Natural Gas Processing - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080999715, 9780124202047

Natural Gas Processing

1st Edition

Technology and Engineering Design

Authors: Alireza Bahadori
eBook ISBN: 9780124202047
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080999715
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 28th May 2014
Page Count: 896
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Description

Natural gas is considered the dominant worldwide bridge between fossil fuels of today and future resources of tomorrow. Thanks to the recent shale boom in North America, natural gas is in a surplus and quickly becoming a major international commodity. Stay current with conventional and now unconventional gas standards and procedures with Natural Gas Processing: Technology and Engineering Design. Covering the entire natural gas process, Bahadori's must-have handbook provides everything you need to know about natural gas, including:

  • Fundamental background on natural gas properties and single/multiphase flow factors
  • How to pinpoint equipment selection criteria, such as US and international standards, codes, and critical design considerations
  • A step-by-step simplification of the major gas processing procedures, like sweetening, dehydration, and sulfur recovery
  • Detailed explanation on plant engineering and design steps for natural gas projects, helping managers and contractors understand how to schedule, plan, and manage a safe and efficient processing plant

Key Features

  • Covers both conventional and unconventional gas resources such as coal bed methane and shale gas
  • Bridges natural gas processing with basic and advanced engineering design of natural gas projects including real world case studies
  • Digs deeper with practical equipment sizing calculations for flare systems, safety relief valves, and control valves

Readership

Oil and Gas Engineers/Managers, Petroleum Refining Managers, Operations Manager, Pipeline Engineers, Process Engineers, Production Directors, and Gas Refining Engineers

