Modern Earth Buildings

Modern Earth Buildings

Materials, Engineering, Constructions and Applications

1st Edition - July 11, 2012

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  • Editors: M Hall, R Lindsay, M Krayenhoff
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857090263
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857096166

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The construction of earth buildings has been taking place worldwide for centuries. With the improved energy efficiency, high level of structural integrity and aesthetically pleasing finishes achieved in modern earth construction, it is now one of the leading choices for sustainable, low-energy building. Modern earth buildings provides an essential exploration of the materials and techniques key to the design, development and construction of such buildings.Beginning with an overview of modern earth building, part one provides an introduction to design and construction issues including insulation, occupant comfort and building codes. Part two goes on to investigate materials for earth buildings, before building technologies are explored in part three including construction techniques for earth buildings. Modern earth structural engineering is the focus of part four, including the creation of earth masonry structures, use of structural steel elements and design of natural disaster-resistant earth buildings. Finally, part five of Modern earth buildings explores the application of modern earth construction through international case studies.With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Modern earth buildings is a key reference work for all low-impact building engineers, architects and designers, along with academics in this field.

Key Features

  • Provides an essential exploration of the materials and techniques key to the design, development and construction of modern earth buildings
  • Comprehensively discusses design and construction issues, materials for earth buildings, construction techniques and modern earth structural engineering, among other topics
  • Examines the application of modern earth construction through international case studies


Low-impact building engineers and building physicists; architects and low-energy building designers and design consultants; academics in engineering.

Table of Contents

  • Contributor contact details

    Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy


    Part I: Introduction to modern earth buildings

    Chapter 1: Overview of modern earth building


    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Definition of modern earth building

    1.3 The significance of modern earth building in the current and future construction industries

    1.4 Changes in the modern earth building industry

    1.5 Managing the demands of the modern construction industry

    Chapter 2: Hygrothermal behaviour and occupant comfort in modern earth buildings


    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Hygrothermal loads and modelling

    2.3 Thermal and hygric properties of earth materials

    2.4 Hygrothermal behaviour and passive air conditioning

    2.5 Indoor health and air quality

    2.6 Sources of further information

    2.8 Appendix: nomenclature

    Chapter 3: Fabric insulation, thermal bridging and acoustics in modern earth buildings


    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Approaches to fabric insulation

    3.3 Thermal bridging theory

    3.4 Thermal bridging simulation tools

    3.5 Acoustic reverberation

    3.6 Sources of further information

    3.8 Appendix: nomenclature

    Chapter 4: Modern earth building codes, standards and normative development


    4.1 Introduction: a short history of building codes for using earth as a building material

    4.2 Types of ‘standards’ for earth buildings

    4.3 Normative documents for earth building

    4.4 Selecting the parameters for earth building standards

    4.5 New developments in earth building standards

    4.6 Conclusions

    Chapter 5: Passive house design: a benchmark for thermal mass fabric integration


    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Description of Passive House

    5.3 Functional principles of Passive House

    5.4 Case studies of Passive Houses in different climates

    5.5 Examples of Passive House architecture in Germany

    5.6 Future trends

    5.7 Sources of further information

    Part II: Earth materials engineering and earth construction

    Chapter 6: Soil materials for earth construction: properties, classification and suitability testing


    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Soil formation

    6.3 Soil types

    6.4 Soil consistency

    6.5 Compaction of soil

    6.6 Conclusion

    6.8 Appendix

    Chapter 7: Alternative and recycled materials for earth construction


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Classification

    7.3 Types of alternative material

    7.4 Characteristics of alternative and recycled materials

    7.5 Form of recycled and alternative materials: bulk or binder

    7.6 Leaching

    7.7 Physical and mechanical properties of alternative and recycled materials

    7.8 The use and reuse life cycle

    7.9 Future trends and conclusions

    7.10 Sources of further information

    7.12 Appendix

    Chapter 8: Soil mechanics and earthen construction: strength and mechanical behaviour


    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Basic mechanics

    8.3 Fundamental soil behaviour

    8.4 Effective stress

    8.5 Models of shear strength for soils

    8.6 Unsaturated soil behaviour

    8.7 The use of soil mechanics in earthen construction

    8.8 Future trends

    8.9 Sources of further information

    Chapter 9: Soil stabilisation and earth construction: materials, properties and techniques


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Lime stabilisation

    9.3 Cement and pozzolans

    9.4 Bituminous binders and emulsions

    9.5 Synthetic binders, polymers and adhesives

    9.6 Fibre reinforcement

    9.7 Selection tool for modern stabilised earth construction

    Chapter 10: Integral admixtures and surface treatments for modern earth buildings


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Integral admixtures for modern earth construction

    10.3 Surface treatment for modern earth buildings

    10.4 Future trends

    10.5 Sources of information

    Chapter 11: Weathering and durability of earthen material and structures


    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Water content increase in earthen walls

    11.3 Strategies to increase the durability of earth walls

    11.4 Current tests for assessing the durability of earthen materials

    11.5 Surface coatings and finishes of earth structures

    11.6 Long-term performance testing of earth walls

    11.7 Future trends and conclusions

    11.8 Acknowledgements

    Part III: Earth building technologies and earth construction techniques

    Chapter 12: History of earth building techniques


    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Earth building techniques in Asia

    12.3 Earth building techniques in Africa

    12.4 Earth building techniques in Europe

    12.5 Earth building techniques in North America

    12.6 Earth building techniques in South America

    12.7 Earth building techniques in Australasia

    12.8 Conclusions

    Chapter 13: Stabilised soil blocks for structural masonry in earth construction


    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Soil stabilisation techniques

