Molecular and Cell Biology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122792021, 9780323149068

Molecular and Cell Biology

1st Edition

Editors: Harry Gelboin
eBook ISBN: 9780323149068
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1978
Page Count: 473
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Description

Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Cancer, Volume 2: Molecular and Cell Biology explores the link between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and cancer from the viewpoint of molecular and cell biology.
This volume consists of 26 chapters divided into eight sections based on the following themes: DNA and Chromatin Interactions; Microbial Mutagenesis; Mammalian Mutagenesis; DNA Repair; Transformation of Cells in Culture; Animal and Human Models; Genetics; and Comments and Observations. The discussion begins with an analysis of the interactions of PAHs with cellular macromolecules and with DNA of mammalian cells in culture. The following chapters focus on microbial and mammalian mutagenesis by PAHs; mechanisms of DNA excision repair in human cells; effect of DNA repair on the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of PAH metabolites in human cells; and oncogenic transformation of cell cultures by PAHs and their derivatives. The final chapter makes the case for the establishment of a system for conducting quantitative assessments of biomedical risk presented by many types of environmental perturbants such as PAHs. This monograph will be of interest to investigators and educators concerned with scientific aspects of PAH research; government officials and elected representatives as well as industry leaders who must confront and solve the problems related to PAHs; and others in the field of molecular and cell biology.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Contents of Volume 1

Part I DNA and Chromatin Interactions

1 Interactions between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Cellular Macromolecules

I. Introduction

II. Structures of PAH-Nucleoside Adducts

III. Conformation of DNA Modified by Reaction with BPDE

IV. Functional Changes in BPDE-Modified DNA

V. Reactions of PAH's with Protein

VI. Summary and Unresolved Problems

References

2 Recent Work of Pascaline Daudel

I. Introduction

II.Interaction of Carcinogens with DNA: Resulting Damages

References

3 The Interaction of Polycyclic Hydrocarbons with DNA of Mammalian Cells in Culture

I. Introduction

II. Methodology

III. The In Vivo Binding of BP, MBA, and MC to DNA

References

4 Reactions of Activated Benzo[a]Pyrene with DNA and RNA

Text

References

5 Modification of DNA by Benzo[a]Pyrene Diol Epoxide I

I. Introduction

II. Materials and Methods

III. Results and Discussion

References

6 Interactions between Benzo[a]Pyrene Diol Epoxide I and Chromatin

I. Introduction

II. Modification of Core Particles with BPDE

III. Modification of Core Particle DNA with BPDE

IV. Modification of Core Particle Histones with BPDE

V. Modification of Nonhistone Core Particle Proteins with BPDE

VI. Conclusion

References

Part II Microbial Mutagenesis

7 Mutagenesis: Microbial Systems

I. Introduction

II. Microbial Assay System

III. Mutagenicities of Benzo[a]Pyrene and Its Metabolites

IV. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Other than Benzo[a]Pyrene

V. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as Environmental Mutagens

References

8 Comparative Mutagenicity of Diol Epoxides of Benzo[a]Pyrene and Benzo[a]Anthracene in V79 Chinese Hamster Cells and Salmonella Typhimurium

I. Introduction

II. Experimental Procedures

III. Results and Discussion

IV. Concluding Remarks

References

Part III Mammalian Mutagenesis

9 Mammalian Cell Mutagenesis by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Derivatives

I. Introduction

II. Mutagenic Activity of Carcinogenic PAH's

III. Conclusion

References

10 Cell Transformation and Mutability of Different Genetic Loci in Mammalian Cells by Metabolically Activated Carcinogenic Polycyclic Hydrocarbons

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Conclusion

References

Part IV DNA Repair

11 Mechanisms of DNA Excision Repair in Human Cells

I. Introduction

II. Repair Reactions in Cells

III. Mechanism of Excision Repair

IV. Repair of Benzopyrene Diol Epoxide-Induced Damage

V. Adherence to BND-Cellulose by Chemical Interaction

VI. Excision Repair and Genetic Processes

VII. Control of DNA Repair Capability

VIII. Enzymatic Basis of Repair

IX. Summary: The Role of Excision Repair

References

12 Formation and Repair of Benzo[a]Pyrene-Induced DNA Damage in Mammalian Cells

I. Introduction

II. Formation of Covalent Benzo[a]pyrene-DNA Adducts in Mammalian Cells

III. Repair of Benzo[<2]pyrene-DNA Adducts

IV. Indirect Formation of DNA-Base Damage by Reactive Oxygen Radical Species Produced as a Consequence of Benzo[a]pyrene Metabolism

References

13 Repair of Human DNA Damaged by Ultraviolet and Benzo[a]Pyrene Diol Epoxide I

Text

References

14 Effect of DNA Repair on the Cytotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Polycyclic Hydrocarbon Metabolites in Human Cells

I. Introduction

II. Experimental Procedures

III. Results

IV. Discussion

References

Part V Transformation! Cell Culture

15 Mechanistic Studies of Neoplastic Transformation of Cells in Culture

I. Introduction

II. In Vitro Systems for Mechanistic Study of Neoplastic Transformation

III. Phenotypic Alterations Associated with Neoplastic Cells

IV. Basic Issues in the Studies of in Vitro Neoplastic Transformation

V. Areas for Future Research

References

16 Oncogenic Transformation of Cell Cultures by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Derivatives

Text

References

17 Biological Activity of Polycyclic Hydrocarbons in Syrian Hamster Cells In Vitro

Text

References

18 Factors Affecting Polycyclic Hydrocarbon-Induced Cell Transformation

I. Introduction

II. Results and Discussion

III. Conclusion

References

Part VI Animal and Human Models

19 In Vivo and In Vitro Studies of the Evolution of Epithelial Neoplasia

I. Introduction: The Hypothesis of Neoplastic Development

II. An Experimental Model for the Study of Incipient Neoplasia

III. In Vivo-In Vitro Studies with the Explant-Outgrowth System

IV. In Vivo-In Vitro Studies with Dispersed Epithelial Cells

V. Discussion: Altered in Vitro Growth Capacity, a Common Feature of Carcinogen-Exposed Cells

References

20 Metabolism of Benzo[a]Pyrene in Cultured Human Tissues and Cells

I. Introduction

II. Metabolism of Benzo[a]Pyrene

III. Conclusion

References

Part VII Genetics

21 The Ah Locus: Genetic Regulation of the Enzymes which Metabolize Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and the Risk for Cancer

I. Introduction and Scope

II. The Cytochrome Ñ-450 Monooxygenase Systems and Coordinated Enzymes

III. Genetic Differences in the Risk for Cancer

IV. "Pleiotypic Response" of the Ah Locus

V. Evidence for the Human Ah Locus

VI. Summary

References

22 Genetics of Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase in the Human Population and Its Relationship to Lung Cancer

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results and Discussion

IV. Summary

References

23 Evidence for Linkage between Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase Expression and Enzyme Markers Assigned to Human Chromosome 2 in Human x Mouse Hybrid Cells

I. Introduction

II. Materials and Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

V. Summary

References

Part VIII Comments and Observations

24 Polycyclic Hydrocarbon Carcinogenesis: An Overall View

Text

Appendix

References

25 Comments on Some Biomedical, Environmental, and Societal Aspects

I. Biomedical Aspects

II. Environmental Considerations

III. Societal Aspects

26 On the Establishment of Biomedical Risk Assessment Systems

Text

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
473
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1978
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323149068

About the Editor

Harry Gelboin

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