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • About the Author
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1. Overview of Natural Gas Resources
    • 1.1. The formation of natural gas
    • 1.2. Conventional natural gas resources
    • 1.3. Gas reservoir fluids
    • 1.4. Unconventional natural gas resources
    • 1.5. Hydraulic fracturing
  • Chapter 2. Natural Gas Properties
    • 2.1. Fluid distribution in reservoir
    • 2.2. Phase behavior of hydrocarbon systems
    • 2.3. Pressure–volume–temperature properties of hydrocarbon fluids
    • 2.4. Gas compressibility factor
    • 2.5. Equation of state
    • 2.6. Gas specific gravity
    • 2.7. Gas density
    • 2.8. Specific volume
    • 2.9. Isothermal compressibility of gases
    • 2.10. Gas formation volume factor
    • 2.11. Standard volume
    • 2.12. Acentric factor
    • 2.13. Viscosity
    • 2.14. Thermal conductivity
    • 2.15. Gross heating value of natural gases
  • Chapter 3. Single-phase and Multiphase Flow in Natural Gas Production Systems
    • 3.1. Basic fluid flow theory
    • 3.2. Process pipe sizing for plants located onshore single phase
    • 3.3. Process pipe sizing for plants located offshore
    • 3.4. Transmission pipelines
    • 3.5. Two-phase mixture properties
    • 3.6. Two-phase flow pressure drop
    • 3.7. General aspects in design of piping systems in oil, gas, and petrochemical plants
    • 3.8. Isometric drawings
    • 3.9. Line identification list
    • 3.10. Pipe supports
    • 3.11. Pressure testing diagram
    • 3.12. Tie-in diagram
    • 3.13. Above-ground piping systems
    • 3.14. Valves
    • 3.15. Flanges
    • 3.16. Instrument piping
    • 3.17. Sample systems
    • 3.18. Vents and drains
    • 3.19. Blow-down
    • 3.20. Utility piping
    • 3.21. Piping adjacent to equipment
    • 3.22. Piping flexibility
    • 3.23. Piping supports
    • 3.24. Insulation
    • 3.25. Piping connections to existing plant
    • 3.26. Underground piping systems
  • Chapter 4. Gas–Liquid Separators
    • 4.1. Gravity settling
    • 4.2. Gas–liquid separators in oil and gas processing
    • 4.3. Conventional gas–liquid separators
    • 4.4. Design criteria of separators
    • 4.5. Gas–liquid separator sizing
    • 4.6. Specification sheet
    • 4.7. Mist eliminator type and installation point
    • 4.8. Centrifugal gas–liquid separators
    • 4.9. Flare knock-out drums
    • 4.10. Gas–liquid filter separators
    • 4.11. Process requirements of vessels, reactors, and separators
    • 4.12. Nature of the feed
    • 4.13. Solid–liquid separators
    • 4.14. Typical equations, which can be used for terminal velocity calculation
    • 4.15. Vessels
  • Chapter 5. Gas Compressors
    • 5.1. Type selection criteria
    • 5.2. Centrifugal compressors
    • 5.3. Design criteria
    • 5.4. Reciprocating compressors
    • 5.5. Axial compressors
    • 5.6. Screw compressors
    • 5.7. Rotary compressors
    • 5.8. Compressor cooling water jacket
    • 5.9. Atmospheric pressure
    • 5.10. Specification sheets
    • 5.11. Material for axial and centrifugal compressors and expander-compressors
    • 5.12. Centrifugal and axial compressors
    • 5.13. Integrally geared compressors
    • 5.14. Expander-compressors
  • Chapter 6. Blow-Down and Flare Systems
    • 6.1. Blow-down system for vapor relief stream
    • 6.2. Blow-down system for liquid relief stream
    • 6.3. Design of disposal system components
    • 6.4. Sizing a knock-out drum
    • 6.5. Quench drum
    • 6.6. Flares
    • 6.7. Burning pits
    • 6.8. Determination of liquid level in a horizontal vessel
    • 6.9. Sample calculation for sizing a flare stack
    • 6.10. Process design of emergency measures
  • Chapter 7. Safety Relive Valves Design
    • 7.1. Provisions of pressure safety relief valves
    • 7.2. Provisions of temperature safety valves
    • 7.3. Provisions of vacuum safety valves
    • 7.4. Provisions of rupture disks
    • 7.5. Spare safety valves
    • 7.6. Selection of type
    • 7.7. Closed spring type valves
    • 7.8. Safety valves with lifting devices
    • 7.9. Temperature safety relief valves
    • 7.10. Safety valve caps
    • 7.11. Safety valve drains
    • 7.12. Rupture disc types
    • 7.13. Safety valve bonnet
    • 7.14. Set pressure
    • 7.15. Pressure safety or relief valve set pressure
    • 7.16. Temperature safety valve set pressure
    • 7.17. Rupture disc set pressure
    • 7.18. Vacuum relief valve set pressure
    • 7.19. Sizing
    • 7.20. Vacuum relief valve sizing
    • 7.21. Temperature safety valve sizing
    • 7.22. Rupture disc sizing
    • 7.23. Emergency vapor depressuring systems
    • 7.24. Arrangement of safety relief valves
    • 7.25. Location on vessels
    • 7.26. Location of safety valve nozzles to minimize turbulence
    • 7.27. Location of safety valve nozzles to minimize pulsation
    • 7.28. Inlet piping of safety relief valves
    • 7.29. Discharge piping of safety relief valves
    • 7.30. Block valves
    • 7.31. Discharge piping support
    • 7.32. Position
    • 7.33. Discharge piping of temperature safety valves
    • 7.34. Venting and draining philosophy
    • 7.35. Vapor venting
    • 7.36. Liquid venting
    • 7.37. Safety valve bonnet venting
    • 7.38. Safety valve draining
    • 7.39. Sizing for gas or vapor relief
    • 7.40. Sizing for liquid relief
    • 7.41. Material and engineering for pressure and vacuum relief devices
    • 7.42. Design of rupture disks
    • 7.43. Material
    • 7.44. Inspection and shop tests
    • 7.45. Marking, documentation, and preparation for shipment
    • 7.46. General specification for springs of pressure relief valves
    • 7.47. Testing and dimensional checks
  • Chapter 8. Sizing of Valve and Control Valve
    • 8.1. Manual valves
    • 8.2. Check valves
    • 8.3. Control valves
    • 8.4. Control valve sizing
    • 8.5. Calculating Cv for liquids
    • 8.6. Liquid sizing examples
    • 8.7. Calculating Cv for gases
    • 8.8. Calculating Cv for two phase flow
    • 8.9. Engineering and material for control valves
    • 8.10. Control valve body size and flange rating
    • 8.11. Control valve characteristics
    • 8.12. Control valve manifold design
    • 8.13. Control valve block and bypass valves
    • 8.14. Control valve packing and sealing
    • 8.15. Control valve noise and vibration caused by sonic flow
    • 8.16. Control valve actuators
    • 8.17. Actuator construction materials
  • Chapter 9. Natural Gas Dehydration
    • 9.1. Phase behavior of dehydrated natural gas
    • 9.2. Water content of natural gases
    • 9.3. Gas water content prediction using generalized charts
    • 9.4. Gas water content prediction using empirical methods
    • 9.5. Methods based on EOS
    • 9.6. Hydrates in natural gas systems
    • 9.7. Thermodynamic model for the hydrate phase
