Mobile 3D Graphics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123737274, 9780080555911

Mobile 3D Graphics

1st Edition

with OpenGL ES and M3G

Authors: Kari Pulli Tomi Aarnio Ville Miettinen Kimmo Roimela Jani Vaarala
eBook ISBN: 9780080555911
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123737274
Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
Published Date: 19th November 2007
Page Count: 464
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Table of Contents


Preface About the Authors CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 About This Book 1.1.1 Typographic Conventions 1.2 Graphics on Handheld Devices 1.2.1 Device Categories 1.2.2 Display Technology 1.2.3 Processing Power 1.2.4 Graphics Hardware 1.2.5 Execution Environments 1.3 Mobile Graphics Standards 1.3.1 Fighting the Fragmentation 1.3.2 Design Principles 1.3.3 OpenGL ES 1.3.4 M3G 1.3.5 Related Standards PART I ANATOMY OF A GRAPHICS ENGINE CHAPTER 2. LINEAR ALGEBRA FOR 3D GRAPHICS 2.1 Coordinate Systems 2.1.1 Vectors and Points 2.1.2 Vector Products 2.1.3 Homogeneous Coordinates 2.2 Matrices 2.2.1 Matrix Products 2.2.2 Identity and Inverse 2.2.3 Compound Transformations 2.2.4 Transforming Normal Vectors 2.3 Affine Transformations 2.3.1 Types of Affine Transformations 2.3.2 Transformation Around a Pivot 2.3.3 Example: Hierarchical Modeling 2.4 Eye Coordinate System 2.5 Projections 2.5.1 Near and Far Planes and the Depth Buffer 2.5.2 A General View Frustum 2.5.3 Parallel Projection 2.6 Viewport and 2D Coordinate Systems CHAPTER 3. LOW-LEVEL RENDERING 3.1 Rendering Primitives 3.1.1 Geometric Primitives 3.1.2 Raster Primitives 3.2 Lighting 3.2.1 Color 3.2.2 Normal Vectors 3.2.3 Reflection Models and Materials 3.2.4 Lights 3.2.5 Full Lighting Equation 3.3 Culling and Clipping 3.3.1 Back-Face Culling 3.3.2 Clipping and View-Frustum Culling 3.4 Rasterization 3.4.1 Texture Mapping 3.4.2 Interpolating Gradients 3.4.3 Texture-Based Lighting 3.4.4 Fog 3.4.5 Antialiasing 3.5 Per-Fragment Operations 3.5.1 Fragment Tests 3.5.2 Blending 3.5.3 Dithering, Logical Operations, and Masking 3.6 Life Cycle of a Frame 3.6.1 Single versus Double Buffering 3.6.2 Complete Graphics System 3.6.3 Synchronization Points CHAPTER 4. ANIMATION 4.1 Keyframe Animation 4.1.1 Interpolation 4.1.2 Quaternions 4.2 Deforming Meshes 4.2.1 Morphing 4.2.2 Skinning 4.2.3 Other Dvnamic Deformations CHAPTER 5. SCENE MANAGEMENT 5.1 Triangle Meshes 5.2 Scene Graphs 5.2.1 Application Area 5.2.2 Spatial Data Structure 5.2.3 Content Creation 5.2.4 Extensibility 5.2.5 Class Hierarchy 5.3 Retained Mode Rendering 5.3.1 Setting Up the Camera and Lights 5.3.2 Resolving Rendering Slate 5.3.3 Finding Potentially Visible Objects 5.3.4 Sorting and Rendering CHAPTER 6. PERFORMANCE AND SCALABILITY 6.1 Scalability 6.1.1 Special Effects 6.1.2 Tuning Down the Details 6.2 Performance Optimization 6.2.1 Pixel Pipeline 6.2.2 Vertex Pipeline 6.2.3 Application Code 6.2.4 Profiling OpenGL ES Based Applications 6.2.5 Checklists 6.3 Changing and Querying the State 6.3.1 Optimizing State Changes 6.4 Model Data 6.4.1 Vertex Data 6.4.2 Triangle Data 6.5 Transformation Pipeline 6.5.1 Object Hierarchies 6.5.2 Rendering Order 6.5.3 Culling 6.6 Lighting 6.6.1 Precomputed Illumination 6.7 Textures 6.7.1 Texture Storage PART II OPENGL ES AND EGL
7.1 Khronos Group and OpenGL ES
7.2 Design Principles
7.3 Resources
7.3.1 Documentation
7.3.2 Technical Support
7.3.3 Implementations
7.4 API Overview
7.4.1 Profiles and Versions
7.4.2 OpenGL ES 1.0 in a Nutshell
7.4.3 New Features in OpenGL ES 1.1
7.4.4 Extension Mechanism
7.4.5 OpenGL ES Extension Pack
7.4.6 Utility APIs
7.4.7 Conventions
7.5 Hello, OpenGL ES!
