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Nanofabrication for Smart Nanosensor Applications - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128207024, 9780128235553

Nanofabrication for Smart Nanosensor Applications

1st Edition

Editor: Fernando Gomes Souza Junior
Editor in Chief: Kaushik Pal
Paperback ISBN: 9780128207024
eBook ISBN: 9780128235553
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 16th June 2020
Page Count: 472
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Table of Contents

1. Introduction to nanomaterials and nanomanufacturing for nanosensors
1.1 Nanosensors
1.1.1 Types of nanosensors
1.1.2 Applications of nanosensors
1.2 Nanomaterials for nanosensors
1.2.1 Properties of nanomaterials for nanosensors
1.2.2 Different nanomaterials for nanosensors
1.3 Nanomanufacturing
1.3.1 Nanomanufacturing processes
1.4 Nanomanufacturing processes for nanosensors
1.4.1 Electron beam lithography
1.4.2 Focused ion beam lithography
1.4.3 X-ray lithography
1.5 Conclusions and future directions

2. Features and complex model of gold nanoparticle fabrication for nanosensor applications
2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 Applications of nanoparticles
2.1.2 Growth of gold nanoparticles
2.2 Mathematical model of gold nanoparticle fabrication
2.2.1 Governing equation of gold nanoparticle fabrication
2.2.2 Nondimensionalized parameter for governing equations
2.2.3 Discretization using finite difference method for gold nanoparticle fabrication problem
2.2.4 Linear system equation formulation for gold nanoparticle fabrication
2.2.5 Visualization of the mathematical model for gold nanoparticle fabrication
2.3 Numerical implementation and parallelization for gold nanoparticle fabrication
2.3.1 Numerical implementation
2.3.2 Parallelization of iterative methods for solving one-dimensional mathematical model
2.3.3 Parallel performance evaluation for fabricating gold nanoparticles
2.4 Conclusion and recommendation

3. Designing of novel nanosensors for environmental aspects
3.1 Introduction
3.2 ABCs of the design strategy for nano-enabled sensors
3.2.1 A note on the signal transduction mechanism
3.2.2 A few representative nanomaterials and recognition elements
3.3 Pertinent attributes for the design of nano-enabled sensors for environmental monitoring
3.4 Exemplary evidence of novel nanosensor design strategies for environmental applications
3.4.1 Pathogen detections
3.4.2 Detection of heavy metals
3.4.3 Unraveling the presence of pesticides
3.5 Practical snags and future perspectives on nano-enabled sensors for environmental monitoring
3.6 Conclusion

4. Applications and success of MIPs in optical-based nanosensors
4.1 Introduction
4.2 MIPs synthesis methods
4.2.1 Synthesis from monomers in the presence of the template
4.2.2 Production of MIPs by phase inversion using polymer precipitation
4.2.3 Soft lithography or surface stamping
4.3 Characterization studies of MIPs
4.4 Application of MIPs in optical nanosensors
4.4.1 Optical sensor
4.4.2 Immunoassay/diagnostic applications
4.4.3 Applications in detection of pharmaceuticals and drugs
4.4.4 Applications in food and environmental sensing
4.5 Challenges of MIPs for optical sensing systems
4.6 Critiques and future outlook

5. Recent developments in nanostructured metal oxide-based electrochemical sensors
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Types of sensors
5.2.1 Chemical sensors
5.2.2 Gas sensors
5.2.3 Biosensors
5.3 Electrochemical sensors: Construction, working, and principles
5.4 Conclusion

6. Nanosensors and nanobiosensors: Agricultural and food technology aspects
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Nanobiosensors
6.3 General characteristics and categories of nanobiosensors
6.4 Nanobiosensors in agriculture
6.5 Detection by nanosensors
6.6 Nanobiosensors in different food sectors
6.7 Development of nanosensors in agrofood sector
6.8 Application of nanosensors in food packaging
6.9 Conclusions and future directions

7. Nanosensors in biomedical and environmental applications: Perspectives and prospects
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Biosensors
7.2.1 Fundamental blocks
7.2.2 Types of biosensors
7.3 Nanosensors
7.4 Nanobiosensors
7.5 Types of nanobiosensors
7.5.1 Nanoparticle-based biosensors
7.5.2 Nanotube-based biosensors
7.5.3 Nanowire-based biosensors
7.5.4 Cantilever-based biosensors
7.5.5 Graphene-based biosensors
7.6 Performance parameters of nanobiosensors
7.6.1 Selectivity
7.6.2 Sensitivity
7.6.3 Dose-response curve
7.6.4 Dynamic range
7.6.5 Multiplex detection
7.7 Applications of nanobiosensors
7.7.1 Diagnostic purpose
7.7.2 Environmental monitoring
7.7.3 Nanomedicine
7.8 Conclusions and future directions

