Modern Physical Metallurgy

Modern Physical Metallurgy

4th Edition - March 19, 1985

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  • Author: R. E. Smallman
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483105970

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Description

Modern Physical Metallurgy, Fourth Edition discusses the fundamentals and applications of physical metallurgy. The book is comprised of 15 chapters that cover the experimental background of a metallurgical phenomenon. The text first talks about the structure of atoms and crystals, and then proceeds to dealing with the physical examination of metals and alloys. The third chapter tackles the phase diagrams and solidifications, while the fourth chapter covers the thermodynamics of crystals. Next, the book discusses the structure of alloys. The next four chapters deal with the deformations and defects of crystals, metals, and alloys. Chapter 10 discusses work hardening and annealing, while Chapters 11 and 12 cover phase transformations. The succeeding two chapters talk about creep, fatigue, and fracture, while the last chapter covers oxidation and corrosion. The text will be of great use to undergraduate students of materials engineering and other degrees that deal with metallurgical properties.

Table of Contents


  • 1 The Structure of Atoms and Crystals

    1.1 Metallic Characteristics

    1.2 The Atom

    1.3 The Nomenclature of the Electronic States in an Atom

    1.4 The Periodic Table

    1.5 Chemical Behavior and the Metallic Bond

    1.6 Arrangement of Atoms in Metals

    1.7 Electrons in Metal Crystals

    1.8 Metals and Insulators

    1.9 Real Crystals and Imperfections

    1.10 The Elements of Crystallography

    1.11 The Stereographic Projection

    2 The Physical Examination of Metals and Alloys

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Metallography

    2.3 X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction

    2.3.1 The Principles and Methods of X-Ray Diffraction

    2.3.2 Neutron Diffraction

    2.4 Electron Metallography

    2.4.1 Transmission Electron Microscopy

    2.4.2 High-Voltage Electron Microscopy

    2.4.3 Scanning Electron Microscope

    2.4.4 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)

    2.4.5 Convergent Beam Diffraction Patterns (CBDPs)

    2.5 Microanalysis

    2.5.1 Electron Microanalysis of Thin Foils

    2.5.2 Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    2.5.2 Auger Electron Spectroscopy

    2.6 Field Ion Microscopy

    2.7 Mechanical Properties

    2.7.1 The Tensile Test

    2.7.2 Hardness Test

    2.7.3 Impact Testing

    2.7.4 Creep

    2.7.5 Fatigue

    2.8 Physical Properties

    2.8.1 Density

    2.8.2 Thermal Properties

    2.8.3 Electrical Conductivity, Superconductivity, Semiconductivity

    2.8.4 Magnetic Properties

    3 Phase Diagrams and Solidification

    3.1 The Determination of Phase Diagrams

    3.2 The Equilibrium or Phase Diagram

    3.2.1 Complete Solubility in the Solid State

    3.2.2 Complete Insolubility in the Solid State

    3.2.3 Partial Solubility in the Solid State

    3.2.4 A Important Phase Diagrams

    3.2.5 Limitations of Phase Diagrams

    3.3 Constitutional Under-cooling

    3.4 Metal Structures

    3.5 Zone Refining

    3.6 Growth of Single Crystals

    3.7 Ternary Equilibrium Diagrams

    3.7.1 Ternary Diagram for Complete Solid Solubility

    3.7.2 Ternary Eutectic

    3.7.3 Ternary Diagrams with Solid Solutions

    3.7.4 Ternary Diagrams with a Peritectic

    3.7.5 Ternary Systems Containing Inter-metallic Phases

    4 Thermodynamics of Crystals

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 The Effect of Temperature on Metal Crystals

    4.3 The Specific Heat Curve and Transformations

    4.4 Heat Content, Entropy and Free Energy

    4.5 The Statistical Nature of Entropy

    4.6 Free Energy of Transformation

    4.7 The Variation of Free Energy with Temperature, and Polymorphism

    4.8 Thermodynamics of Lattice Defects

    4.9 The Rate of Reaction

    4.10 The Mechanism of Phase Changes

    4.11 The Equilibrium Diagram

    4.11.1 Chemical Potential

    4.12 Diffusion

    4.12.1 The Mechanisms of Diffusion

    4.12.2 Factors Affecting Diffusion

    4.13 Anelasticity and Internal Friction

    5 The Structure of Alloys

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Primary Substitutional Solid Solutions

