Natural Hosts of SIV

Natural Hosts of SIV

Implication in AIDS

1st Edition - July 4, 2014

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  • Editors: Aftab Ansari, Guido Silvestri
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124051676
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124047341

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Natural Hosts of SIV: Implications in AIDS thoroughly reviews the possible mechanisms by which African nonhuman primate natural hosts of lentiviruses remain essentially disease-free while other hosts exhibit disease and death. The book ultimately indicates directions for further research and potential translations of this compelling phenomenon into novel approaches to treat and prevent HIV. When Asian non-human primate non-natural hosts are experimentally infected with viruses isolated from African species, disease and death normally results. Meanwhile, these African nonhuman primate natural hosts maintain similar levels of plasma and cellular viremia and exhibit compellingly different, essentially disease-free, states. This work attempts to answer the question of how the natural host remains disease resistant.

Key Features

  • Summarizes the past 30 years of research in this field and describes the latest developments in AIDS research using nonhuman primate animal models
  • Provides insights into how this large body of scientific work can be translated into novel approaches to treat and prevent HIV
  • Highlights the areas that merit future pursuit, focusing on potential applications for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection


Academics in the field of HIV/SIV research who are studying mechanisms of pathogenesis, vaccinologists, virologists, immunologists, epidemiologists, geneticists, primatologists, pathologists, and public health experts.

Table of Contents

    • Epigraphy
    • Introduction
    • Chapter 1. Comparative Studies of Natural and Non-natural Hosts of SIV—An Overview
      • Overview
      • Outlook
    • Chapter 2. History of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Discovery
      • Serendipitous Pathways to an AIDS Model and SIV’s African Origin
      • SIVMAC Emerged from the California National Primate Research Center Macaque Colony
      • Survivors of the Macaque Lymphoma Outbreak Sent to the New England and Washington Primate Research Centers
      • What’s in a Name? Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (aka STLV-III, STLV-IIIagm, and HTLV-IV)
      • Origins of SIVMAC from Kuru Experiments Using Asian Rhesus Monkeys
      • Bob Gormus at the Tulane National Primate Research Center Uncovers the African Origin of SIV
      • HIV-1 Ancestry Discovered in an Ex-Pet Chimpanzee in Gabon
      • Was SIVMAC the Ideal Model for AIDS?
      • Ancient Origins of the SIV Family in Africa Raise More Questions
    • Chapter 3. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in the Wild
      • Introduction
      • History
      • SIV Classification
      • Evolution of SIVS
      • How Long Were SIVS Present in Non-human Primates
      • Challenges to Study SIV Infection in Wild Non-human Primate Populations
      • SIV Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiology in African Non-human Primates
      • Transmission of Simian Retroviruses in Their Natural Hosts
      • History of SIV in Their Natural Hosts
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 4. Properties of Human and Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses
      • Introduction
      • Common Features of Primate Lentiviruses
      • Unique Features of HIV-1 and HIV-2 Related Primate Lentiviruses
      • Primate Lentiviral Coreceptor Tropism and Pathogenesis
      • Conclusions and Perspectives
    • Chapter 5. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)
      • Introduction
      • Distribution of SIVCPZ in the Wild
      • Origins and Age of SIVCPZ
      • Outcome of SIVCPZ Infection: Early Assumptions
      • AIDS in Wild Chimpanzees?
      • Comparison of SIVCPZ Infection with Other Models
      • Increased Pathogenicity of the SIVCPZ/HIV-1 Lineage?
      • Further Conflicts in the History of SIV Infection of Chimpanzees
      • Perspectives for Future Work and Conclusions
    • Chapter 6. Pathology of Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys)
      • Introduction
      • Taxonomy
      • Clinical Pathology
      • Bacterial, Mycotic, and Parasitic Infections
      • Viral Diseases
      • Metabolic Disorders
      • Aging and Degenerative Disorders
      • Neoplasms
      • Miscellaneous Disorders
    • Chapter 7. Gastrointestinal Immunity in Natural Hosts of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus
      • Introduction
      • CD4 T-Cell Depletion Occurs in the GI Tract of Natural and Non-natural Hosts
      • Mucosal Activation is Controlled after Acute Infection in Natural Hosts
      • Interleukin-17-Producing Cells are Preferentially Lost in the GI Tract during Pathogenic SIV Infection but are Maintained in Natural Hosts
      • Natural Hosts Produce CD4 T Cells that Can Perform Functions of CD4+ T Cells but are Resistant to SIV Infection
      • Mucosal B Cells in Natural Hosts
      • γδ T Cells
      • Natural Hosts Maintain the Structural Integrity of the GI Tract during SIV Infection and Thereby Avoid the Vicious Cycle of Microbial Translocation, Immune Activation, and Enteric Dysregulation
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 8. Innate Immunity in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
      • Overview
      • NHP Models of SIV Infection
      • Innate Immune Sensors of HIV and SIV
      • SIV Infection and Cellular Innate Immunity
      • Physical and Mucosal Immune Barriers in SIV Infection
      • Innate Immunity as a Driver of Immunopathogenesis in HIV/SIV Infection
      • In vivo Manipulation of the Innate Immune System in NHPS
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 9. Humoral Immune Responses in SIV Infection of Sooty Mangabeys: Implications for HIV-1 Pathogenesis and Vaccine Design
      • A Brief History of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Sooty Mangabeys
      • Preservation of Germinal Center Function
      • B-Cell Responses in SIVsm
      • Antibody Responses in Sooty Mangabeys
      • Comparative Studies of HIV-1 and SIVsm/HIV-2 Antibody Responses
      • Antibody Neutralization of SIVsm Envs
      • Biological Properties of HIV-1- and SIVsm-Derived Envs
      • Evolutionary Pathways of SIVsm Envs
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 10. Cellular Immune Responses in Natural and Non-natural Hosts of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
      • Introduction
      • Cellular Immunity and Immune Control in Natural Hosts of SIV Infection
      • T Lymphocytes
      • Virus-Specific Cellular Immune Responses
      • In vivo CD8+ Depletion Studies
      • Role of Innate T cell-Mediated Immunity in Natural Hosts
      • Regulatory T Cells
      • Th17 Cells
      • γδ T Cells
      • Natural Killer T Cells
      • Double-Negative T Cells
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 11. Lack of Chronic Immune Activation During Natural Host SIV Infection
      • Introduction
      • CD4 T cells
      • Natural Killer T cells, γδ T cells, and Double-Negative T cells
      • Plasmacytoid dendritic cells
      • Cells that promote inflammation: neutrophils, myeloid dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages
      • Implications of these studies
    • Chapter 12. Distinct Cellular Targets of SIV Infection in Natural and Non-natural Hosts of SIV
      • Introduction
      • CD4 T-CELL Subsets
      • Cellular Targets of SIV Infection
      • Macrophages as Targets of SIV Infection
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 13. SIV Transmission in Natural Hosts
      • Introduction
      • Evidence Supporting Paucity of MTIT in the Natural Hosts of SIV
    • Chapter 14. Immunogenetics of NK Cell Receptors and MHC Class I Ligands in Non-human Primates
      • General Aspects of the Major Histocompatibility Complex
      • The MHC of Macaque Species
      • The Leukocyte Receptor Complex
      • The Natural Killer Complex
      • Association of MHC and LRC with Infectious Diseases
    • Chapter 15. The Different Modes of Resistance to AIDS: Lessons from HIV/SIV Controllers and SIV Natural Hosts
      • Introduction: The Many Ways to Resist AIDS
      • Viral Parameters in HIV/SIV Control
      • Cellular Responses in HIV/SIV Control
      • Humoral Response in HIV/SIV Control
      • Immune Activation in HIV/SIV Control
      • Target Cells in HIV/SIV Control
    • Chapter 16. Humans Resembling Natural Hosts of SIV
      • Introduction
      • Resistance and Tolerance
      • Patterns of Human Disease
      • Exposed Noninfected Individuals
      • The Case of HIV-2 Infection
      • Conclusions
    • Epilogue 1. Final Remarks: What Have We Learned from Natural Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Hosts that Can Help HIV-Infected Humans?
    • Glossary
    • Index
    • Color Plates

