Modern Physical Metallurgy - 4th Edition - ISBN: 9780408710503, 9781483102955

Modern Physical Metallurgy

4th Edition

Authors: R. E. Smallman
eBook ISBN: 9781483102955
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 19th March 1985
Page Count: 544
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Modern Physical Metallurgy, Fourth Edition explains the fundamental principles of physical metallurgy and their application, allowing its readers to understand the many important technological phenomena of the field. The book covers topics such as the molecular properties of metals; the different physical methods of metals and alloys; and the structure of alloys. Also covered are topics such as the deformation of metals and alloys; phase transformations; and related processes such as creep, fatigue, fracture, oxidation, and corrosion. The text is recommended for metallurgists, chemists, and engineers who would like to know more about the principles behind metallurgy and its application in different fields.

Table of Contents


1 The Structure of Atoms and Crystals

1.1 Metallic Characteristics

1.2 The Atom

1.3 The Nomenclature of The Electronic States in An Atom

1.4 The Periodic Table

1.5 Chemical Behaviour and The Metallic Bond

1.6 Arrangement of Atoms in Metals

1.7 Electrons in Metal Crystals

1.8 Metals and Insulators

1.9 Real Crystals and Imperfections

1.10 The Elements of Crystallography

1.11 The Stereographic Projection

2 The Physical Examination of Metals and Alloys

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Metallography

2.3 X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction

2.3.1 The Principles and Methods of X-Ray Diffraction

2.3.2 Neutron Diffraction

2.4 Electron Metallography

2.4.1 Transmission Electron Microscopy

2.4.2 High-Voltage Electron Microscopy

2.4.3 Scanning Electron Microscope

2.4.4 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (Stem)

2.4.5 Convergent Beam Diffraction Patterns (CBDPS)

2.5 Microanalysis

2.5.1 Electron Microanalysis of Thin Foils

2.5.2 Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

2.5.2 Auger Electron Spectroscopy

2.6 Field Ion Microscopy

2.7 Mechanical Properties

2.7.1 A The Tensile Test

2.7.2 Hardness Test

2.7.3 Impact Testing

2.7.4 Creep

2.7.5 Fatigue

2.8 Physical Properties

2.8.1 Density 84

2.8.2 Thermal Properties 84

2.8.3 Electrical Conductivity, Superconductivity, Semiconductivity

2.8.4 Magnetic Properties

3 Phase Diagrams and Solidification

3.1 The Determination of Phase Diagrams

3.2 The Equilibrium Or Phase Diagram

3.2.1 Complete Solubility in the Solid State

3.2.2 Complete Insolubility in The Solid State

3.2.3 Partial Solubility in the Solid State

3.2.4 Important Phase Diagrams

3.2.5 Limitations of Phase Diagrams

3.3 Constitutional Undercooling

3.4 Metal Structures

3.5 Zone Refining

3.6 Growth of Single Crystals

3.7 Ternary Equilibrium Diagrams

3.7.1 Ternary Diagram For Complete Solid Solubility

3.7.2 Ternary Eutectic

3.7.3 Ternary Diagrams with Solid Solutions

3.7.4 Ternary Diagrams with A Peritectic

3.7.5 Ternary Systems Containing Intermetallic Phases

4 Thermodynamics of Crystals

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The Effect of Temperature On Metal Crystals

4.3 The Specific Heat Curve and Transformations

4.4 Heat Content, Entropy and Free Energy

4.5 The Statistical Nature of Entropy

4.6 Free Energy of Transformation

4.7 The Variation of Free Energy With Temperature, and Polymorphism

4.8 Thermodynamics of Lattice Defects

4.9 The Rate of Reaction

4.10 The Mechanism of Phase Changes

4.11 The Equilibrium Diagram

4.11.1 Chemical Potential

4.12 Diffusion

4.12.1 The Mechanisms of Diffusion

4.12.2 Factors Affecting Diffusion

4.13 Anelasticity and Internal Friction

5 The Structure of Alloys

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Primary Substitutional Solid Solutions

