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Modulation of Sleep by Obesity, Diabetes, Age, and Diet - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124201682, 9780124202405

Modulation of Sleep by Obesity, Diabetes, Age, and Diet

1st Edition

Editor: Ronald Watson
eBook ISBN: 9780124202405
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124201682
Paperback ISBN: 9780128103074
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 14th September 2014
Page Count: 408
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Sleep disorder is a rampant problem in the US, with over 40 million Americans currently diagnosed according to the NIH. There is a clear association between sleep disorder and a wide range of other human disorders –performance deficiencies, psychiatric illnesses, heart disease, obesity and more – but in spite of this there is not yet a convenient overview on the market detailing the impact of obesity, age, diabetes and diet on sleep duration and attendant health outcomes. This volume focuses on the interaction between sleep and these factors, with special attention being paid to the potential for neurological modulation of sleep via diet. The volume aid readers in understanding the role each of these factors plays in sleep architecture and its regulation by circadian biology and neurology.

Key Features

  • Aids in understanding the impact of age, diet, obesity and disease on sleep
  • Offers focus on neurological changes that affect metabolism
  • Explores diabetes induced sleep problems
  • Aid to understanding the multifactorial causes of age-related sleep dysfunction
  • Addresses selected studies of nutraceuticals affecting sleep for potential application clinically
  • Discusses major impact on sleep disorders by caffeine and alcohol


Researchers and advanced students in sleep science, neurology, neuroscience and nutrition