    • 9.8. Hydrate predictions for high CO2/H2S content gases
    • 9.9. Hydrate inhibition
    • 9.10. Natural gas dehydration methods
    • 9.11. Adsorption of water by a solid
  • Chapter 10. Natural Gas Sweetening
    • 10.1. Chemical solvent processes
    • 10.2. Process selection
    • 10.3. Chemical reaction processes
    • 10.4. Simplified design calculations
    • 10.5. General considerations
    • 10.6. Corrosion in gas sweetening plants
    • 10.7. Flash tank
    • 10.8. Combined physical/chemical purification processes
    • 10.9. Carbonate process
    • 10.10. Physical absorption methods
    • 10.11. Solid bed sweetening methods (batch Processes)
    • 10.12. Process design
  • Chapter 11. Sulfur Recovery
    • 11.1. The Claus process
    • 11.2. Technology overview
    • 11.3. Acid gas enrichment
    • 11.4. Oxygen enrichment
    • 11.5. Reheat methods
    • 11.6. Combustion operation
    • 11.7. Sulfur condenser operation
    • 11.8. Waste heat recovery operation
    • 11.9. Catalyst converter operation
    • 11.10. Claus tail gas treating process selection
    • 11.11. Contact condenser (two-stage quench)
    • 11.12. Solvent selection criteria in the tail gas unit
    • 11.13. Ammonia destruction in a TGU (RACTM)
    • 11.14. BSR Selectox
  • Chapter 12. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Recovery
    • 12.1. Properties
    • 12.2. Natural gas liquids processing
    • 12.3. Fractionation
    • 12.4. Packed columns
    • 12.5. Basic design requirements
    • 12.6. Fractionation and system configuration
    • 12.7. Absorption/stripping
    • 12.8. Control and optimization
    • 12.9. Storing and handling of liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs)
    • 12.10. Design considerations
    • 12.11. Transfer of LPG within the off-Site facilities of oil and gas processing (OGP) plants
    • 12.12. Pressure storage spheres for LPG
    • 12.13. Material selection
    • 12.14. General information
    • 12.15. Design of pressure storage spheres
    • 12.16. Nozzles and connections
    • 12.17. Mountings
    • 12.18. Access facilities
    • 12.19. Fabrication
    • 12.20. Insulation
  • Chapter 13. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
    • 13.1. The LNG chain
    • 13.2. The LNG liquefaction facility
    • 13.3. Liquefaction process
    • 13.4. LNG storage
    • 13.5. In-tank pump process objectives
    • 13.6. LNG shipping
    • 13.7. Liquefaction and refrigeration
    • 13.8. Basic single flow LNG process
    • 13.9. Multistage MR process
    • 13.10. Mixed fluid cascade process
    • 13.11. Classification of natural gas liquefaction processes
    • 13.12. Type of LNG plants
    • 13.13. Liquefaction cycle for LNG FPSO
    • 13.14. Proposed LNG liquefaction processes for FPSO
    • 13.15. Storage and transfer facilities of LNG
  • Chapter 14. Basic Engineering Design for Natural Gas Processing Projects
    • 14.1. Contents of BEDP
    • 14.2. Items common for all units
    • 14.3. Manuals
    • 14.4. Individual items for each unit
    • 14.5. Specifications and data sheets
    • 14.6. Drawings
    • 14.7. Recommended practice for feasibility studies
    • 14.8. Prefeasibility studies
    • 14.9. Outline of prefeasibility study
    • 14.10. Feasibility studies
    • 14.11. Production program and plant capacity
    • 14.12. Technology choice
    • 14.13. Selection of machinery and equipment
    • 14.14. Civil engineering works
    • 14.15. Estimates of overall investment costs (capital cost estimates)
    • 14.16. Organization and overhead costs
    • 14.17. Human resources
    • 14.18. Implementation, planning, and budgeting
    • 14.19. Financial analysis and investment appraisal
    • 14.20. Method of investment appraisal
    • 14.21. Break-even analysis
    • 14.22. Preparation of basic engineering design data
    • 14.23. Data preparation of utilities (utility summary tables)
    • 14.24. Data preparation of effluents
    • 14.25. Data preparation of catalysts and chemicals
  • Chapter 15. Detailed Engineering and Design for Natural Gas Processing Projects
    • 15.1. Detailed implementation plan
    • 15.2. Project schedule and control services
    • 15.3. Quality assurance and control
    • 15.4. Detailed design and engineering
    • 15.5. Procurements services
    • 15.6. Supply of materials
    • 15.7. Detail design & engineering documents
    • 15.8. Supply of spare parts, miscellaneous equipment and materials, chemicals and catalysts
    • 15.9. Reimbursable items
    • 15.10. Process flow diagram (PFD) and piping and instrumentation diagrams
    • 15.11. Identification and numbering of equipment
    • 15.12. Description of equipment
    • 15.13. Description of instrumentation
    • 15.14. Material balance table
    • 15.15. Piping and equipment symbols
    • 15.16. Piping & instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs)
    • 15.17. Minimum information to be shown on P&IDs
    • 15.18. Equipment indication
    • 15.19. Instrumentation
    • 15.20. Piping
    • 15.21. Special requirements
    • 15.22. General notes
    • 15.23. Design criteria for preparation of P&IDs
    • 15.24. Bypass for safety/relief valve
    • 15.25. Criteria for utility flow diagrams
    • 15.26. Preparation of P&IDs
    • 15.27. Handling of licensed process
    • 15.28. Revisions of P&ID
    • 15.29. Block and bypass valves for control valve
    • 15.30. Philosophy of instrumentation installation
  • Chapter 16. Start-up Sequence and Commissioning Procedures
    • 16.1. Preparation prior to initial start-up
    • 16.2. Final inspection of vessels
    • 16.3. Flushing of lines
    • 16.4. Instruments
    • 16.5. Acid cleaning of compressor lines
    • 16.6. Breaking-in pumps
    • 16.7. Breaking-in compressors
    • 16.8. Dry-out and boil-out
    • 16.9. Catalyst loading
    • 16.10. Tightness test
    • 16.11. Normal start-up procedures
    • 16.12. Catalytic units reactor section air purging and gas blanketing
    • 16.13. Heat exchanger activation
    • 16.14. Vacuum test
    • 16.15. Establish flow in the unit
    • 16.16. Inhibitor/chemical injections
    • 16.17. Typical acid cleaning procedure for compressor lines
    • 16.18. The acid-cleaning operation
    • 16.19. Typical heater dry-out procedure
    • 16.20. Typical chemical boil-out sequence
    • 16.21. Basic considerations in preparing operating manuals
    • 16.22. Safety manual/quality manual
    • 16.23. Non-licensed processes
    • 16.24. Noteworthy points
    • 16.25. Design basis
    • 16.26. Plant technical and equipment manuals
  • Glossary of Terms
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
896
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Gulf Professional Publishing 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Gulf Professional Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780124202047
Hardcover ISBN:
9780080999715

