Modern Physical Metallurgy - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780408707824, 9781483135793

Modern Physical Metallurgy

3rd Edition

Authors: R. E. Smallman
eBook ISBN: 9781483135793
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st January 1970
Page Count: 558
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Modern Physical Metallurgy, Third Edition discusses the fundamental principles of physical metallurgy and demonstrates how the application of the principles leads to a clearer understanding of many technologically important metallurgical phenomena. This book covers the substantial developments in the microstructural examination of metals using X-ray microanalysis, strengthening of metals, and surface and interface behavior. Numerical problems on crystallography, constitution and microstructure, diffraction, diffusion, defect theory, and thermodynamics are also provided in this publication. This edition is useful for all undergraduate degree courses in metallurgy and materials in both universities and polytechnics. The large range of topics included, from superconductivity to superplasticity and from macroscopic plasticity to fracture toughness, gives students sufficient background to the fundamental principles and practical details for examination requirements.

Table of Contents

Preface to First Edition

Preface to Third Edition

1 The Structure of Atoms and Crystals

1.1. Metallic Characteristics

1.2. The Atom

1.3. The Nomenclature of the Electronic States in an Atom

1.4. The Periodic Table

1.5. Chemical Behavior and the Metallic Bond

1.6. Arrangement of Atoms in Metals

1.7. Electrons in Metal Crystals

1.8. Metals and Insulators

1.9. Real Crystals and Imperfections

Appendix. The Elements of Crystallography

1.10. Notation for Denoting Crystal Planes and Directions

1.11. The Stereographic Projection

2 Experimental Approach to Metallurgy

2.1. Solidification of Pure Metals

2.2. Metallography

Light Microscope

Electron Microscope

2.3. The Equilibrium Diagram

2.3.1. Complete Solubility in the Solid State

2.3.2. Complete Insolubility in the Solid State

2.3.3. Partial Solubility in the Solid State

2.3.4. Important Equilibrium Diagrams

2.3.5. Limitations of Equilibrium Diagrams

2.3.6. Constitutional Undercooling

2.3.7. Metal Structures

2.3.8. Zone Refining

2.3.9. Growth of Single Crystals

2.4. X-ray, Neutron and Electron Diffraction

2.4.1. The Principles and Methods of X-Ray Diffraction

2.4.2. Electron Diffraction and Microscopy

2.4.3. Neutron Diffraction

2.4.4. Field-ion Microscopy

2.5. Mechanical Properties

2.5.1. The Tensile Test

2.5.2. Hardness Test

2.5.3. Impact Testing

2.5.4. Creep

2.5.5. Fatigue

2.6. Physical Properties

2.6.1. Density

2.6.2. Thermal Properties

2.6.3. Electrical Conductivity, Superconductivity, Semiconductivity

2.6.4. Magnetic Properties

3 Thermodynamics of Crystals

3.1. Introduction

3.2. The Effect of Temperature on Metal Crystals

3.3. Specific Heat Curve and Transformations

3.4. Heat Content, Entropy and Free Energy

3.5. The Statistical Nature of Entropy

3.6. Free Energy of Transformation

3.7. The Variation of Free Energy with Temperature, and Polymorphism

3.8. Thermodynamics of Lattice Defects

3.9. The Rate of Reaction

3.10. The Mechanism of Phase Changes

3.11. The Equilibrium Diagram

3.11.1. Chemical Potential

3.12. Diffusion

3.12.1. The Mechanisms of Diffusion

3.12.2. Factors Affecting Diffusion

3.13. Anelasticity and Internal Friction

4 The Structure of Alloys

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Primary Substitutional Solid Solutions