    5.2.1 The Size Factor Effect

    5.2.2 The Electrochemical Effect

    5.2.3 The Relative Valency Effect

    5.3 The Form of the Liquidus and Solidus Curves

    5.4 The Primary Solid Solubility Boundary

    5.5 Interstitial Solid Solutions

    5.6 Intermediate Phases

    5.6.1 Electrochemical Compounds

    5.6.2 Size Factor Compounds

    5.6.3 Electron Compounds

    5.7 Order-Disorder Phenomena

    5.7.1 Examples of Ordered Structures

    5.7.2 Long and Short Range Order

    5.7.3 The Detection of Order

    5.7.4 The Influence of Ordering on Properties

    5.8 The Magnetic Properties of Metals and Alloys

    5.8.1 Dia- and Paramagnetism

    5.8.2 Ferromagnetism

    5.8.3 Magnetic Alloys

    5.8.4 Anti-ferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism

    5.9 The Electronic Structure of the Transition Metals

    5.10 Semiconductors

    5.11 Superconductivity

    6 Dislocations in Crystals

    6.1 Elastic and Plastic Deformation

    6.1.1 Resolved Shear Stress

    6.1.2 The Relation of Slip to Crystal Structure

    6.1.3 Law of Critical Resolved Shear Stress

    6.1.4 Multiple Slip

    6.1.5 The Relation between Work Hardening and Slip

    6.2 Dislocations in Crystals

    6.2.1 Edge and Screw Dislocations

    6.2.2 The Mechanism of Slip and Climb

    6.2.3 Elastic Properties of Dislocations

    6.2.4 Imperfect Dislocations

    6.3 Dislocations in Close Packed Crystals

    6.3.1 Extended Dislocations

    6.3.2 Sessile Dislocations

    6.3.3 The Thompson Reference Tetrahedron

    6.4 Dislocations in Hexagonal Structures

    6.5 Dislocations in BCC Lattices

    6.6 Dislocations in Ordered Structures

    7 Observation of Crystal Defects

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Crystal Growth

    7.3 Direct Observation of Dislocations

    7.3.1 Etch Pits

    7.3.2 Dislocation Decoration

    7.3.3 Electron Microscopy

    7.3.4 Weak Beam Microscopy

    7.4 Arrangements of Dislocations in Crystals

    7.5 Origin of Dislocations

    8 Deformation of Metals and Alloys

    8.1 Dislocation Mobility

    8.2 Dislocation Source Operation

    8.3 Yielding and Dislocation Multiplication

    8.4 The Yield Point and Related Effects

    8.4.1 Evidence for the Influence of Impurity Atoms

    8.4.2 The Formation of 'Atmospheres' of Solute Atoms Round Dislocations

    8.4.3 The Effect of Atmospheres on Plastic Flow

    8.5 The Interaction of Solute Atoms with Dislocations

    8.6 Variation of Yield Stress with Temperature

    8.7 Other Types of Solute Atom-Dislocation Interaction

    8.8 The Kinetics of Strain Aging

    8.9 Influence of Grain Boundaries on the Plastic Properties of Metals

    8.10 Mechanical Twinning

    8.10.1 Twinning Crystallography

    8.10.2 Nucleation and Growth

    8.10.3 The Effect of Impurities on Twinning

    8.10.4 The Effect of Prestrain on Twinnning

    8.10.5 Dislocation Mechanism of Twinning

    8.10.6 Twinning and Fracture

    9 Point Defects in Crystals

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 The Production of Vacancies

    9.2.1 Vacancy Production by Bombardment with High Energy Particles

    9.2.2 Vacancies Produced by Cold Work

    9.2.3 Vacancies Produced by Oxidation

    9.3 The Effect of Vacancies on the Physical and Mechanical Properties

    9.4 The Nucleation of Point Defect Clusters

    9.5 Electron Microscope Observations of Vacancy Defects

    9.5.1 Quenching

    9.5.2 Nuclear Irradiation

    9.5.3 Cold Work

    9.5.4 Oxidation

    9.6 Annealing of Clustered Defects

    9.7 Point Defect Hardening

    9.8 Radiation Growth and Swelling

    9.9 Vacancy Defects in Alloys

    9.10 Radiation-Induced Segregation, Diffusion and Precipitation

    9.11 Radiation and Ordered Alloys

    10 Work Hardening and Annealing

    10.1 Work Hardening

    10.1.1 Introduction

    10.1.2 Three-Stage Hardening

    10.1.3 Stage I

    10.1.4 Stage II

    10.1.5 Stage III and the Phenomenon of Work Softening

    10.1.6 The Influence of Temperature on the Flow Stress

    10.1.7 Work Hardening in Polycrystals

    10.1.8 Dispersion-hardened Alloys

    10.1.9 Work Hardening in Ordered Alloys

    10.2 Preferred Orientation

    10.3 Texture Hardening

    10.4 Macroscopic Plasticity

    10.4.1 Effective Stress and Strain

    10.5 Annealing

    10.5.1 Introduction

    10.5.2 Recovery

    10.5.3 Recrystallization

    10.5.4 Grain Growth

    10.5.5 Annealing Twins

    10.5.6 Recrystallization Textures

    11 Phase Transformations I - Precipitation Hardening Transformation

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Precipitation from Supersaturated Solid Solution