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments
  • Part I. Mechanisms of Sleep Deprivation and General Dietary Therapies
    • Chapter 1. Diet, Age, and Sleep in Invertebrate Model Organisms
      • Introduction
      • How Do We Know that the Animal Is Sleeping?
      • Different Ways to Evaluate Sleep
      • Correlations between Ecological Niche and Sleep Behavior
      • Effects of Diet on Sleep
      • Effects of Disease and Age on Sleep
      • Effects of Sleep on Feeding and Disease
      • Summary
    • Chapter 2. The Role of Sleep in the Control of Feeding Behavior
      • Introduction
      • Effect of Sleep Restriction on Hunger and Food Intake
      • Neuroendocrine Control of Food Intake and Sleep Duration
      • Sleep Restriction and Food Choice
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 3. Diagnosis and Treatment of Shift Work Disorder
      • Introduction
      • Circadian Rhythms
      • Symptoms and Diagnosis of SWD
      • Differential Diagnosis of SWD
      • Consequences of SWD
      • Treatment
      • Summary
    • Chapter 4. Normal Sleep and Its Neurophysiological Regulation
      • Normal Sleep Pattern over the Night
      • Sleep is Regulated by Circadian and Homeostatic Mechanisms
      • Sleep and Aging
      • Neurophysiology of Sleep
      • Sleep Mechanisms and the Circadian Clock
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 5. The 1-2-3s of Pediatric Sleep Disorders
      • Introduction
      • Normal Sleep Physiology
      • Insufficient Sleep Syndrome
      • Sleep History/Physical Examination
      • Diagnostic Tools for Pediatric Sleep Disorders
      • Behavioral Insomnia of Childhood
      • Parasomnias
      • Circadian Rhythm Disorders—Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome
      • Rhythmic Movement Disorders
      • Periodic Limb Movement Disorder
      • Sleep Disordered Breathing
      • Hypersomnia/Narcolepsy
      • Summary
    • Chapter 6. Sleep Disturbances, Body Mass Index, and Eating Behavior
      • Introduction
      • Studies Exploring the Effect of Sleep Difficulties on the Modulation of Eating Disturbances/BMI
      • Studies Exploring Eating Behavior Disturbances/BMI Effect on Modulation of Sleep Difficulties
      • Longitudinal Studies in General Population Subjects Exploring the Bidirectional Association between Sleep and Eating Disturbances/BMI: Our Contribution
      • Body Mass Index versus Eating Behavior Disturbances Associations with Sleep
      • Potential Mechanisms of Association
      • Discussion
  • Part II. Obesity and Sleep Apnea
    • Chapter 7. Neurocognitive Functions in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome
      • Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome
      • Neurocognitive Functions
      • Neurocognitive Functions in Untreated OSA Patients
      • Neurocognitive Functions Before and After CPAP Treatment
      • Neurocognitive Function in OSA Patients Who Received Different Modes of Treatment
      • Neurocognitive Functions after CPAP Withdrawal
      • Does Treating Sleep Apnea Improve Neurocognitive Function?
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 8. Adipose Tissue in Sleep Apnea: Effects of Hypoxia and Inflammation
      • Introduction
      • Hypoxia and Inflammation in Adipose Tissue
      • Effects of Intermittent or Continuous Hypoxia
      • Clinical Implications
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 9. Exercise, Diet, and Obese Adolescents: Association with Sleep Deprivation
      • Sleep Habits in Adolescents
      • Relationship between Sleep Habits and Obesity
      • Energy Intake, Sleep, and Obesity
      • Energy Expenditure, Sleep, and Obesity
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 10. Sleep and Hypoxemia in Adults
    • Chapter 11. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
      • Introduction
      • Mechanisms Underlying the Development of OHS
      • Clinical Consequences of OHS
      • Treatment Modalities and Outcomes
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 12. Sleep, Sexual Function, and Testosterone
      • Pituitary–Gonadal Axis
      • Pituitary–Gonadal Axis during Sleep in Healthy Males
      • Sexual Dysfunction
      • Role of Sleep in Sexual Dysfunction
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 13. The Malignant Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
      • Introduction
      • Pathophysiology
      • Clinical Presentation and Diagnostic Approach
      • Management
    • Chapter 14. Obesity, Inflammation, and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Exercise as Therapy
      • Introduction
      • Obesity as a Main Risk Factor for OSA
      • The Vicious Cycle between Obesity and OSA
      • Inflammation: A Common Link between Obesity and OSA
      • OSA and Obesity-Related Disorders
      • Effects of Exercises and Nutrition on the Treatment of Obesity and OSA
      • Conclusion and Future Directions
    • Chapter 15. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Normal-Weight and Obese Patients
      • What Causes OSAS in Normal-Weight Patients?
      • What Causes OSAS in Obese Patients?
      • Differences in the Nature of OSAS in Normal-Weight and Obese Patients
      • Consequences of OSAS in Obese and Normal-Weight Patients