8. Nanosensors for better diagnosis of health
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Nanomaterials for biosensors
8.2.1 Metal and metal oxide nanomaterials
8.2.2 Carbon-based nanomaterials
8.2.3 Nanocomposites
8.2.4 Other novel nanomaterials
8.3 Classification of biosensing nanomaterials
8.3.1 Electrochemical biosensors
8.3.2 Biosensors with field effect transistors
8.3.3 Spectroscopic biosensors
8.3.4 Latest novel biosensors
8.4 Applications of nanomaterials in diagnosis of specific diseases
8.4.1 Cancer
8.4.2 Microbial infection
8.4.3 Diabetes
8.4.4 Other diseases
8.5 Current challenges and future perspective
8.6 Conclusion

9. Nanomaterial-based gas sensor for environmental science and technology
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Types of sensors
9.2.1 Gas sensor
9.2.2 Biosensors
9.2.3 Chemical sensor
9.3 Materials used in nanosensors
9.3.1 Metal sulfides
9.3.2 Metal oxides
9.3.3 Other nanomaterials
9.4 Techniques for designing nanosensors
9.4.1 Physical vapor deposition technique
9.4.2 Chemical vapor deposition
9.4.3 Screen printing
9.4.4 Drop coating
9.4.5 Spray pyrolysis
9.5 Application in environmental science and technology
9.5.1 Carbon monoxide sensor
9.5.2 Carbon dioxide sensor
9.5.3 Nitrogen oxide sensor
9.5.4 Ammonia sensor
9.5.5 Hydrogen sulfide sensor
9.6 Conclusion and future perspectives

10. Hybrid nanocomposites and their potential applications in the field of nanosensors/gas and biosensors
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Structures of nanomaterials
10.2.1 Zero-dimensional structure (0-D)
10.2.2 One-dimensional structure (1-D)
10.2.3 Two-dimensional structure (2-D)
10.2.4 Three-dimensional structure (3-D)
10.3 Preparation of hybridized nanocomposites
10.3.1 Solid-state synthesis
10.3.2 Hydro-/solvothermal synthesis
10.3.3 Sol-gel synthesis
10.3.4 Chemical vapor deposition technique
10.3.5 Microwave-assisted wet chemical method
10.4 Invasion of hybridized nanocomposite materials
10.4.1 Classification of hybrid nanocomposites
10.5 Role of the gas sensor in various fields
10.6 Requirements for a gas sensor
10.7 Materials suitable for a gas sensor
10.8 Recent developments in hybrid nanocomposite-based gas sensors
10.8.1 Ammonia gas sensor
10.9 Hybrid nanocomposites as biosensors
10.9.1 Electrochemical/glucose/graphene-based biosensors
10.9.2 Xanthine biosensors
10.9.3 Cancer biosensor
10.9.4 Food biosensors
10.10 Conclusions, outlook, and future scope

11. Design and fabrication of CNT/graphene-based polymer nanocomposite applications in nanosensors
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Materials and methods
11.2.1 Materials
11.2.2 Thin film processing
11.2.3 Characterization techniques
11.2.4 Finite element analysis
11.2.5 Results and discussion

12. Nanomaterials dispersed liquid crystalline self-assembly of hybrid matrix application towards thermal sensor
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Overview of liquid crystals
12.3 Taxonomy of liquid crystals
12.3.1 Thermotropic liquid crystal
12.3.2 Lyotropic liquid crystal
12.3.3 Functional properties and application of liquid crystal
12.4 Important exploration of nanoscience and nanotechnology
12.5 Drawbacks of nanomaterials
12.5.1 Evaluation of nanomaterials from bulk materials
12.5.2 Varieties of nanomaterials and their applications
12.5.3 Dimensions of nanomaterials
12.6 Nanomaterial dispersed liquid crystal
12.7 Liquid crystal-based temperature sensor
12.7.1 Scope of sensor
12.7.2 Design and fabrication of nanomaterial dispersed liquid crystal (NLC) temperature sensor
12.7.3 Experimental set-up, observation, and results
12.8 Wireless liquid crystal temperature sensor
12.8.1 Design of sensor
12.8.2 Results and discussions
12.9 Conclusions and outlook
12.10 Benefits and future aspects

13. Carbon-based nanomaterials as novel nanosensors
13.1 Introduction
13.1.1 Carbon-based nanomaterials
13.2 Sensing properties
13.3 Nanosensors
13.3.1 Optical nanosensors
13.3.2 Electromagnetic nanosensors
13.3.3 Gas nanosensors
13.4 CNT-based nanosensors
13.5 Graphene-based nanosensors
13.6 Diamond-based nanosensors
13.7 Biosensors
13.7.1 Graphene-based electrochemical biosensors
13.8 Potential applications of carbon-based nanosensors
13.8.1 Pharmaceutical analysis
13.8.2 Bioimaging and biosensing applications
13.9 Limitations and drawbacks of carbon-based nanosensors
13.9.1 Sample preparation
13.9.2 Lack of self-validation and standardization with real-life samples
13.9.3 Nanotoxicity
13.9.4 The risk assessment of exposures
13.9.5 Product cost
13.10 Conclusion