5.2.1 The Size Factor Effect

5.2.2 The Electrochemical Effect

5.2.3 The Relative Valency Effect

5.3 The Form of The Liquidus and Solidus Curves

5.4 The Primary Solid Solubility Boundary

5.5 Interstitial Solid Solutions

5.6 Intermediate Phases

5.6.1 Electrochemical Compounds

5.6.2 Size Factor Compounds

5.6.3 Electron Compounds

5.7 Order-Disorder Phenomena

5.7.1 Examples of Ordered Structures

5.7.2 Long and Short Range Order

5.7.3 The Detection of Order

5.7.4 The Influence of Ordering On Properties

5.8 The Magnetic Properties of Metals and Alloys

5.8.1 Dia- and Paramagnetism

5.8.2 Ferromagnetism

5.8.3 Magnetic Alloys

5.8.4 Anti-Ferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism

5.9 The Electronic Structure of The Transition Metals

5.10 Semiconductors

5.11 Superconductivity

6 Dislocations in Crystals 193

6.1 Elastic and Plastic Deformation

6.1.1 Resolved Shear Stress

6.1.2 The Relation of Slip To Crystal Structure

6.1.3 Law of Critical Resolved Shear Stress

6.1.4 Multiple Slip

6.1.5 The Relation Between Work Hardening and Slip

6.2 Dislocations in Crystals

6.2.1 Edge and Screw Dislocations

6.2.2 The Mechanism of Slip and Climb

6.2.3 Elastic Properties of Dislocations

6.2.4 Imperfect Dislocations

6.3 Dislocations in Close Packed Crystals

6.3.1 Extended Dislocations

6.3.2 Sessile Dislocations

6.3.3 The Thompson Reference Tetrahedron

6.4 Dislocations in Hexagonal Structures

6.5 Dislocations in BCC Lattices

6.6 Dislocations in Ordered Structures

7 Observation of Crystal Defects

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Crystal Growth

7.3 Direct Observation of Dislocations

7.3.1 Etch Pits

7.3.2 Dislocation Decoration

7.3.3 Electron Microscopy

7.3.4 Weak Beam Microscopy

7.4 Arrangements of Dislocations in Crystals

7.5 Origin of Dislocations

8 Deformation of Metals and Alloys

8.1 Dislocation Mobility

8.2 Dislocation Source Operation

8.3 Yielding and Dislocation Multiplication

8.4 The Yield Point and Related Effects

8.4.1 Evidence For the Influence of Impurity Atoms

8.4.2 The Formation of 'Atmospheres' of Solute Atoms Round Dislocations

8.4.3 The Effect of Atmospheres On Plastic Flow

8.5 The Interaction of Solute Atoms with Dislocations

8.6 Variation of Yield Stress with Temperature

8.7 Other Types of Solute Atom-Dislocation Interaction

8.8 The Kinetics of Strain Ageing

8.9 Influence of Grain Boundaries On the Plastic Properties Of Metals

8.10 Mechanical Twinning

8.10.1 Twinning Crystallography

8.10.2 Nucleation and Growth

8.10.3 The Effect of Impurities On Twinning

8.10.4 The Effect of Prestrain On Twinnning

8.10.5 Dislocation Mechanism of Twinning

8.10.6 Twinning and Fracture

9 Point Defects in Crystals

9.1 Introduction

9.2 The Production of Vacancies

9.2.1 Vacancy Production By Bombardment with High Energy Particles

9.2.2 Vacancies Produced By Cold Work

9.2.3 Vacancies Produced By Oxidation

9.3 The Effect of Vacancies On The Physical and Mechanical Properties

9.4 The Nucleation of Point Defect Clusters

9.5 Electron Microscope Observations of Vacancy Defects

9.5.1 Quenching

9.5.2 Nuclear Irradiation

9.5.3 Cold Work

9.5.4 Oxidation

9.6 Annealing of Clustered Defects

9.7 Point Defect Hardening

9.8 Radiation Growth and Swelling

9.9 Vacancy Defects in Alloys

9.10 Radiation-Induced Segregation, Diffusion and Precipitation

9.11 Radiation and Ordered Alloys

10 Work Hardening and Annealing

10.1 Work Hardening

10.1.1 Introduction

10.1.2 Three-Stage Hardening

10.1.3 Stage I

10.1.4 Stage II

10.1.5 Stage Hi and the Phenomenon of Work Softening

10.1.6 The Influence of Temperature On The Flow Stress

10.1.7 Work Hardening in Polycrystals

10.1.8 Dispersion-Hardened Alloys

10.1.9 Work Hardening in Ordered Alloys

10.2 Preferred Orientation

10.3 Texture Hardening

10.4 Macroscopic Plasticity

10.4.1 Effective Stress and Strain

10.5 Annealing

10.5.1 Introduction

10.5.2 Recovery

10.5.3 Recrystallization

10.5.4 Grain Growth

10.5.5 Annealing Twins

10.5.6 Recrystallization Textures 378

11 Phase Transformations I - Precipitation Hardening Transformation

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Precipitation From Supersaturated Solid Solution

