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Modelling, Operation and Analysis of DC Grids - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128221013

Modelling, Operation and Analysis of DC Grids

1st Edition

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Editor: Alejandro Garces
Paperback ISBN: 9780128221013
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st February 2021
Page Count: 376
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Modelling, Operation and Analysis of DC Grids presents a unified vision of direct current grids with core analysis techniques that unite power electronics, power systems, and multiple scales of applications. Sections cover the role of power electronics in DC grids, addressing DC/DC converters, voltage source converters, and MMC converters, current applications modalities across multiple scales, from high power applications such as electric vehicles, DC microgrids and MT-HVDC transmission, through offshore wind farms and supergrids, and a power systems analysis of microgrids that addresses modeling, stationary state analysis, stability estimation, fault analysis, optimal power flow, and stochastic analysis.

Chapters are extensively supported by test systems devised in MATLAB and Simulink.

Key Features

  • Provides a unified, coherent presentation of DC grid analysis based on modern research in power systems, power electronics, microgrids and MT-HVDC transmission
  • Covers multiple scales of applications in one location, addressing DC grids in electric vehicles, microgrids, DC distribution, multi-terminal HVDC transmission and supergrids
  • Supported by a unified set of MATLAB and Simulink test systems designed for application scenarios


Graduate students and 1st year PhD students (and related early career researchers) from control engineering, power electronics, power systems engineering. Early career researchers investigating power systems analysis, analysis of DC grids, stability, HVDC transmission and / or microgrids. Engineers who are used to AC systems and to understand the operation of DC grids

Table of Contents

1. Introduction: General concepts of DC grids 

a. A brief history of DC grids
c. Microgrids 
d. Electric vehicles and more electric aircrafts
e. Hierarchical control
f. Type of terminals in DC grids
g. Practical considerations about DC grids

Part 1:  Power electronics in DC grids
2. DC/DC converters 

a. Uses of DC/DC converters in microgrids
b. Second order converters
c. Four order converters
d. Control of DC/DC converters
e. Simplified model of the DC/DC converter
f. DC/DC converters for high power applications
g. Ongoing research in DC/DC converters

3. The voltage source converter

a. Vector oriented control of VSC
b. Interaction with the AC grid
c. Control of the DC-link
d. Operation of VSC in DC-microgrids and DC distribution
e. Operation of VSC in MT-HVDC transmission
f. Average model of the VSC
g. Ongoing research about the VSC

4. The Modular Multi-level converter

a. MT-HVDC transmission for Offshore wind farms and supergrids
b. Operation of the MMC
c. Control of the MMC
d. Average model of the MMC
e. Ongoing research about the MMC

Part 2:  Applications of DC grids
5. Electric vehicles
6. More electric aircrafts
7. DC grids in ships
8. Microgrids and DC distribution
9. Multi-Terminal HVDC transmission and Supergrids

Part 3:  Analysis of DC grids
10. Modelling DC microgrids and DC distribution

a. Power electronic converters and loads
b. Model of the grid
c. Per unit representation
d. Dynamical model
e. Stationary state model
f. Ongoing research about modelling DC grids

11. Modelling MT-HVDC transmission

a. A general model of the cable
b. Integration of the model of the converter
c. Modelling MT-HVDC transmission
d. Comparison of the models
e. Ongoing research about MT-HVDC transmission

12. Stationary state analysis of DC grids

a. Properties of nodal conductance matrix
b. Total power loss of the grid
c. Maximum power transfer
d. Power flow using a fixed point iteration
e. Power flow using Newton and quasi-Newton method
f. Linear formulation of the power flow
g. State estimation
h. Grid identification
i. Ongoing research about stationary state analysis of DC grids

13. Stability analysis of DC grids

a. Primary control of DC grids
b. General dynamic model of DC grids
c. Small signal stability
d. Transient stability
e. Ongoing research about stability of DC grids

14. Fault analysis and protections of DC grids

a. Solid state protections of DC grids
b. Fault analysis of DC microgrids
c. Fault analysis of MT-HVDC
d. Ongoing research about protection of DC grids

15. Optimal Power Flow in DC grids

a. The optimal power flow on DC grids
b. Convex formulations of the optimal power flow
c. Sequential quadratic programming for the optimal power flow of DC grids
d. Ongoing research about optimal power flow in DC grids

16. Stochastic analysis of DC grids

a. Stochasticity in microgrids
b. Stochasticity in MT-HVDC transmission
c. Formulation of the stochastic power flow in DC grids
d. Bayesian formulation of the power flow
e. Ongoing research about stochastic analysis of DC grids

Appendix (all authors)
            A Test systems
A1. Test systems for microgrids
A2. Test systems for DC distribution
A3. Test systems for MT-HVDC


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2021
1st February 2021
Academic Press
Paperback ISBN:

About the Editor

Alejandro Garces

Dr Alejandro Garces received his bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering and his master degree in power systems engineering from the Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia) in 2004 and 2006 respectively. He received his PhD degree from Norwegian University of Science and Technology in in 2012. Since gaining his PhD, he has been research fellow at NTNU, consultant for the inter-American Development Bank and the Latin-American organization of energy, as well as for the commission of regulation of gas and energy in Colombia. He participated in the Smart Grids Colombia Vision 2030 study which defined the roadmap for the implementation of smart grids in Colombia. Dr. Garces is currently Assistant Professor at the Department of Electric Power engineering, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira. His current research interests include mathematical optimization and control for power systems applications, dynamics in electric grids, renewable energies, energy storage devices, microgrids and HVDC transmission.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, Department of Electric Power engineering, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira

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