Molten Salts Chemistry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123985385, 9780124017221

Molten Salts Chemistry

1st Edition

From Lab to Applications

Authors: Frederic Lantelme Henri Groult
eBook ISBN: 9780124017221
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123985385
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 30th August 2013
Page Count: 592
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Molten salts and fused media provide the key properties and the theory of molten salts, as well as aspects of fused salts chemistry, helping you generate new ideas and applications for fused salts.

Molten Salts Chemistry: From Lab to Applications examines how the electrical and thermal properties of molten salts, and generally low vapour pressure are well adapted to high temperature chemistry, enabling fast reaction rates. It also explains how their ability to dissolve many inorganic compounds such as oxides, nitrides, carbides and other salts make molten salts ideal as solvents in electrometallurgy, metal coating, treatment of by-products and energy conversion.

This book also reviews newer applications of molten salts including materials for energy storage such as carbon nano-particles for efficient super capacitors, high capacity molten salt batteries and for heat transport and storage in solar plants. In addition, owing to their high thermal stability, they are considered as ideal candidates for the development of safer nuclear reactors and for the treatment of nuclear waste, especially to separate actinides from lanthanides by electrorefining.

Key Features

  • Explains the theory and properties of molten salts to help scientists understand these unique liquids
  • Provides an ideal introduction to this expanding field
  • Illustrated text with key real-life applications of molten salts in synthesis, energy, nuclear, and metal extraction


Academic and professionals researching or working in fused salts chemistry, energy, electrochemistry, solid state chemistry.

Table of Contents



1. Modeling of Molten Salts



1.1 Introduction

1.2 Methods and Models

1.3 Structure of Molten Salts

1.4 Dynamic Properties of Molten Salts

1.5 Conclusion


2. Raman Spectroscopy and Pulsed Neutron Diffraction of Molten Salt Mixtures Containing Rare-Earth Trichlorides: Trial Approaches from Fundamentals to Pyrochemical Reprocessing


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Experimental

2.3 Results and Discussion

2.4 Conclusions


3. In Situ Spectroscopy in Molten Fluoride Salts


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Experimental Techniques: Specificity, Limitation, Setup

3.3 Spectroscopic Studies of Molten Fluorides

3.4 Conclusion


4. Thermodynamic Calculations of Molten-Salt Reactor Fuel Systems


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Development of Thermodynamic Database

4.3 Status of ITU’s Salt Database

4.4 Binary Systems

4.5 Most Relevant Ternary Systems

4.6 Application of the Database

4.7 Summary


5. Ionic Transport in Molten Salts


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Electric Conductance

5.3 Concluding Remarks


6. Salt Bath Thermal Treating and Nitriding


6.1 Introduction

6.2 General Aspects of Molten Salt Heat Treating

6.3 Steel Nitriding

6.4 Salt Bath Nitriding

6.5 Conclusion


7. Catalysis in Molten Ionic Media


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Physicochemical Properties of the Catalyst Model System

7.3 Phase Diagrams of Molten Binary Systems of Relevance to the SO2 Oxidation Catalyst

7.4 Multi-instrumental Investigations and Complex Formation in Catalyst Model Melts

7.5 Activity and Deactivation of SO2 Oxidation Vanadia–Pyrosulfate Bulk Melts and Supported Molten Salts: Formation of Crystalline V Compounds

7.6 Vanadium Crystalline Compound Formation: A Summary of Structural and Vibrational Properties and Implications of Catalytic Activity and Deactivation

7.7 In Situ Spectroscopy of Catalyst Models and Industrial Catalysts

7.8 Mechanism of the SO2 Oxidation Catalytic Reaction

7.9 Concluding Remarks


8. The Ability of Molten Carbonate for Gas Cleaning of Biomass Gasification


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Gas-Cleaning Method

8.3 Desulfurization Using Molten Carbonate

8.4 Dehalogenation Using Molten Carbonate

8.5 Tar Cracking

8.6 Power Generation Test with a Molten-Carbonate Fuel Cell

8.7 Conclusions


9. Inert Anode Development for High-Temperature Molten Salts


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Inert Anode Development in Molten Chlorides

9.3 Experimental Evaluations

9.4 Carbon as an Inert Anode in the Absence of Oxygen in Molten Chlorides

9.5 Inert Anode Development in Molten Oxides

9.6 Inert Anode for Molten Carbonate Electrolysis

9.7 Perspectives


10. Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes in Molten Chloride Systems


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Stability of a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode in Molten Chloride Systems

10.3 Thermodynamics of Oxygen Electrode Reaction on a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

10.4 Conclusions


11. NF3 Production from Electrolysis in Molten Fluorides



11.1 Introduction

11.2 Anodic Behavior of Nickel and Nickel-Based Composite Electrodes in NH4F•2HF at 100°C for Electrolytic Production of NF3

11.3 Anodic Behavior of Carbon Electrode in NH4F•KF•mHF (m=3 and 4) at 100°C for Electrolytic Production of NF3

11.4 New Development for Electrolytic Production of NF3 Using Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) Anode

11.5 Conclusions


12. Corrosion in Molten Salts


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Corrosion in Molten Fluoride Salts

12.3 Corrosion in Molten Chloride Salts

12.4 Corrosion in Molten Fluoroborate Salts

12.5 Radiolysis Effects on Corrosion

12.6 Conclusions


13. Plasma-Induced Discharge Electrolysis for Nanoparticle Production


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Principle and Outline of Plasma-Induced Discharge Electrolysis