    13.3 Production of stabilised soil blocks (SSBs)

    13.4 Characteristics of stabilised soil blocks (SSBs)

    13.5 Cement–soil mortars for stabilised soil block masonry

    13.6 Stabilised soil block masonry

    13.7 Long-term performance, repair and retrofitting of stabilised soil block buildings

    13.8 Case studies of cement-stabilised soil block (CSSB) buildings

    Chapter 14: Modern rammed earth construction techniques


    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Material sourcing

    14.3 Proportioning and mixing

    14.4 Formwork

    14.5 Installation

    14.6 Future trends and conclusions

    Chapter 15: Pneumatically impacted stabilized earth (PISE) construction techniques


    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Materials used for pneumatically impacted stabilized earth (PISE) construction

    15.3 The forming system

    15.4 Reinforcement of pneumatically impacted stabilized earth (PISE) walls

    15.5 Equipment for proportioning, mixing and placement

    15.6 The pneumatically impacted stabilized earth (PISE) method

    15.7 Conclusion

    15.8 Appendix

    Chapter 16: Conservation of historic earth buildings


    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Common causes of deterioration on historic earth buildings

    16.3 Conservation of earth architecture

    16.4 Case study of the UNESCO heritage site of Diriyah in the Atturaif region of Saudi Arabia

    16.5 Case study of earth buildings in Italy: Loreto Aprutino in the Abruzzo region

    16.6 Conclusions

    Part IV: Modern earth structural engineering

    Chapter 17: Earth masonry structures: arches, vaults and domes


    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Structural theory for arches, vaults and domes

    17.3 Earth masonry arches

    17.4 Earth masonry vaults

    17.5 Earth masonry domes

    17.6 Material properties of earth masonry structure

    17.7 Design and construction criteria for earth masonry structures

    17.8 Future trends

    17.9 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 18: Structural steel elements within stabilised rammed earth walling


    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Structural steel for stabilised rammed earth (SRE) walling

    18.3 Design parameters for using structural steel within stabilised rammed earth (SRE) walling

    18.4 The use of steel lintels for stabilised rammed earth (SRE) applications

    18.5 Steel columns embedded within stabilised rammed earth (SRE) walls

    18.6 Structural systems for elevated or ‘precast’ stabilised rammed earth (SRE) panels

    18.7 North American structural steel

    18.8 Conclusion

    18.9 Acknowledgements

    18.10 Sources of further information

    Chapter 19: Natural disasters and earth buildings: resistant design and construction


    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Earthquakes and earth buildings

    19.3 Earthquake engineering

    19.4 Wind and storms

    19.5 Earth building design for wind resistance

    19.6 Flood hazards and earth buildings

    19.7 Volcanoes and landslides

    19.8 Future trends

    Chapter 20: Embankments and dams


    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Types and selection of embankment dams

    20.3 Zoning of embankment dams and construction materials

    20.4 Embankment dam construction specifications

    20.5 Stability analysis of embankment dams

    20.6 Dam freeboard requirement

    20.7 Failure mechanisms

    20.8 Maintenance of embankment dams

    20.9 Future trends

    20.10 Norms and standards

    Part V: Application of modern earth construction: international case studies

    Chapter 21: North American modern earth construction


    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Seventh generation thinking and earth construction

    21.3 The interplay of indoor and outdoor weather

    21.4 Applications of earth construction in hot climates

    21.5 Applications of earth construction in wet and cold climates

    21.6 Optimizing rammed earth compressive strength

    21.7 North American-style rammed earth

    21.8 Case studies of North American earth construction

    21.9 Design elegance of modern earth buildings

    21.10 Future trends

    21.11 Sources of further information

    21.12 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 22: Australian modern earth construction


    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Uses of stabilised rammed earth in different regions of Australia

    22.3 Approaches to material type and selection

    22.4 Formwork and construction techniques: the ‘Stabilform system’

    22.5 Stabilised rammed earth (SRE) walls

    22.6 Designing for thermal comfort

    22.7 Standards and specifications for modern earth construction in Australia

    22.8 The cost of stabilised rammed earth (SRE) construction in Australia

    22.9 Case studies of modern earth buildings in Victoria, Australia

    22.10 Future trends

    22.11 Sources of further information

    22.12 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 23: European modern earth construction


    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Conservation and revival of traditional techniques

    23.3 Modern earth construction techniques

    23.4 Case studies of modern earth buildings throughout Europe

    23.5 Future trends

    23.6 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 24: Modern rammed earth construction in China


    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Challenges for modern rammed earth construction in China

    24.3 Opportunities for modern rammed earth construction in China

    24.4 Approaches to material type and selection

    24.5 Construction techniques and formwork

    24.6 Case studies

    24.7 Future trends


    Appendix 1: Techno-economic analysis and environmental assessment of stabilised rammed earth (SRE) building construction

    Appendix 2: Techno-economic analysis and environmental assessment of stabilized insulated rammed earth (SIREWALL) building


Product details

  • No. of pages: 800
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2012
  • Published: July 11, 2012
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857090263
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857096166

About the Editors

M Hall

Dr Matthew R. Hall is a Lecturer in civil engineering materials at the University of Nottingham, UK. He is an award winning researcher, noted for his work in the fields of thermo-physical properties and heat and mass transport in porous materials.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Nottingham, UK

R Lindsay

Rick Lindsay is the Managing Director of Earth Structures Pty Ltd, Australia.

Affiliations and Expertise

Earth Structures Pty Ltd, Australia

M Krayenhoff

Meror Krayenhoff is the founder of SIREWALL Inc, Canada.

Affiliations and Expertise

SIREWALL Inc, Canada

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