Neglected Factors in Pharmacology and Neuroscience Research: Biopharmaceutics, Animal Characteristics, Maintenance, Testing Conditions can be used as reference in the improvement of test designs for biochemists and physiologists in the control of test conditions. The book is divided into five sections. The introduction deals with the uncertainty of animal characteristics and test conditions as hindrances to the development of general insight into biological regulatory mechanism. The first section discusses biopharmaceutics — the interaction of drugs when interacting with molecules or enzymes in sufficient concentration at a specific site of action. The second section reviews animal characteristics in terms of strain differences, sex differences, and changes during development and aging of the subject. The third section discusses the maintenance of experimental animals such as housing conditions, food composition, and water intake as these kinds of environmental factors may shape the phenotype and responsiveness of the experimental animal. The fourth section explains the testing conditions such as metabolic effects and drug interactions, anesthesia, stress, and even the effects on circadian rhythms. The last section is a discussion on the importance of experimental results. This section covers internal and external validities and statistical inference. The author concludes that the design of any experiment should include a power analysis so that reliable and valuable conclusions can follow. Biochemists, physiologists, pharmacokineticists, toxicologists, chemical researchers, and others for whom drugs are their main focus of study will find this book valuable.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction: Reproducibility of Animal Experiments

Section A Biopharmaceutics

Chapter 2 Intravenous Drug Administration

Rate of Drug Administration

Administration Volume

Tonicity of Injection Fluid

Drug Distribution After Intravenous Administration

Plasma Drug Concentration


Chapter 3 Intramuscular Drug Administration

Intramuscular Depot and Drug Absorption

Absorption from Aqueous Solutions

Absorption from Oily Solutions

Absorption from Suspensions

Tissue Vulnerability

Chapter 4 Subcutaneous Drug Administration

Subcutaneous Depot and Drug Absorption

Absorption from Aqueous Solutions

Absorption from Oily Solutions

Absorption from Aqueous Suspensions

Pellet Absorption

Chapter 5 Intraperitoneal Drug Administration

Errors of Intraperitoneal Injections

Drug Absorption Pathway

Absorption from Aqueous Formulations


Chapter 6 Oral Drug Administration

Intraluminal Aspects

Volume of Drug Solution

Viscosity of Drug Solution

Osmotic Pressure of Drug Solution


Solubilized Systems

Lipoidal Vehicles

Solid Dosage Forms

Section B Animal Characteristics

Chapter 7 Inbred Strains and Outbred Stocks

Inbred Strains

Random-Bred Stocks

Chapter 8 Male - Female Differences

Oestrous Cycle

Sex-Related Differences

Chapter 9 Changes During Development and Aging

Growing Older

Pharmacokinetic Aspects

Pharmacodynamic Aspects

Toxicological Aspects

Section C Maintenance of Experimental Animals

Chapter 10 Housing Conditions

Animal Cage and Animal Room

Social Environment

Chapter 11 Food Composition

Diet Formulas

Natural Ingredient Diets

Purified Diets

Diet and Biological Response

Diet Monitoring

Chapter 12 Food and Water Intake

Food and Water Intake of Individually Housed Sedentary Animals

Maintenance Conditions Affecting Feeding Behavior

Variables Modulating Drug Effects on Feeding Behavior

Section D Testing Conditions

Chapter 13 Fasting

Water Intake and Hypovolaemia

Body Weight Loss on Food Deprivation and Food Intake on Refeeding

Metabolic Effects

Hormonal and Neuronal Adaptations


Changes of Drug Effects

Chapter 14 Food Restriction

Adjustment to Restricted Feeding Schedules

Adaptation to The Restriction of Energy Intake

Metabolic Consequences of Restricted Feeding

Effect on Circadian Rhythms

Dietary Restriction and Longevity

Effect on Pharmacokinetics

Interactions With Drug Effects

Chapter 15 Circadian and Other Rhythms

Daily and Circadian Rhythms

Other Rhythms

Chapter 16 Anaesthesia

Induction of Anaesthesia

Effects on The Cardiovascular System

Autonomie Effects

Effect on Metabolic Processes

Influence of Sampling Procedure on Blood and Tissue Composition

Effects of Anaesthesia on Pharmacokinetics

Influence of Anaesthesia on Drug Effects

Chapter 17 Stress

Stress Response to Preliminary Experimental Procedures

Recovery from Acute Stress Experience

Stress Response After Repeated Stress Exposure

Repeated Handling

Response Differences Between Naive and Experienced Animals

Stress Responses In Dependence on Animal Characteristics

Section E Import of Experimental Results



No. of pages:
© Elsevier 1994
1st January 1994
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

V. Claassen

Affiliations and Expertise

Solvay Duphar BV, Weesp, The Netherlands

About the Editor

J.P. Huston

Ratings and Reviews