Molten Salts Chemistry

Molten Salts Chemistry

From Lab to Applications

1st Edition - August 14, 2013

Write a review

  • Authors: FREDERIC Lantelme, Henri Groult
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124017221
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123985385

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (Mobi, PDF, EPub)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order


Molten salts and fused media provide the key properties and the theory of molten salts, as well as aspects of fused salts chemistry, helping you generate new ideas and applications for fused salts.Molten Salts Chemistry: From Lab to Applications examines how the electrical and thermal properties of molten salts, and generally low vapour pressure are well adapted to high temperature chemistry, enabling fast reaction rates. It also explains how their ability to dissolve many inorganic compounds such as oxides, nitrides, carbides and other salts make molten salts ideal as solvents in electrometallurgy, metal coating, treatment of by-products and energy conversion.This book also reviews newer applications of molten salts including materials for energy storage such as carbon nano-particles for efficient super capacitors, high capacity molten salt batteries and for heat transport and storage in solar plants. In addition, owing to their high thermal stability, they are considered as ideal candidates for the development of safer nuclear reactors and for the treatment of nuclear waste, especially to separate actinides from lanthanides by electrorefining.

Key Features

  • Explains the theory and properties of molten salts to help scientists understand these unique liquids
  • Provides an ideal introduction to this expanding field
  • Illustrated text with key real-life applications of molten salts in synthesis, energy, nuclear, and metal extraction


Academic and professionals researching or working in fused salts chemistry, energy, electrochemistry, solid state chemistry.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    1. Modeling of Molten Salts



    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Methods and Models

    1.3 Structure of Molten Salts

    1.4 Dynamic Properties of Molten Salts

    1.5 Conclusion


    2. Raman Spectroscopy and Pulsed Neutron Diffraction of Molten Salt Mixtures Containing Rare-Earth Trichlorides: Trial Approaches from Fundamentals to Pyrochemical Reprocessing


    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Experimental

    2.3 Results and Discussion

    2.4 Conclusions


    3. In Situ Spectroscopy in Molten Fluoride Salts


    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Experimental Techniques: Specificity, Limitation, Setup

    3.3 Spectroscopic Studies of Molten Fluorides

    3.4 Conclusion


    4. Thermodynamic Calculations of Molten-Salt Reactor Fuel Systems


    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Development of Thermodynamic Database

    4.3 Status of ITU’s Salt Database

    4.4 Binary Systems

    4.5 Most Relevant Ternary Systems

    4.6 Application of the Database

    4.7 Summary


    5. Ionic Transport in Molten Salts


    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Electric Conductance

    5.3 Concluding Remarks


    6. Salt Bath Thermal Treating and Nitriding


    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 General Aspects of Molten Salt Heat Treating

    6.3 Steel Nitriding

    6.4 Salt Bath Nitriding

    6.5 Conclusion


    7. Catalysis in Molten Ionic Media


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Physicochemical Properties of the Catalyst Model System

    7.3 Phase Diagrams of Molten Binary Systems of Relevance to the SO2 Oxidation Catalyst

    7.4 Multi-instrumental Investigations and Complex Formation in Catalyst Model Melts

    7.5 Activity and Deactivation of SO2 Oxidation Vanadia–Pyrosulfate Bulk Melts and Supported Molten Salts: Formation of Crystalline V Compounds

    7.6 Vanadium Crystalline Compound Formation: A Summary of Structural and Vibrational Properties and Implications of Catalytic Activity and Deactivation

    7.7 In Situ Spectroscopy of Catalyst Models and Industrial Catalysts

    7.8 Mechanism of the SO2 Oxidation Catalytic Reaction

    7.9 Concluding Remarks


    8. The Ability of Molten Carbonate for Gas Cleaning of Biomass Gasification


    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Gas-Cleaning Method

    8.3 Desulfurization Using Molten Carbonate

    8.4 Dehalogenation Using Molten Carbonate

    8.5 Tar Cracking

    8.6 Power Generation Test with a Molten-Carbonate Fuel Cell

    8.7 Conclusions


    9. Inert Anode Development for High-Temperature Molten Salts


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Inert Anode Development in Molten Chlorides

    9.3 Experimental Evaluations

    9.4 Carbon as an Inert Anode in the Absence of Oxygen in Molten Chlorides

    9.5 Inert Anode Development in Molten Oxides

    9.6 Inert Anode for Molten Carbonate Electrolysis

    9.7 Perspectives


    10. Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes in Molten Chloride Systems


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Stability of a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode in Molten Chloride Systems

    10.3 Thermodynamics of Oxygen Electrode Reaction on a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    10.4 Conclusions


    11. NF3 Production from Electrolysis in Molten Fluorides



    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Anodic Behavior of Nickel and Nickel-Based Composite Electrodes in NH4F•2HF at 100°C for Electrolytic Production of NF3

    11.3 Anodic Behavior of Carbon Electrode in NH4F•KF•mHF (m=3 and 4) at 100°C for Electrolytic Production of NF3

    11.4 New Development for Electrolytic Production of NF3 Using Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) Anode

    11.5 Conclusions


    12. Corrosion in Molten Salts


    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Corrosion in Molten Fluoride Salts

