Nanodiamonds

Nanodiamonds

Advanced Material Analysis, Properties and Applications

1st Edition - April 13, 2017
  • Editor: Jean-Charles Arnault
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323430326
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323430296

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Description

Nanodiamonds: Advanced Material Analysis, Properties and Applications illustrates the complementarity of specific techniques to fully characterize nanodiamonds from their diamond core (crystalline structure, defects, sp2 carbon, impurities, strain) to their surface (surface chemistry, stability of surface groups, reactivity, surface charge, colloidal properties). The relationship between physical and chemical parameters sits at the heart of what this book is about. Recent advances in the synthesis of nanodiamonds either by HPHT or detonation are covered, along with extended characterization of the core and surface of nanodiamonds, focusing on the most advanced experimental tools developed for nanoscale diagnosis. Each technique presented includes presentation of both principles and applications. This combination of advanced characterizations offers readers a better understanding of the relationship that exists between physical and chemical parameters of nanodiamonds and their properties. In particular, the role of structural defects or chemical impurities is illustrated. Toxicity of nanodiamonds for cells is also discussed, as It is an essential issue for their bioapplications. Final sections in the book cover the main promising new advances and applications of nanodiamonds, the formation of hybrids, and their use in polymer and oil composites.

Key Features

  • Provides a focused analysis of the relationship between the physical, chemical parameters, and properties of nanodiamonds
  • Allows the reader to better understand the material characterization of nanodiamonds and how they can be most successfully used
  • Presents R&D scientists and engineers with the information they need to understand how nanodiamonds can be used to create more efficient products
  • Includes novel applications, for example, the formation of hybrids based on nanodiamonds, that are covered in detail

Readership

Academics who focus on carbon nanostructures, and R&D professionals in engineering companies who want to learn how to apply nanodiamonds effectively

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1: General properties of diamond
    Christopher E. Nebel

    • Abstract
    • 1.1. Introduction
    • 1.2. Properties of insulating diamond
    • 1.3. Properties of doped diamond
    • 1.4. Summary
    • References

    Chapter 2: Production and purification of nanodiamonds
    Olga Shenderova and Nicholas Nunn

    • Abstract
    • Acknowledgement
    • 2.1. Introduction
    • 2.2. Types of nanodiamonds and methods of nanodiamond synthesis
    • 2.3. Nanodiamond purification from sp2 carbon and metal impurities
    • 2.4. Disaggregation, crushing, and fractionation of nanodiamond
    • 2.5. Doping of nanodiamond particles
    • 2.6. Conclusion and future outlook
    • References

    Chapter 3: Structure, shape, defects and impurities in nanodiamonds investigated by HRTEM and STEM-EELS
    Stuart Turner

    • Abstract
    • 3.1. Imaging structure, morphology, and defects in nanodiamonds by TEM
    • 3.2. Probing the electronic structure of diamond and its dopants by Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy
    • 3.3. Imaging and spectroscopy of nanodiamond surface functionalization
    • References

    Chapter 4: Raman investigations on nanodiamonds
    Michel Mermoux

    • Abstract
    • Acknowledgements
    • 4.1. Introduction and scope
    • 4.2. Methodology and experimental issues
    • 4.3. Characteristic features of the Raman spectra of NDs – similarities and differences
    • 4.4. The diamond line profile – phonon confinement
    • 4.5. Low frequency broad signals – core shell model
    • 4.6. Raman spectroscopy of detonation nanodiamonds
    • 4.7. Beyond simple material characterization: in situ Raman spectroscopy and Raman imaging
    • 4.8. Summary
    • References

    Chapter 5: Elemental analysis of nanodiamonds by inductively coupled plasma hyphenated methods
    Michel Mermoux

    • Abstract
    • 5.1. Significance of the problem
    • 5.2. Types and sources of elemental impurities in diamond
    • 5.3. Instrumental methods applicable to the analysis of impurities in diamond
    • 5.4. Hyphenated methods based upon inductively coupled plasma
    • 5.5. Comparison of analytical methods for determination of elemental impurities in nanodiamond
    • 5.6. Applications of ICP-hyphenated techniques
    • Conclusions and acknowledgments
    • References

    Chapter 6: Paramagnetic defects in nanodiamonds
    Alexander M. Panich and Alexander I. Shames

    • Abstract
    • 6.1. Introduction to magnetic resonance and nuclear relaxation
    • 6.2. Magnetism in ND
    • 6.3. Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation via paramagnetic defects in ND
    • 6.4. Concluding tips
    • References

    Chapter 7: Photoluminescence of color centers in nanodiamonds
    François Treussart and Igor I. Vlasov

    • Abstract
    • Acknowledgements
    • 7.1. The Nitrogen-Vacancy color center
    • 7.2. The Silicon-Vacancy centers in nanodiamonds
    • 7.3. Conclusion
    • References

    Chapter 8: Current issues and challenges in surface chemistry of nanodiamonds
    Anke Krueger

    • Abstract
    • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.2. Initial surface termination
    • 8.3. Grafting of more complex moieties
    • 8.4. Future directions and challenges
    • References

    Chapter 9: HR-EELS investigations of hydrogenated nanodiamond films
    Shaul Michaelson and Alon Hoffman

    • Abstract
    • Acknowledgements
    • 9.1. Introduction
    • 9.2. Assignment of diamond HR-EELS peaks
    • 9.3. Nanosize effects in the HR-EEL spectra of nanodiamond
    • 9.4. Hydrogenation and thermal stability of nano- and microcrystalline diamond films studied by HR-EELS
    • 9.5. HR-EELS studies of nano-diamond phase formation by BEN on 3C-SiC(100)
    • References