13.3 Nanoparticle Size Control Using Rotating Disk Anode

13.4 Conclusions


14. Electrochemical Formation of Rare Earth-Nickel Alloys



14.1 Introduction

14.2 Electrochemical Formation of Rare Earth Alloys in Molten Salts

14.3 LiCl(59)-KCl(41) Melts

14.4 NaCl(50)-KCl(50) Melts

14.5 LiF(80.5)-CaF2(19.5) Melts

14.6 A New Recycling Process for RE Metals

14.7 Conclusions


15. Electrochemical Synthesis of Novel Niobium and Tantalum Compounds in Molten Salts


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Experimental

15.3 Results and Discussion

15.4 Conclusions


16. Preparation of Carbonaceous Materials in Fused Carbonate Salts: Applications to Electrochemical Storages Devices



16.1 Synthesis of Carbon Nanopowders (CNPs) in Molten Carbonates

16.2 Use of CNPs in Electrochemical Capacitors

16.3 General Conclusions


17. Molten Carbonates from Fuel Cells to New Energy Devices


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Physicochemical Properties of Molten Carbonates

17.3 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell

17.4 New Topics

17.5 Conclusion


18. Synthesis and Li+ Ion Exchange in Molten Salts of Novel Hollandite-Type Ky(Mn1−xCox)O2·zH2O Nanofiber for Lithium Battery Electrodes


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Experimental

18.3 Results

18.4 Conclusion


19. Hybrid Molten Carbonate/Solid Oxide Direct Carbon Fuel Cells



19.1 Introduction

19.2 Direct-Carbon Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

19.3 Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell

19.4 Conclusion


20. High-Temperature Molten Salts for Solar Power Application



20.1 Introduction

20.2 Physicochemical Properties and Corrosion Aspects of Molten Alkali Nitrate Salts

20.3 Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Applications for Concentrated Solar Power

20.4 Summary and Conclusion


21. The Sodium Metal Halide (ZEBRA) Battery: An Example of Inorganic Molten Salt Electrolyte Battery


21.1 Introduction

21.2 Battery-Relevant Properties of the Molten Salt Electrolyte

21.3 Involvement of the Molten Electrolyte in Battery’s Safety and Operation Limits

21.4 Future Use of the ZEBRA Technology in Grid Applications


22. Hydrogen Storage and Transportation System through Lithium Hydride Using Molten Salt Technology


22.1 Introduction

22.2 Hydrogen Storage into Lithium (Production of LiH)

22.3 Electrolysis of LiOH

22.4 Conclusion


23. Nuclear Energy Based on Thorium Molten Salt



23.1 Introduction

23.2 Synergetic Nuclear System: THORIMS-NES

23.3 Molten Salt Power Reactor FUJI

23.4 Accelerator Molten Salt Breeder for 233U production

23.5 Regional Center for Chemical Processing and Fissile Production

23.6 Other Applications

23.7 Conclusion


24. Molten Salts for Nuclear Applications


24.1 Introduction

24.2 Existing Industrial Nuclear Processes

24.3 Processes in Progress for Future Nuclear Applications (GEN IV Systems)

24.4 Pyrochemical Treatments

24.5 Molten Salts as Coolants in Nuclear Energy

24.6 Conclusion


25. Lanthanides Extraction Processes in Molten Fluoride Media


25.1 Introduction

25.2 Selection of the Solvent

25.3 Electrodeposition of Bulk Lanthanides

25.4 Oxygenated Compounds Precipitation

25.5 Extraction by Electrodeposition of Alloys

25.6 Conclusions


26. Development of Pyrochemical Separation Processes for Recovery of Actinides from Spent Nuclear Fuel in Molten LiCl-KCl


26.1 Context

26.2 Development of Pyrochemical Metallic Fuel Reprocessing

26.3 Pyroprocesses for a Selective Grouped Actinide Recovery

26.4 Molten Salt Reactor Fuel Cycle




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About the Author

Frederic Lantelme

Henri Groult

Henri Groult is Director of Research of CNRS-UPMC-ESPCI UMR 7612, University of Pierre and Marie Curie (Paris 6) in France. He has devoted his research life to fluorine chemistry, electrochemistry, and molten salt chemistry. His main research subjects are electrolytic production of fluorine gas, fluorine compounds for primary and secondary lithium batteries, and electrochemical properties of molten fluorides and chlorides. He has obtained interesting results on fluorine evolution reaction on carbon electrodes, discharge behavior of carbon-fluorine compounds, charge/discharge characteristics of metal fluorides, and electrochemical properties of molten salts. On these subjects, he published more than 100 papers and 7 books. His activity has played an important role in fluorine chemistry in France. He has served as Director of the French Network of Fluorine, Chairman of the 17th European Symposium on Fluorine Chemistry (Paris, July 2013), and Editorial board of J. Fluorine Chemistry.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Pierre and Marie Curie, Paris, France


"Editors Lantelme…and Groult…present this compilation of research on molten salt chemistry and its applications, especially in high-temperature industrial processes. The first few chapters are allocated to modeling, spectroscopy, and thermodynamics of molten salt systems, followed by varied applications. Many chemical families are covered, including halides, carbonate-oxide systems, rare-earths, low-abundance transition metals, lithium compounds, and radioactive heavy elements…"--Reference & Research Book News, December 2013

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