      • Therapy of OSAS in Obese and Nonobese Patients
  • Part III. Metabolic Syndrome and Sleep Deprivation
    • Chapter 16. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Profiles and Relationships
      • Terminology of Sleep Apnea
      • The Metabolic Syndrome
      • Primary Snoring
      • Airway Physiology in Obesity
      • Pulmonary Vasculature
      • The Obesity Hyperventilation Syndrome
      • The Overlap Syndrome: COPD and OSA
      • Cardiovascular Morbidity
      • Hypertension
      • Arrhythmias
      • Conundrums
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 17. Circadian Misalignment and Metabolic Consequences: Shiftwork and Altered Meal Times
      • Overview
      • Misaligned Clocks and Physiological Consequences—Mechanisms
      • Misaligned Clocks and Physiological Consequences—Evidence
      • Summary
    • Chapter 18. Role of Sympathetic Nervous System in the Metabolic Syndrome and Sleep Apnea
      • Introduction
      • The Metabolic Syndrome: The “Actors”
      • Hypertension
      • Obesity
      • Sympathetic Activation in the Metabolic Syndrome
      • The Hyperadrenergic Tone in Sleep Apnea Syndrome
      • Mechanisms Responsible for the Sympathetic Abnormalities
      • Sympathetic Activation and Cardiovascular Risk
      • Therapeutic Implications
    • Chapter 19. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Metabolic Syndrome: Pathophysiological and Clinical Evidence
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiology of OSAS
      • OSAS and Cardiovascular Diseases
      • Definition and Clinical Presentation of MetS
      • OSAS and MetS
      • OSAS and Central Obesity
      • OSAS and Arterial Hypertension
      • OSAS, Insulin Resistance and Diabetes
      • OSAS and Atherogenic Dyslipidemia
      • OSAS and Inflammation
      • OSAS and Oxidative Stress
      • OSAS and Endothelial Dysfunction
      • CPAP and MetS
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 20. Sleep Deprivation and Metabolic Syndrome
      • Introduction
      • SD and Hypertension
      • Sleep Loss and Glucose Metabolism
      • SD and Obesity
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 21. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness: Age, Sleep, Mood, and Metabolic Modulation
      • Introduction
      • Definition
      • Sleep
      • Mood
      • Metabolism
      • Public Health and Clinical Implications
    • Chapter 22. The Metabolic Role of Saturated and Monounsaturated Dietary Fatty Acids: Their Contribution to Obesity, Brain Activity, and Sleep Behavior
      • Metabolic Abnormalities during Obesity
      • Insulin Action in the Brain
      • Brain Insulin Resistance
      • Fatty Acid Signaling through Receptors
      • Impact of Fat on Glucose Homeostasis
      • Fat Quality Correlates with Insulin Sensitivity
      • Consequences of Impaired Sleep Behavior on Metabolism
      • Metabolic Sleep Disturbances
  • Part IV. Sleep and Diabetes
    • Chapter 23. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Diabetic Microvascular Complications
      • Introduction
      • The Pathogenesis of Diabetic Microvascular Complications
      • Why Might OSA Contribute to the Development and Progression of Diabetic Microvascular Complications?
      • OSA and Diabetic Microvascular Complications
      • Summary and Conclusions
    • Chapter 24. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Increases Hemoglobin A1c Levels: Mechanisms and Consequences
      • Introduction
      • Association between OSA Severity and HbA1c Levels in OSA Patients
      • Association between OSA Severity and HbA1c Levels in Diabetic Patients
      • Effect of CPAP on HbA1c Levels
      • Mechanisms for the Adverse Effect of OSA on Glucose Metabolism
      • Conclusions
  • Part V. Aging and Sleep Deprivation
    • Chapter 25. Restless Legs Syndrome (Willis–Ekbom Disease) and Gastrointestinal Diseases
      • Introduction
      • General Discussion of Small-Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth
      • Gastrointestinal Diseases Associated with RLS
      • Dietary Triggers for RLS and for RLS Associated with Celiac Disease and SIBO
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 26. Relationship between Circadian Rhythms, Feeding, and Obesity
      • General Introduction
      • Circadian Disruption and Obesity
      • Timing of Feeding
      • Summary
    • Chapter 27. The Effects of Nutrition on Sleep and Sleep Complaints among Elderly Persons
      • Introduction
      • Mechanisms of Sleep
      • Nutrition and Sleep Problems among Elderly Persons
    • Chapter 28. Fragmented Sleep and Memory Consolidation
      • Sleep Architecture
      • Disorders of Sleep Architecture
      • Studying Sleep Continuity
      • The Functions of Sleep
      • Functional Outcomes of Sleep Fragmentation
      • Summary
    • Chapter 29. Sleepiness at the Wheel and Countermeasures: Effects of Caffeine, Napping, and Blue Light
      • Introduction
      • Lack of Sleep and Accidents
      • Shift Work and Accidents
      • Countermeasures
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 30. Sleep Deprivation and Behavioral Risk-Taking
      • Simple Inattention
      • Lack of Awareness of Deficits
      • Reduced Inhibitory Capacity