    11.3 Changes in Properties Accompanying Precipitation

    11.4 Structural Changes

    11.5 Some Common Precipitation Systems

    11.5.1 Aluminum-Copper

    11.5.2 Aluminum-Silver

    11.5.3 Complex Systems

    11.5.4 Nickel-Chromium-Aluminum

    11.6 Mechanisms of Hardening

    11.6.1 Coherency Strain Hardening

    11.6.2 Chemical Hardening

    11.6.3 Dispersion Hardening

    11.7 Hardening in Aluminum-Copper Alloys

    11.8 Vacancies and Precipitation

    11.9 Duplex Aging

    11.10 Particle Coarsening

    11.11 Spinodal Decomposition

    11.12 Dispersion-Hardened Alloys

    11.13 Fiber Strengthening

    11.14 Super-Alloys

    12 Phase Transformations II - The Eutectoid Transformation

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 The Austenite-Peariite Reaction

    12.2.1 Factors Affecting Nucleation and Growth

    12.2.2 Mechanism and Morphology

    12.2.3 Hypo-Eutectoid Steels

    12.2.4 The Influence of Alloying Elements

    12.3 The Austenite-Martensite Reaction

    12.3.1 The Crystallography of the Martensite Transformation

    12.3.2 Mechanism of Martensite Formation

    12.3.3 The Kinetics of Formation

    12.4 The Austenite-Bainite Transformation

    12.5 Tempering and Heat Treatment

    12.6 Thermo-Mechanical Treatments

    12.7 Commercial Steels and Cast Iron

    12.7.1 Plain Carbon Steels

    12.7.2 Alloy Steels

    12.7.3 Maraging Steels

    12.7.4 High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels (HSLA)

    12.7.5 Dual-Phase Steels

    12.7.6 Cast Irons

    13 Creep and Fatigue

    13.1 Creep

    13.1.1 Creep Mechanisms

    13.1.2 Metallurgical Factors Affecting Creep

    13.1.3 Deformation Mechanism Maps

    13.1.4 Super-Plasticity

    13.2 Fatigue

    13.2.1 Introduction

    13.2.2 Engineering Considerations of Fatigue

    13.2.3 Metallurgical Factors Affecting Fatigue

    13.2.4 The Structural Changes Accompanying Fatigue

    13.2.5 The Formation of Fatigue Cracks and Fatigue Failure

    13.2.6 Fatigue at Elevated Temperatures

    14 Fracture

    14.1 Brittle Fracture

    14.1.1 Introduction

    14.1.2 Griffith Micro-Crack Criterion

    14.1.3 Micro-Crack Formation by Plastic Glide

    14.1.4 The Mechanism of Fracture

    14.1.5 Factors Affecting Brittleness

    14.2 Hydrogen Embrittlement

    14.3 Fracture Toughness

    14.4 Intergranular Fracture

    14.5 Ductile Fracture

    14.6 Fracture at Elevated Temperatures

    14.7 Rupture

    14.8 Fracture Mechanism Maps

    14.9 Fatigue Crack Growth

    15 Oxidation and Corrosion

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Thermodynamics of Oxidation

    15.3 Kinetics of Oxidation

    15.4 The Structure of Oxides

    15.5 Wagner's Theory of Oxidation

    15.6 Parameters Affecting Oxidation Rates

    15.7 Oxidation Resistance

    15.8 Intergranular Voiding-Stress v Vacancy Injection

    15.9 Breakaway Oxidation

    15.10 Aqueous Corrosion

    15.11 The Electrochemical Series

    15.12 Corrosion Protection

    15.13 Corrosion Failures

    Appendix: Units and Useful Factors

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 544
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1985
  • Published: March 19, 1985
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483105970

About the Author

R. E. Smallman

After gaining his PhD in 1953, Professor Smallman spent five years at the Atomic Energy Research

Establishment at Harwell before returning to the University of Birmingham, where he became Professor

of Physical Metallurgy in 1964 and Feeney Professor and Head of the Department of Physical

Metallurgy and Science of Materials in 1969. He subsequently became Head of the amalgamated

Department of Metallurgy and Materials (1981), Dean of the Faculty of Science and Engineering, and

the first Dean of the newly created Engineering Faculty in 1985. For five years he wasVice-Principal

of the University (1987-92).

He has held visiting professorship appointments at the University of Stanford, Berkeley, Pennsylvania

(USA), New SouthWales (Australia), Hong Kong and Cape Town, and has received Honorary

Doctorates from the University of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia), University ofWales and Cranfield University.

His research work has been recognized by the award of the Sir George Beilby Gold Medal of the

Royal Institute of Chemistry and Institute of Metals (1969), the Rosenhain Medal of the Institute of

Metals for contributions to Physical Metallurgy (1972), the Platinum Medal, the premier medal of

the Institute of Materials (1989), and the Acta Materialia Gold Medal (2004).

Hewas elected a Fellowof the Royal Society (1986), a Fellowof the RoyalAcademy of Engineering

(1990), a Foreign Associate of the United States National Academy of Engineering (2005), and

appointed a Commander of the British Empire (CBE) in 1992. A former Council Member of the

Science and Engineering Research Council, he has been Vice-President of the Institute of Materials

and President of the Federated European Materials Societies. Since retirement he has been academic

consultant for a number of institutions both in the UK and overseas.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, UK

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