    Chapter 10: Surface potential of nanodiamonds investigated by KPFM
    Bohuslav Rezek and Stepan Stehlik

    • Abstract
    • Acknowledgements
    • 10.1. Nanodiamonds and electrical charge
    • 10.2. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM)
    • 10.3. Surface potential of nanodiamonds
    • 10.4. Impact on other nanodiamond properties
    • 10.5. Conclusions
    • References

    Chapter 11: Interactions with solvent
    Tristan Petit

    • Abstract
    • 11.1. Introduction
    • 11.2. Interaction with solvent molecules in vacuum
    • 11.3. Interaction with solvent molecules under gaseous atmosphere
    • 11.4. Interaction with solvent molecules in liquid phase
    • 11.5. Conclusion and outlook
    • References

    Chapter 12: Toxicity issues: interactions with biological species
    Sylvie Chevillard, Romain Grall, Jozo Delic and Vincent Paget

    • Abstract
    • 12.1. Introduction
    • 12.2. In vitro biological effects of ND
    • 12.3. Interaction of ND with blood cells or blood proteins
    • 12.4. Fate in the body and in vivo toxicity of ND
    • 12.5. ND on bacteria and fungi
    • 12.6. Conclusions and challenging issues
    • References

    Chapter 13: Nanodiamonds embedded in shells
    Petr Cigler, Jitka Neburkova, Jan Vavra, Helena Raabova, Goutam Pramanik and Jan Havlik

    • Abstract
    • Acknowledgements
    • 13.1. Introduction
    • 13.2. Nanodiamonds embedded in shells
    • 13.3. Conclusions
    • References

    Chapter 14: Nanodiamonds in composites: polymer chemistry and tribology
    Ioannis Neitzel, Vadym N. Mochalin and Yury Gogotsi

    • Abstract
    • 14.1. Introduction to polymer nanocomposites
    • 14.2. Polymer–ND composites: the influence of ND and its surface chemistry
    • 14.3. Future work
    • References

    Chapter 15: Detonation nanodiamonds in oils and lubricants
    Valerii Y. Dolmatov

    • Abstract
    • 15.1. Lubricating composition with a solid friction modifier
    • 15.2. The synthesis of DND
    • 15.3. The tribological properties of DND
    • 15.4. DCS action mechanism in the lubricating composition
    • 15.5. Optimal DCS content in the lubricating composition
    • 15.6. The method of producing diamond-containing composition
    • 15.7. Motor and transmission oils with DCS
    • 15.8. DND modification with lanthanides, Mg-sulfonate, and polytetrafluoroethylene
    • 15.9. Technology for producing the lubricant composition with DCS and surfactants
    • 15.10. The main results of the use of diamond lubricant compositions
    • 15.11. Coolants with DCS for cutting metals
    • 15.12. Plastic lubricants with DCS and DNDs
    • 15.13. Solid lubricants
    • 15.14. The advantages of plastic and solid lubricants
    • 15.15. Conclusions
    • References

    Chapter 16: Biomarkers and drug delivery applications
    Be-Ming Chang, Dean Ho and Huan Cheng Chang

    • Abstract
    • 16.1. Introduction
    • 16.2. Fluorescent nanodiamond
    • 16.3. Cell labeling and tracking
    • 16.4. Optimizing combinatorial nanomedicine
    • 16.5. Conclusions and outlooks
    • References

    Chapter 17: Applications of color centers as nanoscopic sensors
    Elke Neu

    • Abstract
    • Color centers in diamond as nanoscopic sensors: introduction
    • 17.1. Color centers in diamond as sensor for magnetic and near fields and temperature
    • 17.2. Application of diamond color centers as sensors
    • 17.3. Color centers in far field nanoscopy: superresolution microscopy
    • Conclusion and perspectives
    • References

    Chapter 18: Nanodiamonds for catalytic reactions
    Neeraj Gupta, Qi Wang, Guodong Wen and Dangsheng Su

    • Abstract
    • Acknowledgements
    • 18.1. General aspects of nanodiamonds
    • 18.2. Applications of nanodiamonds as catalyst or catalyst support in different chemical transformations
    • 18.3. Conclusion
    • References

Product details

  • No. of pages: 504
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2017
  • Published: April 13, 2017
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323430326
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323430296

About the Editor

Jean-Charles Arnault

Jean-Charles Arnault is currently Research Director at CEA. He obtained his PhD in 1993 at Poitiers University, France. From 1993 to 2007, he was assistant professor at Strasbourg University and obtained his HDR in 2001. His research activities in Strasbourg concerned diamond nucleation on different substrates and interactions between MPCVD plasmas with surfaces using in situ surface analysis methods (electron spectroscopies), and scanning probe microscopies. These studies were completed by electron microscopies. In 2003, he moved to the "Physics and Chemistry of Surfaces and Interfaces" at CEA for a research period focused on diamond on reconstructed cubic silicon carbide surfaces (2003-2007). Since 2007, he performed his research activities in the Diamond Sensors Laboratory at CEA. His research interests are currently focused on diamond nanoparticles, diamond heteroepitaxy and the growth of boron doped single crystalline diamond. For diamond nanoparticles, surface modifications by MPCVD plasma or annealing are performed to control their surface terminations for efficient grafting. Intrinsic properties of hydrogenated and surface graphitized nanodiamonds were investigated during the last years especially for bioapplications. In 2008, he initiated diamond heteroepitaxy on iridium at CEA. This topic is now developed in collaboration with a French consortium involving four other groups.

Jean-Charles Arnault is regularly involved in the organization of international symposia related to these topics (Spring and Fall MRS, E-MRS). In January 2015, he became an Editor of Diamond and Related Materials. He contributed recently to three chapters of book, two of these chapters concern diamond nanoparticles.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Director, CEA