4.2.1. The Size Factor Effect

4.2.2. The Electrochenaical Effect

4.2.3. The Relative Valency Effect

4.3. The Form of the Liquidus and Solidus Curves

4.4. The Primary Solid Solubility Boundary

4.5. Interstitial Solid Solutions

4.6. Intermediate Phases

4.6.1. Electrochemical Compounds

4.6.2. Size Factor Compounds

4.6.3. Electron Compounds

4.7. Order-Disorder Phenomena

4.7.1. Examples of Ordered Structures

4.7.2. Long and Short Range Order

4.7.3. The Detection of Order

4.7.4. The Influence of Ordering on Properties

4.8. The Magnetic Properties of Metals and Alloys

4.8.1. Dia-and Paramagnetism

4.8.2. Ferromagnetism

4.8.3. Magnetic Alloys

4.8.4. Anti-ferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism

4.9. The Electronic Structure of the Transition Metals

4.10. Semiconductors

4.11. Superconductivity

5 Dislocations and Plasticity of Crystals

5.1. Elastic and Plastic Deformation

5.1.1. Resolved Shear Stress

5.1.2. The Relation of Slip to Crystal Structure

5.1.3. Law of Critical Resolved Shear Stress

5.1.4. Multiple Slip

5.1.5. The Relation Between Work Hardening and Slip

5.2. Dislocations in Crystals

5.2.1. Edge and Screw Dislocations

5.2.2. The Mechanism of Slip and Climb

5.2.3. Elastic Properties of Dislocations

5.2.4. Imperfect Dislocations

5.3. Dislocations in Close Packed Crystals

5.3.1. Extended Dislocations

5.3.2. Sessile Dislocations

5.3.3. The Thompson Reference Tetrahedron

5.4. Dislocations in Hexagonal Structures

5.5. Dislocations in B.C.C. Lattices

5.6. Experimental Evidence of Dislocations

5.6.1. Indirect Studies

5.6.2. Crystal Growth

5.6.3. Direct Observations of Dislocations

5.7. Electron Diffraction and Diffraction Contrast from Crystal Defects

5.8. Arrangements of Dislocations in Crystals

5.9. Origin of Dislocations

6 Deformation of Metals and Alloys

6.1. Dislocation Mobility

6.2. Multiplication of Dislocations

6.3. Influence of Grain Boundaries on the Plastic Properties of Metals

6.4. Mechanical Twinning

6.4.1. Twinning Crystallography

6.4.2. Nucleation and Growth

6.4.3. The Effect of Impurities on Twinning

6.4.4. The Effect of Prestrain on Twinning

6.4.5. Dislocation Mechanism of Twinning

6.4.6. Twinning and Fracture

6.5. Work Hardening

6.5.1. Introduction

6.5.2. Three-stage Hardening

6.5.3. Stage I

6.5.4. Stage II

6.5.5. Stage III and the Phenomenon of Work Softening

6.5.6. The Influence of Temperature on the Flow Stress

6.5.7. Work Hardening in Polycrystals

6.6. Preferred Orientation

6.7. Texture Hardening

6.8. Macroscopic Plasticity

6.8.1. Effective Stress and Strain

7 Dislocations, Solute Atoms and Vacancies

7.1. Solute Atoms and Dislocations

7.1.1. Yielding and Dislocation Multiplication

7.1.2. The Yield Point and Related Effects

7.1.3. Evidence for the Influence of Impurity Atoms

7.1.4. The Formation of 'Atmospheres' of Solute Atoms Round Dislocations

7.1.5. The Effect of Atmospheres on Plastic Flow

7.1.6. Yielding in Polycrystalline Specimens

7.1.7. The Interaction of Solute Atoms with Dislocations

7.1.8. The Kinetics of Strain Ageing

7.2. Point Defects and Dislocations

7.2.1. Introduction

7.2.2. The Production of Vacancies

7.2.3. The Effect of Vacancies on the Physical and Mechanical Properties

7.2.4. The Nucleation ofPoint Defect Clusters

7.2.5. Electron Microscope Observations of Vacancy Defects

7.2.6. Annealing of Clustered Defects

7.2.7. Vacancy Hardening

7.2.8. Vacancy Defects in Alloys

7.3. Annealing

7.3.1. Introduction

7.3.2. Recovery

7.3.3. Recrystallization

7.3.4. Grain Growth

7.3.5. Annealing Twins

7.3.6. Recrystallization Textures

8 Precipitation Hardening and the Eutectoid Transformation

8.1. Precipitation Hardening