    12.3 Corrosion in Molten Chloride Salts

    12.4 Corrosion in Molten Fluoroborate Salts

    12.5 Radiolysis Effects on Corrosion

    12.6 Conclusions


    13. Plasma-Induced Discharge Electrolysis for Nanoparticle Production


    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Principle and Outline of Plasma-Induced Discharge Electrolysis

    13.3 Nanoparticle Size Control Using Rotating Disk Anode

    13.4 Conclusions


    14. Electrochemical Formation of Rare Earth-Nickel Alloys



    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Electrochemical Formation of Rare Earth Alloys in Molten Salts

    14.3 LiCl(59)-KCl(41) Melts

    14.4 NaCl(50)-KCl(50) Melts

    14.5 LiF(80.5)-CaF2(19.5) Melts

    14.6 A New Recycling Process for RE Metals

    14.7 Conclusions


    15. Electrochemical Synthesis of Novel Niobium and Tantalum Compounds in Molten Salts


    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Experimental

    15.3 Results and Discussion

    15.4 Conclusions


    16. Preparation of Carbonaceous Materials in Fused Carbonate Salts: Applications to Electrochemical Storages Devices



    16.1 Synthesis of Carbon Nanopowders (CNPs) in Molten Carbonates

    16.2 Use of CNPs in Electrochemical Capacitors

    16.3 General Conclusions


    17. Molten Carbonates from Fuel Cells to New Energy Devices


    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Physicochemical Properties of Molten Carbonates

    17.3 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell

    17.4 New Topics

    17.5 Conclusion


    18. Synthesis and Li+ Ion Exchange in Molten Salts of Novel Hollandite-Type Ky(Mn1−xCox)O2·zH2O Nanofiber for Lithium Battery Electrodes


    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Experimental

    18.3 Results

    18.4 Conclusion


    19. Hybrid Molten Carbonate/Solid Oxide Direct Carbon Fuel Cells



    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Direct-Carbon Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    19.3 Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell

    19.4 Conclusion


    20. High-Temperature Molten Salts for Solar Power Application



    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Physicochemical Properties and Corrosion Aspects of Molten Alkali Nitrate Salts

    20.3 Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Applications for Concentrated Solar Power

    20.4 Summary and Conclusion


    21. The Sodium Metal Halide (ZEBRA) Battery: An Example of Inorganic Molten Salt Electrolyte Battery


    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Battery-Relevant Properties of the Molten Salt Electrolyte

    21.3 Involvement of the Molten Electrolyte in Battery’s Safety and Operation Limits

    21.4 Future Use of the ZEBRA Technology in Grid Applications


    22. Hydrogen Storage and Transportation System through Lithium Hydride Using Molten Salt Technology


    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Hydrogen Storage into Lithium (Production of LiH)

    22.3 Electrolysis of LiOH

    22.4 Conclusion


    23. Nuclear Energy Based on Thorium Molten Salt



    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Synergetic Nuclear System: THORIMS-NES

    23.3 Molten Salt Power Reactor FUJI

    23.4 Accelerator Molten Salt Breeder for 233U production

    23.5 Regional Center for Chemical Processing and Fissile Production

    23.6 Other Applications

    23.7 Conclusion


    24. Molten Salts for Nuclear Applications


    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Existing Industrial Nuclear Processes

    24.3 Processes in Progress for Future Nuclear Applications (GEN IV Systems)

    24.4 Pyrochemical Treatments

    24.5 Molten Salts as Coolants in Nuclear Energy

    24.6 Conclusion


    25. Lanthanides Extraction Processes in Molten Fluoride Media


    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 Selection of the Solvent

    25.3 Electrodeposition of Bulk Lanthanides

    25.4 Oxygenated Compounds Precipitation

    25.5 Extraction by Electrodeposition of Alloys

    25.6 Conclusions


    26. Development of Pyrochemical Separation Processes for Recovery of Actinides from Spent Nuclear Fuel in Molten LiCl-KCl


    26.1 Context

    26.2 Development of Pyrochemical Metallic Fuel Reprocessing

    26.3 Pyroprocesses for a Selective Grouped Actinide Recovery

    26.4 Molten Salt Reactor Fuel Cycle



Product details

  • No. of pages: 592
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2013
  • Published: August 14, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124017221
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123985385

About the Authors


Henri Groult

Henri Groult is Director of Research of CNRS-UPMC-ESPCI UMR 7612, University of Pierre and Marie Curie (Paris 6) in France. He has devoted his research life to fluorine chemistry, electrochemistry, and molten salt chemistry. His main research subjects are electrolytic production of fluorine gas, fluorine compounds for primary and secondary lithium batteries, and electrochemical properties of molten fluorides and chlorides. He has obtained interesting results on fluorine evolution reaction on carbon electrodes, discharge behavior of carbon-fluorine compounds, charge/discharge characteristics of metal fluorides, and electrochemical properties of molten salts. On these subjects, he published more than 100 papers and 7 books. His activity has played an important role in fluorine chemistry in France. He has served as Director of the French Network of Fluorine, Chairman of the 17th European Symposium on Fluorine Chemistry (Paris, July 2013), and Editorial board of J. Fluorine Chemistry.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Pierre and Marie Curie, Paris, France

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Molten Salts Chemistry"