COVID-19 Update: We are currently shipping orders daily. However, due to transit disruptions in some geographies, deliveries may be delayed. To provide all customers with timely access to content, we are offering 50% off Science and Technology Print & eBook bundle options. Terms & conditions.
Money, Work, and Crime - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125982405, 9781483265803

Money, Work, and Crime

1st Edition

Experimental Evidence

Authors: Peter H. Rossi Richard A. Berk Kenneth J. Lenihan
eBook ISBN: 9781483265803
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1980
Page Count: 260
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out Price includes VAT/GST
Price includes VAT/GST

Institutional Subscription

Secure Checkout

Personal information is secured with SSL technology.

Free Shipping

Free global shipping
No minimum order.


Money, Work, and Crime: Experimental Evidence presents the complete details of the Department of Labor’s $3.4 million Transitional Aid Research Project (TARP), a large-scale field experiment which attempted to reduce recidivism on the part of ex-felons. Beginning in January 1976, some prisoners released from state institutions in Texas and Georgia were offered financial aid for periods of up to six months post-release. Payments were made in the form of Unemployment Insurance benefits. The ex-prisoners who were eligible for payments were compared with control groups released at the same time from the same institutions. The control groups were not eligible for benefits. The assumption that modest levels of financial help would ease the transition from prison life to civilian life was partially supported. Ex-prisoners who received financial aid under TARP had lower rearrest rates than their counterparts who did not receive benefits and worked comparable periods of time. Those receiving financial aid were also able to obtain better-paying jobs than the controls. However, ex-prisoners receiving benefits took longer to find jobs than those who did not receive benefits. The TARP experiment makes a strong contribution both to an important policy area—the reduction of crime through reducing recidivism—and to the further development of the field and experiment as a policy research instrument.

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables



I The Transitional Aid Research Project Experiments: Background, Design, and Outcomes

1 An Overview


The Social Problem

Adjustment Problems of Released Prisoners

The Transitional Aid Research Project

2 Historical Background of the Transitional Aid Research Project Experiments

Origins of TARP

The Baltimore LIFE Project

From the LIFE Project to TARP

3 Design of the Transitional Aid Research Project Experiments


Early Design Considerations

Implementing the Experiment

Estimating the Efficiency of the TARP Experiments

Work Disincentives

Geographic Coverage

Assignment to Experimental and Control Groups

State Administrative Arrangements for TARP

Recruitment of TARP Participants

Analysis of TARP Data Files

Other Related Research Conducted under TARP

4 Implementation of Transitional Aid Research Project Experimental Design


Randomization Success

The Georgia Commutation Order

The Experimental Treatments and Their Delivery

TARP Costs

Some Conclusions Concerning Implementation

5 TARP Outcomes: Effectiveness Masked by Unanticipated Side-Effects


Overall Experimental Outcomes

Why Did TARP Appear to Fail? An Array of Possible Explanations

A Conceptual Reinterpretation of the TARP Experiments

Testing the TARP Counterbalancing Model

Policy Implications of the LIFE and TARP Projects

II Ex-Prisoners and Their Postprison Experiences

6 The World of Ex-Prisoners

An Overview of Part II

A Technical Note

7 Participants in the Transitional Aid Research Project


Age and Sex

Race and Ethnic Compositions

Family Backgrounds of TARP Participants

Educational Attainment and IQ

Preimprisonment Work Experiences

Family Arrangements of TARP Participants at Arrest and on Release

Previous Criminal Records of TARP Participants

Offenses of Conviction

Continuing Ties: Parole and Discharge

Gate Money at Release


8 Postrelease Social and Psychological Adjustment Patterns


Postrelease Marital Status and Living Arrangements

Illness and Hospitalization

Self-Assessments of Adjustment

Adjustment in the Postrelease Year

9 Employment and Earnings


Finding a Job

Earnings from Employment

Employment and Earnings Conditional on Work

Control Groups: Determinants of Employment

Some Conclusions

10 Arrests and Arrest Charges


Arrest Rates

Arrest Charges

Some Observations on Rearrest

III Modeling and Estimating the Effects of the Transitional Aid Research Project

11 Model of the Effects of the Transitional Aid Research Project: Theoretical Foundations


The Theoretical Foundations of the TARP Model

The Specification of the Nonrecursive TARP Model

Some Complications and Caveats

Estimation Procedures

12 Estimating Transitional Aid Research Project Models for Texas and Georgia


TARP Results in Texas

Georgia TARP Results

Some Conclusions

13 Transitional Aid Research Project Payments, Job Search, and Weekly Wages


Texas Wage Analysis

Georgia Wage Analysis


IV Conclusions

14 The Policy Implications of the Transitional Aid Research Project


The Employment Strategy

Effective Transitional Financial Aid Strategies

A Call for Additional Research

V Appendices

A Data and Instruments

B "Nobody Knows the Troubles I've Seen": Postrelease Burdens on the Families of Transitional Aid Research Project

The Significant Woman Substudy

Characterizing the Significant Women

"Objective" Financial Drain on Household Resources

From the Subjective Side

What Does the Satisfaction Index Mean?

Determinants of Satisfaction

Determinants of Financial Impact


C Women Ex-Offenders in the TARP Experiment


Characteristics of TARP Women: Prerelease and Postrelease

Replication of the Counterbalancing Model

Reduced Form Results

Structural Equation Results for TARP Money Received

Structural Form Equation for the Number of Economic Arrests

Structural Form Results for the Number of Weeks Employed

Structural Equation Results for the Number of Weeks in Jail or Prison



No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1980
28th January 1980
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Authors

Peter H. Rossi

Richard A. Berk

Kenneth J. Lenihan

Ratings and Reviews