      • Subjective Risk-Taking Propensity
      • Behavioral Risk-Taking
      • Conclusions
  • Part VI. Food, Nutrients, and Dietary
    • Chapter 31. Relation between Magnesium Deficiency and Sleep Disorders and Associated Pathological Changes
      • Introduction
      • Magnesium Deficiency in Humans
      • Biochemical Basis for Magnesium Affecting Sleep
      • Magnesium Deficiency and Sleep Disorders
      • Summary/Conclusion
    • Chapter 32. Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Sleep Apnea and Obesity
      • Physical Activity
      • Physical Activity in Sleep Apnea and Obesity
      • Sedentary Time
      • Correlates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Time
      • Health Behavior Change of Physical Activity and Sedentary Time
      • Summary
    • Chapter 33. Oxidative Stress in Sleep Apnea
      • Sleep Apnea Syndrome
      • Oxidative Stress
      • SAS and Oxidative Stress
      • Clinical Studies on Oxidative Stress in SAS
      • The Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Oxidative Stress
      • Conclusion
  • Part VII. Alcohol and Sleep Dysfunction
    • Chapter 34. Sleep in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
      • Introduction
      • Characterizing Sleep Problems in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
      • Characterizing Sleep Disruption in Models of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure
      • Mechanistic Links between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Sleep Difficulties
      • Sleep Problems and Psychosocial Risk
      • Impact of Sleep Difficulties on Daytime Function
      • Impact of Sleep Difficulties on Caregiver Function
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 35. Adenosine and Glutamate in Neuroglial Interaction: Implications for Sleep Disorders and Alcoholism
      • Introduction
      • Purinergic Regulation of Homeostatic Sleep by Astrocytes
      • Adenosinergic Modulation of Circadian Rhythms
      • Low Adenosine Tone in Alcohol Withdrawal-Induced Insomnia
      • Regulation of Alcohol Drinking by Adenosine and Glutamate in Neuroglial Interaction
      • EAAT2 as a Treatment Target for Alcohol Use Disorders
      • Conclusions
      • Conflict of Interest
    • Chapter 36. Sleep Quality and Risk of Alcohol Misuse
      • Sleep and Alcohol Use: Acute Effects
      • Sleep and Alcohol Use: Behavioral Risks
      • Considerations for Future Research
    • Chapter 37. Sleep and Addictions: Linking Sleep Regulation with the Genesis of Addictive Behavior
      • Introduction
      • Sleep Patterns
      • Mechanisms of Addiction
      • Linking Sleep and Sleep Difficulty with Addiction Pathways
      • Sleep, Plasticity, and Addictions―Tying It All Together
      • Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 38. Alcohol and Sleep-Disordered Breathing
      • Introduction
      • Patient-Based Studies
      • Population-Based Studies
      • Alcohol Consumption and SDB by BMI Subgroups
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 39. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Sleep in Shiftworkers
      • Shiftwork, Sleep, and Health
      • Alcohol and Health
      • Alcohol and Sleep
      • Alcohol and Shiftwork
  • Part VIII. Surgery
    • Chapter 40. The Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Obstructive Sleep Apnea
      • Current State of Obesity
      • Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Definition and Clinical Features
      • Obesity and Sleep Apnea
      • Bariatric Surgery: The Present State
      • Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Obstructive Sleep Apnea
      • The Key to Treating Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Bariatric Surgery
    • Chapter 41. Preoperative, Perioperative, and Postoperative Considerations in the Bariatric Surgery Patient with Sleep Apnea
      • Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea
      • Preoperative Assessment
      • Perioperative Considerations
      • Postoperative Considerations
      • Effect of Bariatric Surgery on OSA
  • Index


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© Academic Press 2014
14th September 2014
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Ronald Watson

Ronald Watson

Ronald Ross Watson, PhD, is Professor of Health Promotion Sciences at the University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. Dr. Watson began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a Fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United States which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring as a Lt. Colonel. He is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Dr. Watson’s career has involved studying many lifestyle aspects for their uses in health promotion. He has edited over 100 biomedical reference books and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research focuses on alcohol, tobacco, and drugs of abuse in heart function and disease in mouse models.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA


"...I would recommend this book to clinicians, scholars, and researchers interested in learning more about sleep and sleep disorders. Score: 80 - 3 Stars" --Doody's

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