About the Author

Alireza Bahadori

Alireza Bahadori, PhD, CEng, MIChemE, CPEng, MIEAust, RPEQ, NER is a research staff member in the School of Environment, Science and Engineering at Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia, and managing director and CEO of Australian Oil and Gas Services, Pty. Ltd. He received his PhD from Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia. During the past twenty years, Dr. Bahadori has held various process and petroleum engineering positions and was involved in many large-scale oil and gas projects. His multiple books have been published by multiple major publishers, including Elsevier. He is Chartered Engineer (CEng) and Chartered Member of Institution of Chemical Engineers, London, UK (MIChemE). Chartered Professional Engineer (CPEng) and Chartered Member of Institution of Engineers Australia, Registered Professional Engineer of Queensland (RPEQ), Registered Chartered Engineer of Engineering Council of United Kingdom and Engineers Australia's National Engineering Register (NER).

Affiliations and Expertise

Research staff member, School of Environment, Science, and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia

Reviews

"This well written and well organized book with many interesting figures, graphs and tables will be a valuable resource for the natural engineering and scientific community. Engineers of many disciplines of oil and gas industries, project managers and students of natural gas engineering would also find the related sections of this book quite useful for their works and studies."

Dr. Emmanuel Obanijesu, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia

"This natural gas processing book would be an excellent addition to the reference collection of large academic libraries at universities with programs in oil and gas area. It is well organized and indexed, so the information is readily accessible to students as well as practicing engineers and managers" 

Dr Ahmad Jamili, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA

"The contents of the book are quite educational for newcomers to the field of natural gas engineering and processing as well as experiences professional engineers.It it is very thorough reference for those who are already involved in research and training of natural gas courses. The book is nicely divided into 16 chapters and has a comprehensive glossary of terms, references, valuable technical information, equations and formulas related to natural gas processing".

Jerry Jalili, Chartered Professional Engineer and Oil & Gas Consultant, Singapore.