Mutagenicity

Mutagenicity

New Horizons in Genetic Toxicology

1st Edition - January 28, 1982

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  • Editor: John A. Heddle
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483271224

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Description

Mutagenicity: New Horizons in Genetic Toxicology provides an overview of the various applications and studies in the field of genetic toxicology and environmental mutagenesis. The book is composed of selected scientific papers written by experts in the field. The text presents topics on naturally occurring mutagens; occupational carcinogen; and evaluation of cooking methods. Experiments on mammalian cell mutation; chromosomal aberrations; and organisms that can be used as environmental monitors of toxicity are discussed as well. Ecologists, environmental and sanitary engineers, toxicologists, and anyone interested in environmental mutagenesis, genetic toxicology, occupational health, or the regulation of toxic substances will find the book a good source of insight.

Table of Contents


  • Contents

    List of Contributors

    Preface

    1 Screening Chemicals for Mutagenicity: Practices and Pitfalls

    I. Introduction

    II. Test Batteries

    III. Possible Basis of Divergent Assay Responses Observed between Assay Systems

    IV. Design, Validation, and Use of Test Batteries

    V. Pitfalls in the Use of Mutation Assays

    VI. Mutagenic Synergism and Protection

    VII. Genotoxic Threshold Dose Levels

    VIII. Conclusions

    References

    2 Qualitative and Quantitative Comparisons between Mutagenic and Carcinogenic Activities of Chemicals

    I. Introduction: Environmental Chemicals in Human Carcinogenesis and the Role of Experimental Data in the Assessment of Risk