Product details

  • No. of pages: 400
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2014
  • Published: July 4, 2014
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124051676
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124047341

About the Editors

Aftab Ansari

Aftab Ansari, Ph.D.

Dr. Aftab A. Ansari, Professor, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Room 2309 WMB, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA

Ph.D., University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 1970

M.S., University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 1967

M.S., University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan, 1963

B.S., University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan, 1961

1981-present Senior Consultant, Naval Medical Research and Development Command, Bethesda, Maryland

1985-Present Professor, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University

1999-present Scientific Advisor, U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit #2, Jakarta, Indonesia.

2002-present Scientific Advisory Board, One World Health, San Francisco, CA.

2001-2008 Scientific Advisory Board, Lipid Sciences, Inc. Pleasanton, CA.

2005-present Scientific External Advisory Board member, CAHDR, Meharry Medical College,

Nashville, TN

2008-present Scientific Advisory Board, SMART Technologies, Inc., Rehovot, Israel

2007-present Member, FDA Expert Panel, FDA Center for Devices and Radiological Health

(CDRH), SGE, Deptt. Of Health & Human Services, Immunology Devices Panel

Affiliations and Expertise

Emory University & Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, GA, USA

Guido Silvestri

Professor Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA

Chief, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center

Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar in Comparative Pathology, Emory University

Affiliations and Expertise

Emory University and Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, GA, USA

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