CHAPTER 8. OPENGL ES TRANSFORMATION AND LIGHTING 8.1 Drawing Primitives 8.1.1 Primitive Types 8.1.2 Specifying Vertex Data 8.1.3 Drawing the Primitives 8.1.4 Vertex Buffer Objects 8.2 Vertex Transformation Pipeline 8.2.1 Matrices 8.2.2 Transforming Normals 8.2.3 Texture Coordinate Transformation 8.2.4 Matrix Stacks 8.2.5 Viewport Transformation 8.2.6 User Clip Planes 8.3 Colors and Lighting 8.3.1 Specifying Colors and Materials 8.3.2 Lights 8.3.3 Two-Sided Lighting 8.3.4 Shading 8.3.5 Lighting Example CHAPTER 9. OPENGL ES RASTERIZATION AND FRAGMENT PROCESSING 9.1 Back-Face Culling 9.2 Texture Mapping 9.2.1 Texture Objects 9.2.2 Specifying Texture Data 9.2.3 Texture Filtering 9.2.4 Texture Wrap Modes 9.2.5 Basic Texture Functions 9.2.6 Multi-Texturing 9.2.7 Texture Combiners 9.2.8 Point Sprite Texturing 9.2.9 Implementation Differences 9.3 Fog 9.4 Antialiasing 9.4.1 Edge Antialiasing 9.4.2 Multisampling 9.4.3 Other Antialiasing Approaches 9.5 Pixel Tests 9.5.1 Scissoring 9.5.2 Alpha Test 9.5.3 Stencil Test 9.5.4 Depth Testing 9.6 Applying Fragments to the Color Buffer 9.6.1 Blending 9.6.2 Dithering 9.6.3 Logic Ops 9.6.4 Masking Frame Buffer Channels CHAPTER 10. MISCELLANEOUS OPENGL ES FEATURES 10.1 Frame Buffer Operations 10.1.1 Clearing the Buffers 10.1.2 Reading Back the Color Buffer 10.1.3 Flushing the Command Stream 10.2 State Queries 10.2.1 Static State 10.2.2 Dynamic State Queries 10.3 Hints 10.4 Extensions 10.4.1 Querying Extensions 10.4.2 Query Matrix 10.4.3 Matrix Palette 10.4.4 Draw Texture 10.4.5 Using Extensions CHAPTER 11. EGL 11.1 API Overview 11.2 Configuration 11.3 Surfaces 11.4 Contexts 11.5 Extensions 11.6 Rendering into Textures 11.7 Writing High-Performance EGL Code 11.8 Mixing OpenGL ES and 2D Rendering 11.8.1 Method 1: Window Surface is in Control 11.8.2 Method 2: Pbuffer Surfaces and Bitmaps 11.8.3 Method 3: Pixmap Surfaces 11.9 Optimizing Power Usage 11.9.1 Power Management Implementations 11.9.2 Optimizing the Active Mode 11.9.3 Optimizing the Idle Mode 11.9.4 Measuring Power Usage 11.10 Example on EGL Configuration Selection PART III M3G CHAPTER 12. INTRODUCING M3G 12.1 Overview 12.1.1 Mobile Java 12.1.2 Features and Structure 12.1.3 Hello, World 12.2 Design Principles and Conventions I2.2.1 High Abstraction Level 12.2.2 No Events or Callbacks 12.2.3 Robust Arithmetic 12.2.4 Consistent Methods 12.2.5 Parameter Passing 12.2.6 Numeric Values 12.2.7 Enumerations 12.2.8 Error Handling 12.3 M3G 1.1 12.3.1 Pure 3D Rendering 12.3.2 Rotation Interpolation 12.3.3 PNG and JPEG Loading 12.3.4 New Getters 12.3.5 Other Changes CHAPTER 13. BASIC M3G CONCEPTS 13.1 Graphics3D 13.1.1 Render Targets 13.1.2 Viewport 13.1.3 Rendering 13.1.4 Static Properties 13.2 Image2D 13.3 Matrices and Transformations 13.3.1 Transform 13.3.2 Transformable 13.4 Object3D 13.4.1 Animating 13.4.2 Iterating and Cloning 13.4.3 Tags and Annotations 13.5 Importing Content 13.5.1 Loader 13.5.2 The File Format CHAPTER 14. LOW-LEVEL MODELING IN M3G 14.1 Building meshes 14.1.1 VertexArray 14.1.2 VertexBuffer 14.1.3 IndexBuffer and Rendering Primitives 14.1.4 Example 14.2 Adding Color and Light: Appearance 14.2.1 PolygonMode 14.2.2 Material 14.2.3 Texture2D 14.2.4 Fog 14.2.5 CompositingMode 14.3 Lights and Camera 14.3.1 Camera 14.3.2 Light 14.4 2D Primitives 14.4.1 Background 14.4.2 Sprite3D CHAPTER 15. THE M3G SCENE GRAPH 15.1 Scene Graph Basics: Node, Group, and World 15.2 Mesh Objects 15.3 Transforming Objects 15.3.1 Camera, Light, and Viewing Transformations 15.3.2 Node Alignment 15.4 Layering and Multi-Pass Effects 15.5 Picking 15.6 Optimizing Performance 15.6.1 Visibility Optimization 15.6.2 Scope Masks CHAPTER 16. ANIMATION IN M3G 16.1 Keyframe Animation: KeyframeSequence 16.2 Animation Targets: AnimationTrack 16.3 Timing and Speed: AnimationController 16.4 Animation Execution 16.5 Advanced Animation 16.5.1 Deformable Meshes 16.5.2 Animation Blending 16.5.3 Creating Discontinuities 16.5.4 Dynamic Animation PART IV APPENDIX A FIXED-POINT MATHEMATICS A.1 Fixed-Point Methods in C A.1.1 Basic Operations A.1.2 Shared Exponents A.1.3 Trigonometric Operations A.2 Fixed-Point Methods in Assembly Language A.3 Fixed-Point Methods in Java B JAVA PERFORMANCE TUNING B.1 Virtual Machines B.2 Bytecode Optimization B.3 Garbage Collection B.4 Memory Accesses B.5 Method Calls C GLOSSARY Bibliography Index