    II. Comparison between Data on Carcinogenicity in Humans and Results of Mutagenicity and Other Short-Term Tests

    III. Comparisons between Data from Long-Term Animal Carcinogenicity Tests and Results of Mutagenicity (Short-Term) Tests

    IV. Quantitative Correlations between the Carcinogenic Potency of Chemicals and Their Mutagenic Activity

    V. Comparison of the in Vitro Mutagenicity and the in Vivo Covalent Binding Index of Chemical Carcinogens

    VI. Factors That May Affect the Activity of Carcinogenic Chemicals in Short-Term Tests and in Experimental Animals

    VII. Conclusions

    References

    3 The Use of Mutagenicity to Evaluate Carcinogenic Hazards in Our Daily Lives

    I. Introduction

    II. Experimental Studies

    III. Conclusions and Future Studies

    References

    4 Mutagenicity and Lung Cancer in a Steel Foundry Environment

    I. Introduction

    II. Foundry Mutagenicity Study

    III. Results

    IV. Conclusions and Discussion

    References

    5 The Use of Mutagenicity Testing to Evaluate Food Products

    I. Introduction

    II. Methodology

    III. Mutagens in Nonprocessed Food

    IV. Mutagens Formed during Food Preparation and Cooking

    V. Model Browning Reactions

    VI. Integrated Mutagenic Load of Diets

    VII. Outlook

    References

    6 Transformation of Somatic Cells in Culture

    I. Introduction

    II. In Vitro and in Vivo Studies of Basic Mechanisms of Neoplastic Transformation

    III. Types of Cell Transformation Systems

    IV. Regulatory and Commercial Uses of Neoplastic Transformation Assays

    V. Summary

    References

    7 Mutagenicity Testing with Cultured Mammalian Cells: Cytogenetic Assays

    I. Introduction

    II. Cytological End Points Used

    III. Methodology

    IV. Comparison between Chromosome Aberrations and Sister Chromatid Exchanges

    V. Types of Lesions Leading to Sister Chromatid Exchanges and/or Chromosomal Aberrations

    VI. Influence of Tumor Promoters or Inhibitors on Induction of Chromosomal Alterations

    VII. Chromosomal Alterations and Point Mutations

    VIII. Mutagenic Compounds Assayed by Cytogenetic Methods

    IX. Detection of Carcinogens

    X. Application of Cytogenetic Tests to Detect Human Recessive Disorders

    XI. Detection of Complementation Groups of Recessive Disorders

    XII. Effect of Cocultivation of Two Different Types of Cells

    XIII. Quantification of the Biological Effects in Relation to Primary Effects in the DNA

    XIV. In Vitro Cytogenetic Assays to Detect Mutagens in Comparison to Other Short-Term Tests

    XV. The Human Lymphocyte

    References

    8 Measurement of Mutations in Somatic Cells in Culture

    I. Importance of Using Mammalian Cells in Culture for Mutagenesis Studies

    II. Overview of Selected Aspects of Mammalian Cell Mutagenesis Studies

    III. Utilization of Mutagenesis Studies with Cultured Mammalian Cells

    IV. Conclusion

    References

    9 Chromosomal Aberrations Induced in Occupationally Exposed Persons

    I. Introduction: Possibilities Offered by Cytogenetic Methods for Testing the Effects of Small Doses of Chemicals Applied Chronically to Man

    II. Studies of Workers Occupationally Exposed to Chemicals

    III. Open Questions in the Field of Cytogenetic Monitoring of Occupationally Exposed People

    IV. Conclusions: Summary of Current Knowledge and Future Trends

    References

    10 The Rationale and Methodology for Quantifying Sister Chromatid Exchange in Humans

    I. Rationale for the Analysis of Sister Chromatid Exchange in Humans

    II. Methodological Aspects of Sister Chromatid Exchange Analysis in Human Populations

    III. Statistical Considerations

    IV. Application to Human Studies

    References

    11 The 6-Thioguanine-Resistant Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Assay for Direct Mutagenicity Testing in Humans

    I. Introduction

    II. The Thioguanine-Resistant (TGr) PBL Assay Method

    III. Sample Results

    IV. Statistical Analysis Methods

    V. Discussion

    References

    12 Sperm Assays as Indicators of Chemically Induced Germ-Cell Damage in Man

    I. Introduction

    II. Description of Available Human Sperm Assays and Their Relative Sensitivities

    III. Review of the Uses of Sperm Assays in Chemically Exposed Men

    IV. Rationale, Strategies, and Problems Encountered in the Use of Human Sperm Assays in Exposed Populations

    V. The Implications of Chemically Induced Sperm Changes

    VI. Conclusions

    References

    13 Cytogenetic Events in Vivo

    I. Introduction

    II. Structural Chromosome Aberrations

    III. Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCEs)

    References

    14 Dominant Skeletal Mutations: Applications in Mutagenicity Testing and Risk Estimation

    I. Introduction

    II. Dominant Skeletal Mutation Rate Experiment Using Breeding Tests

    III. The New Sensitive-Indicator Method

    IV. Other Major Questions about Genetic Risk Now Amenable to Study

    V. Study of Induced Dominant Damage to Other Body Systems

    VI. Effects of Decreased Viability and Incomplete Penetrance on Experimental Frequencies of Induced Dominant

    Damage

    VII. Relative Merits of Sensitive-Indicator and Standard Specific-Locus Methods

    VIII. Special Case in Which Risk Estimation Is Greatly Simplified by Using Sensitive-Indicator and Specific-Locus Methods

    References

    15 Plants as Sensitive in Situ Detectors of Atmospheric Mutagens

    I. Introduction

    II. Tradescantia as an in Situ System for the Detection of Atmospheric Mutagens

    III. Pollen Systems for the Detection of Atmospheric Mutagens

    IV. Other Higher-Plant Mutagen Assay Systems

    V. The Use of in Situ Weed Communities for the Detection of Atmospheric Mutagens

    VI. Discussion and Conclusions

    References

    16 Fishes as Biological Detectors of the Effects of Genotoxic Agents

    I. Introduction

    II. Methodologies for Aquatic Genetic Toxicology

    III. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 490
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1982
  • Published: January 28, 1982
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483271224

About the Editor

John A. Heddle

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