Models of Seizures and Epilepsy

Models of Seizures and Epilepsy

1st Edition - August 30, 2005

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  • Editors: Asla Pitkänen, Asla Pitkänen, Philip Schwartzkroin, Solomon Moshé
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780120885541
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080457024

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Description

An understanding of mechanisms underlying seizure disorders depends critically on the insights provided by model systems. In particular with the development of cellular, molecular, and genetic investigative tools, there has been an explosion of basic epilepsy research. Models of Seizures and Epilepsy brings together, for the first time in 30 years, an overview of the most widely-used models of seizures and epilepsy. Chapters cover a broad range of experimental approaches (from in vitro to whole animal preparations), a variety of epileptiform phenomenology (including burst discharges and seizures), and suggestions for model characterization and validation, such as electrographic, morphologic, pharmacologic, and behavioral features. Experts in the field provide not only technical reviews of these models but also conceptual critiques - commenting on the strengths and limitations of these models, their relationship to clinical phenomenology, and their value in developing a better understanding and treatments. Models of Seizures and Epilepsy is a valuable, practical reference for investigators who are searching for the most appropriate laboratory models for addressing key questions in the field. It also provides an important background for physicians, fellows, and students, offering insight into the potential for advances in epilepsy research.

Key Features

  • The first comprehensive description of animal models of epilepsy since the early 1970's
  • Comprehensive analysis of "What the models model" to guide the selection of each model, and what specific questions it will answer
  • Elegant examples of the use of novel technologies that can be applied in experimental epilepsy research
  • World expert opinions on the clinical relevance of each model

Readership

Neurologists, epileptologists, developmental neuroscientists, medical geneticists, molecular/developmental biologists.

