Models in Planning - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080170213, 9781483137377

Models in Planning

1st Edition

An Introduction to the Use of Quantitative Models in Planning

Authors: C. Lee
eBook ISBN: 9781483137377
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1973
Page Count: 154
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Models in Planning: An Introduction to the Use of Quantitative Models in Planning focuses on some of the techniques utilized for the construction of urban and regional models, with emphasis on the understanding of model structure rather than on rigorous mathematical analysis.

Organized into eight chapters, this book begins by explaining the role of models in the planning process. Subsequent chapters elucidate the principles for the design and use of models, and the mathematical preliminaries involved. The different models, namely, linear, gravity, and Lowry models, are also described including their optimization.

This material will be very useful for students and practicing planners with a limited numerate background. It will allow readers to follow up the extensive literature dealing with the more complex operational versions of the discussed models.

Table of Contents



1 The Role of Models in the Planning Process

The Planning Process

The Nature of Models

Models in the Planning Process

2 Principles for the Design and Use of Models

Problem Definition

Model Formulation

Simulation and Validation


3 Mathematical Preliminaries


Constants and Parameters

Relationships and Functions


Summation Signs


Solving Equations

4 Linear Models

Simple Linear Relationships

Multiple-Variable Models

Measuring the Strength of Linear Relationships

Problems and Limitations

Examples of Use

5 Gravity Models

Origin of Gravity Models

The Modern Form of the Gravity Model

Gravity Models as Location Models

Problems and Limitations

Examples of Use

6 The Lowry Model

Partial and General Models

The General Structure of the Lowry Model

The Economic Base Mechanism

The Location of Activities

The Integration of the Economic Base and Allocation Mechanisms

Problems and Limitations

Examples of Use

7 Optimizing Models

Optimizing Models as a Planning Tool

Graphical Solution of an Optimizing Problem

Problems and Limitations

8 Conclusions

The Characteristics of Urban Systems

The Characteristics of Existing Urban Models

A Possible Change of Approach

Appendix: Calculation of Regression and Correlation Coefficients

Regression Coefficients

Correlation Coefficient



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About the Author

C. Lee

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