8.1.1. Precipitation from Supersaturated Solid Solution

8.1.2. Changes in Properties Accompanying Precipitation

8.1.3. Structural Changes

8.1.4. Some Common Precipitation Systems

8.1.5. Mechanisms of Hardening

8.1.6. Factors Affecting the Ageing Process

8.1.7. Duplex Ageing

8.1.8. Particle Coarsening

8.1.9. Dispersion Hardened Alloys

8.2. The Decomposition of Austenite

8.2.1. Introduction

8.2.2. The Austenite-Pearlite Reaction

8.2.3. The Austenite-Martensite Reaction

8.2.4. The Austenite-Bainite Transformation

8.2.5. Tempering and Heat Treatment

8.2.6. Thermo-mechanical Treatments

8.2.7. Commercial Steels and Cast Iron

9 Fracture, Creep and Fatigue

9.1. Fracture

9.1.1. Britte Fracture

9.1.2. Hydrogen Embrittlement

9.1.3. Fracture Toughness

9.1.4. Intercrystalline and Ductile Fracture

9.1.5. Fibre Strengthening

9.2. Creep

9.2.1. Introduction

9.2.2. Creep Mechanisms

9.2.3. Metallurgical Factors Affecting Creep

9.2.4. Superplasticity

9.3. Fatigue

9.3.1. Introduction

9.3.2. Engineering Considerations of Fatigue

9.3.3. Metallurgical Factors Affecting Fatigue

9.3.4. The Structural Changes Accompanying Fatigue

9.3.5. The Formation of Fatigue Cracks and Fatigue Failure

9.3.6. Fatigue at Elevated Temperatures

10 Oxidation and Environmental Behavior

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Thermodynamics of Oxidation

10.3. Kinetics of Oxidation

10.4. The Structure of Oxides

10.5. Wagner's Theory of Oxidation

10.6. Parameters Affecting Oxidation Rates

10.7. Oxidation Resistance

10.8. Aqueous Corrosion

10.9. The Electrochemical Series

10.10. Corrosion Protection

10.11. Corrosion Failures

Appendix Units and Useful Factors



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About the Author

R. E. Smallman

After gaining his PhD in 1953, Professor Smallman spent five years at the Atomic Energy Research

Establishment at Harwell before returning to the University of Birmingham, where he became Professor

of Physical Metallurgy in 1964 and Feeney Professor and Head of the Department of Physical

Metallurgy and Science of Materials in 1969. He subsequently became Head of the amalgamated

Department of Metallurgy and Materials (1981), Dean of the Faculty of Science and Engineering, and

the first Dean of the newly created Engineering Faculty in 1985. For five years he wasVice-Principal

of the University (1987-92).

He has held visiting professorship appointments at the University of Stanford, Berkeley, Pennsylvania

(USA), New SouthWales (Australia), Hong Kong and Cape Town, and has received Honorary

Doctorates from the University of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia), University ofWales and Cranfield University.

His research work has been recognized by the award of the Sir George Beilby Gold Medal of the

Royal Institute of Chemistry and Institute of Metals (1969), the Rosenhain Medal of the Institute of

Metals for contributions to Physical Metallurgy (1972), the Platinum Medal, the premier medal of

the Institute of Materials (1989), and the Acta Materialia Gold Medal (2004).

Hewas elected a Fellowof the Royal Society (1986), a Fellowof the RoyalAcademy of Engineering

(1990), a Foreign Associate of the United States National Academy of Engineering (2005), and

appointed a Commander of the British Empire (CBE) in 1992. A former Council Member of the

Science and Engineering Research Council, he has been Vice-President of the Institute of Materials

and President of the Federated European Materials Societies. Since retirement he has been academic

consultant for a number of institutions both in the UK and overseas.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, UK

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