Table of Contents


  • Contributing Authors

    Foreword

    Preface

    1. What Should Be Modeled?

    A. In Vitro Preparations

    2. Single Nerve Cells Acutely Dissociated from Animal and Human Brains for Studies of Epilepsy

    3. Cell Culture Models for Studying Epilepsy

    4. An Overview of In Vitro Seizure Models in Acute and Organotypic Slices

    5. The Use of Brain Slice Cultures for the Study of Epilepsy

    6. Hippocampal Slices: Designing and Interpreting Studies in Epilepsy Research

    7. Thalamic, Thalamocortical and Corticocortical Models of Epilepsy with an Emphasis on Absence Seizures

    8. Studying Epilepsy in the Human Brain In Vitro

    9. In Vitro Isolated Guinea Pig Brain

    B. Induced Seizures in Intact Animals

    10. Pharmacologic Models of Generalized Absence Seizures in Rodents

    11. Models of Chemically-Induced Acute Seizures

    12. Electrical Stimulation-Induced Models of Seizures

    13. Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures

    14. Alumina Gel Injection Models of Epilepsy in Monkeys

    C. Genetic Models

    15. Modeling Epilepsy and Seizures in Developing Zebrafish Larvae

    16. Transgenic and Gene Replacement Models of Epilepsy: Targeting Ion Channel and Neurotransmission Pathways in Mice

    17. Spontaneous Epileptic Mutations in the Mouse

    18. Genetic Models of Absence Epilepsy in the Rat

    19. Models with Spontaneous Seizures and Developmental Disruption of Genetic Etiology

    20. Mammalian Models of Genetic Epilepsy Characterized by Sensory-Evoked Seizures and Generalized Seizure Susceptibility

    21. Inherited Epilepsy in Mongolian Gerbils

    D. Acquired Focal Models

    22. The Cortical Freeze Lesion Model

    23. MAM and Other “Lesion” Models of Developmental Epilepsy

    24. In Utero Irradiation as a Model of Cortical Dysplasia

    25. Modeling Hypoxia-Induced Seizures and Hypoxic Encephalopathy in the Neonatal Period

    26. Complex Febrile Seizures—An Experimental Model in Immature Rodents

    27. Repetitive Seizures in the Immature Brain

    28. The Kindling Phenomenon

    29. Kindling Kittens and Cats

    30. Electrical Kindling in Developing Rats

    31. Chemical Kindling

    32. Kindling, Spontaneous Seizures, and the Consequences of Epilepsy: More than a Model

    33. Tetanus Toxin Model of Focal Epilepsy

    34. Kainate-Induced Status Epilepticus: a Chronic Model of Acquired Epilepsy

    35. The Pilocarpine Model of Seizures

    36. Status Epilepticus: Electrical Stimulation Models

    37. Posttraumatic Epilepsy Induced by Lateral Fluid-Percussion Brain Injury in Rats

    38. Chronic Partial Cortical Isolation

    39. Head Trauma: Hemorrhage-Iron Deposition

    40. Stroke

    41. Models Available for Infection-Induced Seizures

    42. Brain Tumour and Epilepsy: A New Neurophysiologic and Neuropathologic Ex Vivo In Vitro Model

    43. An Animal Model of Rasmussen’s Encephalitis

    E. Models Used for Pharmacological Assessment

    44. Therapeutic Assays for the Identification and Characterization of Antiepileptic and Antiepileptogenic Drugs

    45. Animal Models of Drug-Refractory Epilepsy

    F. Technical Approaches for Model Characterization

    46. Monitoring for Seizures in Rodents

    47. Imaging Approaches in Small Animal Models

    48. Behavioral Characterization of Seizures in Rats

    49. Behavioral and Cognitive Testing Procedures in Animal Models of Epilepsy

    50. Morphologic Approaches to the Characterization of Epilepsy Models

    G. Important Questions

    51. Animal Model Development Based on the Human Epilepsies: Which Causes and Syndromes Should Be Modeled?

    52. What Good are Animal Models

    Index




Product details

  • No. of pages: 712
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2005
  • Published: August 30, 2005
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780120885541
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080457024

About the Editors

Asla Pitkänen

Dr. Pitkänen is currently a Professor of Neurobiology at the University of Eastern Finland in Kuopio, Finland. She has over a 30 years’ experience in working and developing animal models of acquired epilepsy and phenotyping of epilepsy models, using histologic and molecular analysis, behavioral tests, long-term video-EEG and MRI imaging. She is a leader in epilepsy research and has participated in several NINDS on Epilepsy Models Workshops and worked in several ILAE Committees related to preclinical modelling and use of models to develop better therapies for epilepsy. She has an h-index of 52 and has over 279 publications.

Affiliations and Expertise

A.I.Virtanen Institute, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland

Asla Pitkänen

Dr. Pitkänen is currently a Professor of Neurobiology at the University of Eastern Finland in Kuopio, Finland. She has over a 30 years’ experience in working and developing animal models of acquired epilepsy and phenotyping of epilepsy models, using histologic and molecular analysis, behavioral tests, long-term video-EEG and MRI imaging. She is a leader in epilepsy research and has participated in several NINDS on Epilepsy Models Workshops and worked in several ILAE Committees related to preclinical modelling and use of models to develop better therapies for epilepsy. She has an h-index of 52 and has over 279 publications.

Affiliations and Expertise

A.I.Virtanen Institute, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland

Philip Schwartzkroin

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, Davis, USA

Solomon Moshé

Dr. Moshé is the is the Charles Frost Chair in Neurosurgery and Neurology and Professor of Neurology, Neuroscience, and Pediatrics at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. He is the Director of Child Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology Dr. He has been President of the International League Against Epilepsy, American Epilepsy Society and American Clinical Neurophysiology Society (1996-1997). He is the recipient of several honors and awards, including Teacher-Investigator Development Award; Jacob Javits Neuroscience Investigator Award from NIH; Michael Prize for Achievement in Epilepsy Research; The American Epilepsy Society Research Award; Ambassador for Epilepsy Award from the International League Against Epilepsy; the Gloor Award from the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society; J.E. Purkyne Honorary Medal in Biomedical Research by the Czech Academy of Sciences; the 2008 Mentor of the Year Award from Albert Einstein College of Medicine; The 2010 Global and Awareness Award from Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy; the First Saul R. Korey Award in Translational Science and Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine in 2012; elected Foreign Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Fellow of the American Epilepsy Society 2016. Since 1979, his research has focused on understanding the mechanisms underlying age-related differences in epilepsy in humans and in animal models.

Affiliations and Expertise

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA

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