Ascending Synthesis of Monosaccharides: Building up with Total Synthesis. Building up of Sugars with Ascending Synthesis. Chain Extension with Diazoalkanes. Chain Extension with Malonester Derivatives. Chain Extensions with Phosphoranes. Olefination Reactions for the Synthesis of Chain-Extended Monosaccharides. Miscellaneous Methods for Chain Extension of the Monosaccharide Chain. Descending Synthesis of Monosaccharides: The Disulfone-Degradation. Degradation of theCalcium Salts of Aldonic Acids with Hydrogen Peroxide. Descending of Acylated Aldononitriles. Degradation of Saccharides with Oxidative Methods. Degradation of the Peroxide Derivatives of Saccharides. Chain Shortening of Saccharides by Means of Photochemical Methods. Preparation of Sugars with Isomerization: Epimerization of Saccharides in Alkaline Medium. Epimerization of Sugars with Molybdate Ions. Epimerization of Saccharides with the Amine-Complexes of Transition and Alkali-Earth Metals. Subject Index.