Mining Geophysics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483230306, 9781483275017

Mining Geophysics, Volume 3

1st Edition

Authors: D. S. Parasnis
eBook ISBN: 9781483275017
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1972
Page Count: 372
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Table of Contents


Preface

Chapter 1. The Role of Geophysics in Ore Prospecting

Chapter 2. General Aspects of the Collection and Presentation of Geophysical Data

Classification of Geophysical Methods

Radioactivity

Collection of Preliminary Information

Trial Surveys

Staking An Area

Field Measurements

Geophysical Maps

Isoanomaly Curves

Profile Drawing

Interpretation

Chapter 3. Magnetic Methods

Introduction

Recalling Some Fundamental Concepts

Induced and Permanent Magnetism

General Magnetic Properties of Rocks

Susceptibilities of Rocks

Permanent Magnetization (Remanence) of Rocks

Measurement of Susceptibility and Remanence

The Geomagnetic Field

Magnetometers

Field Work

The Zero Level

An Orebody As A Magnet

Interpretation of Magn

Depth,- Strike Length,- Dip and Pitch,- Depth-Extent,- Size and Magnetization

A Simple Example of A Magnetic Survey (U-Dal, Central Sweden)

Magnetic Survey in the E-O Orefield (Central Sweden)

Transverse Magnetization

A Simple Geometrical Construction For Determining the Position of An Ore Sheet

Magnetic Effects of Broad Zones

The Greenstone Area of Loos (Sweden)

Vector Measurements

Example of Vector Measurements

Borehole Measurements

Note On Reverse Magnetic Anomalies

Chapter 4. The Self-Potential Method

Introduction

Origin of Self-Potentials

Measurement of Self-Potentials

Electrodes,- Cable,- Voltmeter

Field Procedure

Example of SP Surveys

The Kimheden Orebody,- The Gransjö Orefield, Central Sweden,- The Copper Deposits of Chalkidiki, Northern Greece,-The Shales of Gautosjö, Northern Sweden

Chapter 5. Electromagnetic Methods

Introduction

Geometry of the Electromagnetic Field

The Tilt-Angle Method

Amplitude and Phase

The Phase Angle and the Vector Diagram

Real and Imaginary Components

Measurement of the Real and Imaginary Components

Classification of Electromagnetic Methods

Fixed-Source Methods,- Moving Source-Receiver Methods

Fixed-Source Methods

Tilt-Angle,- Bieler-Watson,- Two-Frame Method,-The Compensator Or Sundberg Method,- The Turam Method

Loop Layouts

Moving Source-Receiver Methods

Coils Horizontal and Coplanar,- Coils Vertical and Coplanar,- Coils Vertical and Coaxial,- Topographic Corrections

Examples of Moving Source-Receiver Surveys

The Svansele Orebody (Northern Sweden),- The R-Sjö Sulphide Occurrence (Sweden)

Use of Two Frequencies in Electromagnetic Prospecting

Depth Penetration of Electromagnetic Methods

Afmag

Chapter 6. Electrical Methods

Introduction

Resistivity

Resistivity of Rocks and Mineral

Apparatus

Commutation of Current

Classification of Electric Methods

Equipotential Method

Earth-Resistivity Methods

Apparent Resistivity

Electrode Configurations in Resistivity Methods

Electric/Drilling

Electric Mapping

Mapping By Linear Current Electrodes (Theory)

Field Examples of Line-Electrode Mapping

The Mise-À-La-Masse Method

Potential-Drop Ratio and A.C. Potential Methods

Resistivity Measurements in Boreholes

Chapter 7. Induced Polarization Methods

Introduction

Origin of Induced Polarization

Electrode Polarization,- Membrane Polarization,

The Condenser Model

Effect of Alternating Current

Time-Domain and Frequency-Domain IP Methods

Measures of the IP Effect

Time-Domain Measures,-Frequency-Domain Measures

Polarizability of Minerals and Rocks

Two Examples of IP Surveys

Kankberg Orebody, Northern Sweden,- Broken Hill Area, Australia

Concluding Remarks Concerning The IP Method

Chapter 8. Gravity Methods

Introduction

Scope of the Gravity Method in Ore Prospecting

Some Difficulties

Absolute and Relative Gravity Measurements

Gravimeters

Field Procedure

Corrections To Gravimeter Observations

Latitude,- Elevation Or Free-Air Correction,- Bouguer Correction,- Terrain Correction