Graphics and game developers must learn to program for mobility. This book will teach you how.

"This book - written by some of the key technical experts...provides a comprehensive but practical and easily understood introduction for any software engineer seeking to delight the consumer with rich 3D interactive experiences on their phone. Like the OpenGL ES and M3G standards it covers, this book is destined to become an enduring standard for many years to come."
- Lincoln Wallen, CTO, Electronic Arts, Mobile

“This book is an escalator, which takes the field to new levels. This is especially true because the text ensures that the topic is easily accessible to everyone with some background in computer science...The foundations of this book are clear, and the authors are extremely knowledgeable about the subject.”
- Tomas Akenine-Möller, bestselling author and Professor of Computer Science at Lund University

"This book is an excellent introduction to M3G. The authors are all experienced M3G users and developers, and they do a great job of conveying that experience, as well as plenty of practical advice that has been proven in the field."
- Sean Ellis, Consultant Graphics Engineer, ARM Ltd

The exploding popularity of mobile computing is undeniable. From cell phones to portable gaming systems, the global demand for multifunctional mobile devices is driving amazing hardware and software developments. 3D graphics are becoming an integral part of these ubiquitous devices, and as a result, Mobile 3D Graphics is arguably the most rapidly advancing area of the computer graphics discipline.

Mobile 3D Graphics is about writing real-time 3D graphics applications for mobile devices. The programming interfaces explained and demonstrated in this must-have reference enable dynamic 3D media on cell phones, GPS systems, portable gaming consoles and media players.

The text begins by providing thorough coverage of background essentials, then presents detailed hands-on examples, including extensive working code in both of the dominant mobile APIs, OpenGL ES and M3G.

C/C++ and Java Developers, graphic artists, students, and enthusiasts would do well to have a programmable mobile phone on hand to try out the techniques described in this book.

The authors, industry experts who helped to develop the OpenGL ES and M3G standards, distill their years of accumulated knowledge within these pages, offering their insights into everything from sound mobile design principles and constraints, to efficient rendering, mixing 2D and 3D, lighting, texture mapping, skinning and morphing.

Along the way, readers will benefit from the hundreds of included tips, tricks and caveats.

Key Features

  • Written by experts at Nokia whose workshops at industry conferences are blockbusters
  • The programs used in the examples are featured in thousands of professional courses each year


Mobile 3D graphics application developers (mainly programmers and technical leads in game development), graphic artists, producers, and students of mobile 3D graphics.


No. of pages:
© Morgan Kaufmann 2008
Morgan Kaufmann
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:


"1.1 billion 3D-enabled handsets will be in use worldwide by 2011" -Computer Graphics Magazine

About the Authors

Kari Pulli Author

Tomi Aarnio Author

Ville Miettinen Author

Kimmo Roimela Author

Affiliations and Expertise

Nokia Corporation, Finland

Jani Vaarala Author