Molecular Sensors and Nanodevices

Molecular Sensors and Nanodevices

Principles, Designs and Applications in Biomedical Engineering

1st Edition - December 3, 2013

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  • Authors: John Zhang, Kazunori Hoshino
  • eBook ISBN: 9781455776764
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781455776313

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With applications ranging from medical diagnostics to environmental monitoring, molecular sensors (also known as biosensors, chemical sensors, or chemosensors), along with emerging nanotechnologies offer not only valuable tools but also unlimited possibilities for engineers and scientists to explore the world. New generation of functional microsystems can be designed to provide a variety of small scale sensing, imaging and manipulation techniques to the fundamental building blocks of materials. This book provides comprehensive coverage of the current and emerging technologies of molecular sensing, explaining the principles of molecular sensor design and assessing the sensor types currently available. Having explained the basic sensor structures and sensing principles, the authors proceed to explain the role of nano/micro fabrication techniques in molecular sensors, including MEMS, BioMEMS, MicroTAS among others. The miniaturization of versatile molecular sensors opens up a new design paradigm and a range of novel biotechnologies, which is illustrated through case studies of groundbreaking applications in the life sciences and elsewhere. As well as the techniques and devices themselves, the authors also cover the critical issues of implantability, biocompatibility and the regulatory framework. The book is aimed at a broad audience of engineering professionals, life scientists and students working in the multidisciplinary area of biomedical engineering. It explains essential principles of electrical, chemical, optical and mechanical engineering as well as biomedical science, intended for readers with a variety of scientific backgrounds. In addition, it will be valuable for medical professionals and researchers. An online tutorial developed by the authors provides learning reinforcement for students and professionals alike.

Key Features

  • Reviews of state-of-the-art molecular sensors and nanotechnologies
  • Explains principles of sensors and fundamental theories with homework problems at the end of each chapter to facilitate learning
  • Demystifies the vertical integration from nanomaterials to devices design
  • Covers practical applications the recent progress in state-of-the-art sensor technologies
  • Includes case studies of important commercial products
  • Covers the critical issues of implantability, biocompatibility and the regulatory framework


Engineers, life scientists and students working in the multidisciplinary area of biomedical device engineering; medical professionals and researchers

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    About the Authors



    Chapter 1. Introduction to Molecular Sensors

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Principles of Molecular Sensors

    1.3 Capture and Recognition Elements in Molecular Sensors

    1.4 Transduction Mechanisms

    1.5 Performance of Molecular Sensors

    1.6 Animals as Molecular Sensors

    1.7 Conclusion



    Further Reading

    Chapter 2. Fundamentals of Nano/Microfabrication and Effect of Scaling

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Scaling in Molecular Sensors

    2.3 Microfabrication Basics

    2.4 Micro-electro-mechanical Systems (MEMS)

    2.5 Soft Lithography

    2.6 “Top Down “and “Bottom Up” Approaches

    2.7 Conclusion



    Further Reading

    Chapter 3. Microfluidics and Micro Total Analytical Systems

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Microfluidics Fundamentals

    3.3 Microfluidics for Molecular Sensors



    Further Reading

    Chapter 4. Electrical Transducers: Electrochemical Sensors and Semiconductor Molecular Sensors

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Electrochemical Sensors

    4.3 FET-Based Molecular Sensors

    4.4 Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene-Based Sensors

    4.5 Conclusion



    Further Reading

    Chapter 5. Optical Transducers: Optical Molecular Sensors and Optical Spectroscopy

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Basic EM Theory

    5.3 Waveguide-Based Molecular Sensors

    5.4 Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Sensors

    5.5 Absorption Spectroscopy

    5.6 Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    5.7 Light Scattering

    5.8 Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy



    Further Reading

    Chapter 6. Mechanical Transducers: Cantilevers, Acoustic Wave Sensors, and Thermal Sensors

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Cantilever-Based Molecular Sensors

    6.3 Acoustic Molecular Sensors: TSM, SAW, FPW, APM, and Tuning Forks

    6.4 Thermal Sensors

    6.5 Conclusions



    Further Reading

    Chapter 7. Implantable Sensors

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Sensing in Cardiac Pacemakers

    7.3 Implantable Electrodes

    7.4 Implantable Mechanical Sensors

    7.5 Drug Delivery Devices

    7.6 Energy Harvesting Implantable Devices

    7.7 FDA Regulation of Medical Devices

    7.8 Conclusion



    Appendix 5A. Fresnel Diffraction and Fraunhofer Diffraction

    5A.1 Fresnel Diffraction

    5A.2 Fresnel Condition

    5A.3 Fraunhofer Diffraction

    Appendix 5B. Coupling Between the Evanescent Wave and the Surface Plasmon

    Appendix 6A. Analysis of Beam Bending


Product details

  • No. of pages: 512
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2013
  • Published: December 3, 2013
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • eBook ISBN: 9781455776764
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781455776313

About the Authors

John Zhang

Xiaojing(John) Zhang is an Associate Professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Texas of Austin (UT Austin). He received his Ph.D. from Stanford University, California, and was a Research Scientist at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) before joining the faculty at UT Austin.

Dr. Zhang’s research focuses on integrating Micro-electro-mechanical Systems (MEMS), nano-materials, micro-imaging and biosensors to provide innovative solutions to critical healthcare issues. Dr. Zhang has actively engaged in teaching new concepts and methods in these emerging biomedical engineering frontiers and has demonstrated innovation and excellence in engineering education. The materials presented in this textbook are based on his lecture notes while teaching a popular course on molecular sensors and nanodevices at UT Austin for the past 8 years.

He has a track record for developing both core and emerging engineering curriculum along with developing well-funded research programs with fellow students. Among his numerous awards, Dr. Zhang received the Wallace H. Coulter Foundation Early Career Award in Biomedical Engineering, NSF CAREER award, DARPA Young Faculty Award among many others. To recognize his accomplishment in research and education, Dr. Zhang was selected to attend the prestigious US National Academy of Engineering, Frontiers of Engineering (NAE FOE) program in 2011, the NAE Frontiers of Engineering Education (NAE FOEE) program in 2012, and subsequently China-America Frontiers of Engineering Symposium (CAFOE) program in 2013.

As an active member in his professional community, Dr. Zhang has served on numerous international conference organizing committees and editorial boards. He is an editor for ASME/IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems (JMEMS) and an associate editor Biomedical Microdevices.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Engineering, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth University, USA

Kazunori Hoshino

Kazunori Hoshino received his PhD degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, in 2000. He worked for the University of Tokyo from 2003 to 2006 as a lecturer in the Department of Mechano-Informatics, School of Information Science and Technology, where he conducted several government funded project as the principal investigator. In 2006, he joined the University of Texas at Austin, where he works as a Senior Research Associate in the Department of Biomedical Engineering. His research interests are (1) NEMS/MEMS-based nanophotonic sensing and imaging systems and (2) microfluidic detection, imaging, and analysis of cancer cells. He has more than 100 peer reviewed publications in top international journals and conferences in the field of sensors, micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS), and micro total analytical systems (µTAS). He is the inventor of 6 issued US patents and 12 issued Japanese patents. The courses he has taught at the University of Tokyo and the University of Texas at Austin include: molecular sensors and nanodevices, intelligent micro-electro-mechanical systems, digital control systems, and engineering mathematics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut, USA

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