11.3 Changes in Properties Accompanying Precipitation

11.4 Tructural Changes

11.5 Some Common Precipitation Systems

11.5.1 Aluminium-Copper

11.5.2 Aluminium-Silver

11.5.3 Complex Systems

11.5.4 Nickel-Chromium-Aluminium

11.6 Mechanisms of Hardening

11.6.1 Coherency Strain Hardening

11.6.2 Chemical Hardening

11.6.3 Dispersion Hardening

11.7 Hardening in Aluminium-Copper Alloys

11.8 Vacancies and Precipitation

11.9 Duplex Ageing

11.10 Particle Coarsening

11.11 Spinodal Decomposition

11.12 Dispersion-Hardened Alloys

11.13 Fibre Strengthening

11.14 Superalloys

12 Phase Transformations II - The Eutectoid Transformation

12.1 Introduction

12.2 The Austenite-Pearlite Reaction

12.2.1 Factors Affecting Nucleation and Growth

12.2.2 Mechanism and Morphology

12.2.3 Hypo-Eutectoid Steels

12.2.4 The Influence of Alloying Elements

12.3 The Austenite-Martensite Reaction

12.3.1 The Crystallography of The Martensite Transformation

12.3.2 Mechanism of Martensite Formation

12.3.3 The Kinetics of Formation

12.4 The Austenite-Bainite Transformation

12.5 Tempering and Heat Treatment

12.6 Thermo-Mechanical Treatments

12.7 Commercial Steels and Cast Iron

12.7.1 Plain Carbon Steels

12.7.2 Alloy Steels

12.7.3 Maraging Steels

12.7.4 High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels (HSLA)

12.7.5 Dual-Phase Steels

12.7.6 Cast Irons

13 Creep and Fatigue

13.1 Creep

13.1.1 Creep Mechanisms

13.1.2 Metallurgical Factors Affecting Creep

13.1.3 Deformation Mechanism Maps

13.1.4 Superplasticity

13.2 Fatigue

13.2.1 Introduction

13.2.2 Engineering Considerations of Fatigue Variables Affecting The Fatigue Life

13.2.3 Metallurgical Factors Affecting Fatigue

13.2.4 The Structural Changes Accompanying Fatigue Fatigue Hardening

13.2.5 The Formation of Fatigue Cracks and Fatigue Failure

13.2.6 Fatigue At Elevated Temperatures

14 Fracture

14.1 Brittle Fracture

14.1.1 Introduction

14.1.2 Griffith Micro-Crack Criterion

14.1.3 Micro-Crack Formation By Plastic Glide

14.1.4 The Mechanism of Fracture

14.1.5 Factors Affecting Brittleness

14.2 Hydrogen Embrittlement

14.3 Fracture Toughness

14.4 Intergranular Fracture

14.5 Ductile Fracture

14.6 Fracture At Elevated Temperatures

14.7 Rupture

14.8 Fracture Mechanism Maps

14.9 Fatigue Crack Growth

15 Oxidation and Corrosion

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Thermodynamics of Oxidation

15.3 Kinetics of Oxidation

15.4 The Structure of Oxides

15.5 Wagner's Theory of Oxidation

15.6 Parameters Affecting Oxidation Rates

15.7 Oxidation Resistance

15.8 Intergranular Voiding-Stress V Vacancy Injection

15.9 Breakaway Oxidation

15.10 Aqueous Corrosion

15.11 The Electrochemical Series

15.12 Corrosion Protection

15.13 Corrosion Failures

Appendix: Units and Useful Factors



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About the Author

R. E. Smallman

After gaining his PhD in 1953, Professor Smallman spent five years at the Atomic Energy Research

Establishment at Harwell before returning to the University of Birmingham, where he became Professor

of Physical Metallurgy in 1964 and Feeney Professor and Head of the Department of Physical

Metallurgy and Science of Materials in 1969. He subsequently became Head of the amalgamated

Department of Metallurgy and Materials (1981), Dean of the Faculty of Science and Engineering, and

the first Dean of the newly created Engineering Faculty in 1985. For five years he wasVice-Principal

of the University (1987-92).

He has held visiting professorship appointments at the University of Stanford, Berkeley, Pennsylvania

(USA), New SouthWales (Australia), Hong Kong and Cape Town, and has received Honorary

Doctorates from the University of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia), University ofWales and Cranfield University.

His research work has been recognized by the award of the Sir George Beilby Gold Medal of the

Royal Institute of Chemistry and Institute of Metals (1969), the Rosenhain Medal of the Institute of

Metals for contributions to Physical Metallurgy (1972), the Platinum Medal, the premier medal of

the Institute of Materials (1989), and the Acta Materialia Gold Medal (2004).

Hewas elected a Fellowof the Royal Society (1986), a Fellowof the RoyalAcademy of Engineering

(1990), a Foreign Associate of the United States National Academy of Engineering (2005), and

appointed a Commander of the British Empire (CBE) in 1992. A former Council Member of the

Science and Engineering Research Council, he has been Vice-President of the Institute of Materials

and President of the Federated European Materials Societies. Since retirement he has been academic

consultant for a number of institutions both in the UK and overseas.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, UK

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