14. Polymerized hybrid nanocomposite implementations of energy conversion cells device
14.1 An overview of environmental science innovations
14.2 Polymers
14.2.1 Structure of polymers
14.2.2 Properties of the polymer
14.2.3 Thermal properties of polymers
14.3 Composites
14.4 Types of composite materials
14.4.1 Fiber-reinforced composites
14.4.2 Particulate composite
14.5 Electrolytes
14.5.1 Liquid electrolyte
14.5.2 Solid electrolyte
14.5.3 Polymer electrolyte
14.5.4 Gel and polymer gel electrolyte
14.5.5 Polymer nanocomposite and their classifications
14.5.6 Investigation of polymer nanocomposites
14.6 Transport mechanism in nanocomposite polymer electrolyte
14.6.1 VTF equation
14.6.2 Arrhenius equation
14.7 Applications of nanocomposite polymer-gel electrolytes in environmentally friendly devices
14.7.1 Hydrogen–oxygen fuel cell
14.7.2 Solid-state rechargeable battery
14.7.3 Sensors
14.7.4 Supercapacitors
14.7.5 Photoelectrochemical cells
14.7.6 Solar cells
14.8 Structural and ion transport studies in (100-x) PVdF+ xNH4SCN gel electrolyte
14.8.1 Membrane fabrication
14.8.2 Results and discussions
14.8.3 Application of polymer nanocomposites in environmentally friendly devices
14.8.4 Basics of fuel cells
14.8.5 Working principle of fuel cells
14.8.6 Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)
14.8.7 Application of fuel cell
14.9 Conclusions and outlook
14.10 Remarks and future prospects

15. Smart polymer systems as concrete self-healing agents
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Self-healing property
15.3 Concrete self-healing mechanisms
15.3.1 Autogenous
15.3.2 Mineral admixtures
15.3.3 Bacteria
15.3.4 Adhesive materials
15.4 Polymers in concrete self-healing
15.4.1 Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)
15.4.2 Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)
15.4.3 Polystyrene (PS)
15.4.4 Polyurethanes (PUs)
15.4.5 Epoxy resin
15.4.6 Polyacrylates
15.4.7 Alginates
15.4.8 Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs)
15.5 Trends in concrete self-healing
15.6 Final considerations

16. Chemical engineering of protein cages and nanoparticles for pharmaceutical applications
16.1 Introduction to chemical modification of proteins
16.2 Uncommon viral protein cages
16.2.1 Adenovirus
16.2.2 Viruses as protein cages
16.2.3 Qβ bacteriophage
16.3 Nonviral protein cages
16.3.1 Heat-shock proteins (Hsps)
16.3.2 Ferritin
16.3.3 Vault proteins (VPs)
16.4 Residue-specific amino acid modification strategies
16.4.1 Lysine
16.4.2 Carboxyl
16.4.3 Cystine
16.4.4 Tyrosines
16.4.5 Arginine
16.4.6 Tryptophan
16.4.7 Methionine
16.5 Nanoparticles targeted for drug delivery
16.5.1 Passive targeting
16.5.2 Active targeting
16.5.3 Advantages and disadvantages
16.5.4 Applications


Nanofabrication for Smart Nanosensor Applications addresses the design, manufacture and applications of a variety of nanomaterials for sensing applications. In particular, the book explores how nanofabrication techniques are used to create more efficient nanosensors, examines their major applications in biomedicine and environmental science, discusses the fundamentals of how nanosensors work, explores different nanofabrication techniques, and comments on toxicity and safety issues relating to the creation of nanosensors using certain nanomaterial classes. This book is an important resource for materials scientists and engineers who want to make materials selection decisions for the creation of new nansensor devices.

Key Features

  • Summarizes current research and applications of a variety of nanofabrication techniques for the creation of efficient sensing devices
  • Provides readers with an understanding of surfaces and interfaces, a key challenge for those working on hybrid nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes, graphene, polymers and liquid crystal electro-optical imaging
  • Discusses the variability and sight recognition of biopolymers, such as DNA molecules, which offer a wide range of opportunities for the self-organization of nanostructures into much more complex patterns


Materials Scientists and Engineers in academia and R&D


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2020
16th June 2020
Paperback ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editor

Fernando Gomes Souza Junior

Fernando Gomes Souza Junior is Associate Professor in Civil Engineering at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. His research focuses in the areas of the use of renewable resources and nanocomposites in sensors, drug delivery and environmental recovery.

Affiliations and Expertise

Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

About the Editor in Chief

Kaushik Pal

Kaushik Pal is Research Professor in the Department of Nanotechnology, Bharath University, India. His research focuses on nanofabrication, functional materials, carbon nanotubes, and nanoscale sensing technologies.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Nanotechnology, Bharath University, India