The Bouguer Anomaly

Density Determination

Interpretation of Gravity Anomalies

Key Variables of Gravity Interpretation

Magnitude,- Sharpness,- Resolution,- Elongation Of Contours,-Shape

Gravity Profiles Across Simple Structures

Regional and Local Gravity Anomalies

Gravity Measurements On The Udden Sulphide Body (Sweden)

Effect of Overburden On Gravity Anomalies

Mass Estimates

A Further Example of A Gravity Survey

Underground and Shaft Measurements of Gravity

Second Vertical Derivatives of Gravity Anomalies

Chapter 9. Seismic Methods

Introduction

Types of Elastic Waves

Scope of Seismic Measurements in Ore Prospecting

Generation, Detection and Registration of Seismic Waves

The Reflection Method

The Refraction Method

Illustrations of Seismic Measurements in Ore Prospecting

Siderite District of the Siegerland (Germany),- Sulphur Limestone in Sicily (Italy)

Chapter 10. Radioactive Methods

Introduction

Scope of the Method

Radioactive Decay and Radioactive Equilibrium

Radioactivity of Rocks

Instruments and Field Procedure

Airborne Radioactive Prospecting

Chapter 11. Airborne Magnetic and Electromagnetic Methods

Introduction

Limitations of Airborne Surveys

Magnetic Airborne Work

Examples

Interpretation of Aeromagnetic Maps

Airborne Electromagnetic Methods

Classification of Airborne E.M. Systems

Fixed-Separation Systems

Phase-Measuring Or Quadrature Systems

Depth-Penetration and Efficiency of Airborne E.M. Systems

Interpretation of Airborne Electromagnetic Anomalies

Example of An Airborne Survey

Chapter 12. Combination of Geophysical Methods

Introduction

The Location of Geophysical Indications

Examples of the Combination of Geophysical Methods

The Västra Maurliden Discovery (Skellefte Ore Field, Sweden),-The Tervaskoski Orebody (Norrbotten County, Sweden)

Appendix 1. Simple Method of Determining The Magnetic Susceptibility and Remanence of Approximately Spherical Rock and Ore Samples

Appendix 2. Magnetic Anomaly of Pole Systems

Appendix 3. The Magnetic Field of A Large Rectangular Loop Carrying An Electric Current

Appendix 4. Semi-Absolute Calculation of the Electromagnetic Field Components From Turam Reduced Ratios and Phase Differences

Appendix 5. Electric Potential Due To A Point and A Line Current Electrode Placed On The Surface of A Homogeneous Ground

Appendix 6. Method of Images

Appendix 7. Gravity Anomalies

Appendix 8. Depth Estimates of Some Simple Mass Shapes

Appendix 9. Notes On The Master Curves in Fig. 117 For Total Field Magnetic Anomalies

References

Index



Description

Methods in Geochemistry and Geophysics, 3: Mining Geophysics focuses on the geophysical methods of ore prospecting, including radioactivity, collection of geophysical data, and field measurements. The manuscript first highlights the role of geophysics in ore prospecting and the general aspects of collection and presentation of geophysical data. Discussions focus on classification of geophysical methods, radioactivity, collection of preliminary information, field measurement, and isoanomaly curves. The text then surveys magnetic and self-potential methods, as well as the general magnetic properties of rocks, geomagnetic field, magnetometers, transverse magnetization, and measurement of self-potentials.
The publication ponders on electromagnetic, electrical, and induced polarization methods. Topics include classification of electromagnetic methods; use of two frequencies in electromagnetic prospecting; moving source-receiver methods; electrode configurations in resistivity methods; and resistivity measurements in boreholes. The text also examines gravity, seismic, and airborne magnetic and electromagnetic methods.
The manuscript is a valuable source of information for geologists and mining engineers.


Details

No. of pages:
372
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 1972
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9781483275017

About the Authors

D. S. Parasnis Author