Mineral Exploration - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124160057, 9780123914668

Mineral Exploration

1st Edition

Principles and Applications

Authors: Swapan Haldar
eBook ISBN: 9780123914668
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124160057
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 30th January 2013
Page Count: 372
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Globally, mineral exploration has grown significantly in recent years, driven by the rapid acceleration in prices for gold and diamonds since 2004 and the emergence of a middle class in both China and India—aggressively increased demand. Despite this resurgence, no single book has been published that takes an interdisciplinary approach in addressing the full scope of mineral exploration—from mining and extraction to economic evaluation, policies, sustainability, and environmental impacts. Mineral Exploration: Principles and Applications accomplishes this by presenting each topic with theoretical approaches first followed by specific applications that can be immediately implemented in the field.

Key Features

  • Presents 16 case studies that allow readers to quickly apply exploration concepts to real-life scenarios in the field
  • Includes more than 200 illustrations and full-color photographs that aid the reader in retaining key procedures and applications
  • Each chapter is structured so that its topic is discussed theoretically first followed by specific applications
  • Combines both theory and application in a multidisciplinary reference that thoroughly addresses the full scope of mineral exploration
  • Authored by an instructor with more than 30 years of experience in the field and a decade as a consultant for commercial mining companies


primary- geologists, petrologists, mineralogists, marine geologists with a focus on resource exploration
secondary- students and instructors at the graduate level in the geosciences

Table of Contents



List of Acronyms used in this book




Time scale




About the Author

Chapter 1. Mineral Exploration

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Definition

1.3 Exploration

1.4 Mineral Policy and Act

1.5 Mineral to Metal—A Full Circle

Further Reading

Chapter 2. Economic Mineral Deposits and Host Rocks

2.1 Definition

2.2 Common Economic Minerals

2.3 Classification of Mineral Deposits

2.4 Host Rocks

2.5 Industry Specifications

Further Reading

Chapter 3. Exploration Geology

3.1 Definition

3.2 Regional Planning and Organization

3.3 Surface Guide

3.4 Topographic Survey

3.5 Geological Mapping

3.6 Stratigraphic Correlation

3.7 Exploration Activity

3.8 Exploration of Coal and Coal Bed Methane

Further Reading

Chapter 4. Exploration Geochemistry

4.1 Definition

4.2 Field Procedure

4.3 Analytical Methods

4.4 Data Interpretation

4.5 Geochemical Methods

4.6 Review

Further Reading

Chapter 5. Exploration Geophysics

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Seismic Survey

5.3 Gravity Survey

5.4 Magnetic Survey

5.5 Electrical Survey

5.6 EM Survey

5.7 Radiometric Survey

5.8 Borehole Logging

5.9 Review

Further Reading

Chapter 6. Photogeology, Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System in Mineral Exploration

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Photogeology

6.3 Remote Sensing

6.4 Geographic Information System

6.5 Global Positioning System

6.6 Software in RS-GIS

Further Reading

Chapter 7. Sampling Methods

7.1 Definition

7.2 Sampling Equipment

7.3 Sampling Methods

7.4 Sample Reduction for Chemical Analysis

7.5 Accuracy and Due Diligence in Sampling

7.6 Quality Assurance and Quality Control

7.7 Optimization of Samples

Further Reading

Chapter 8. Mineral Resource and Ore Reserve Estimation

8.1 Definition

8.2 Estimation of Quality

8.3 Conventional Resource/Reserve Estimation

8.4 Mineral Resource and Ore Reserve Classification

8.5 Ore Monitoring System

Further Reading

Chapter 9. Statistical and Geostatistical Applications in Geology

9.1 Why Geostatistics?

9.2 Statistical Applications

9.3 Misclassified Tonnage

9.4 Geostatistical Applications

Further Reading

Chapter 10. Exploration Modeling

10.1 Definition

10.2 Types of Model

10.3 Modeling: A Holistic Dynamic Approach

10.4 Limitations

Further Reading

Chapter 11. Elements of Mining

11.1 Definition

11.2 Surface Mining

11.3 Underground Mining

11.4 Mine Machinery

11.5 Mine Explosive

11.6 Rock Mechanics and Support System

11.7 Mine Ventilation

11.8 Mine Closure

11.9 Mining Software

Further Reading

Chapter 12. Mineral Processing

12.1 Definition

12.2 Ore Handling

12.3 Comminution

12.4 Screening and Classification

12.5 Concentration

12.6 Metallurgical Accounting

12.7 Ore to Concentrate and Metal

Further Reading

Chapter 13. Mineral Economics

13.1 Definition

13.2 Investment Philosophy

13.3 Stages of Investment

13.4 Investment Analysis

13.5 Sources of Investment Risk

13.6 Investment Risk and Sensitivity Analysis

13.7 Economic Evaluation of Mineral Deposits

13.8 Case Study of Economic Evaluation

13.9 Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 14. Environmental System Management of Mineral Resources and Sustainable Development

14.1 Definition

14.2 ESM in Mineral Industry

14.3 Sustainable Development in Mining

Further Reading

Chapter 15. Mineral Exploration—Case Histories

15.1 Definition

15.2 Zawar Group, India: An Age-Old Ancient Zinc-Lead-Silver Mining-Smelting Tradition

15.3 Broken Hill, Australia: The Largest and Richest Zinc-Lead-Silver Deposit in the World

15.4 Malanjkhand: The Single Largest Porphyry Copper-Molybdenum Orebody in India

15.5 Sindesar-Khurd: Routine Drilling Discovered Concealed Zn-Pb-Ag Deposit in India

15.6 Neves Corvo, Portugal: Discovery of Deep-Seated Zn-Cu-Sn Deposit: A Geophysical Success

15.7 Bushveld, South Africa: The Largest Platinum-Chromium Deposits of the World

15.8 Sudbury, Canada: The Largest Nickel-Platinum-Copper Deposits of the World

15.9 Rampura-Agucha: The Single Largest and Richest Zn-Pb-Ag Deposit in India: Geostatistical Applications in Mineral Exploration

15.10 Jhamarkotra, India: Discovery of the Largest Stromatolitic Rock-Phosphate Deposit by Geological Modeling and Exploration to Environment Management Practices: A Holistic Approach

15.11 Base Metal Discovery Trend: The Last 50 Years in India

Further Reading




No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2013
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:

About the Author

Swapan Haldar

1. Academic qualification: B. Sc (Hons) 1963, and M. Sc (Geology) 1965, Calcutta University, D. Sc, 1983, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India.

2. Professional Affiliation: Life Member of Mining Geological and Metallurgical Institute of India, Indian Geological Congress and Indian Society of Earth Sciences.

3. Work Experiences: 50 Yrs Professional and Academic Experience in oil and base-noble metal exploration and mining at various capacities at ESSO, Hindustan Copper Ltd, Hindustan Zinc Ltd, Anglo American (P) Ltd, Gold Stream Mining NL/ IMX Resource Ltd, Australia and BIL Infratech Ltd, Guest Faculty Sukhadia University Udaipur.

4. Exploration Projects and Mines visited abroad:

His profession has often required visits and interaction with experts of zinc, lead, gold, tin, chromium, nickel and platinum mines and exploration camps of Australia-Tasmania, Canada, USA, Germany, Portugal, UK, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Bangladesh and Nepal.

5. Research Projects as Principal Investigator

(i) DST project in Geostatistical Applications, numerical processing, software development and derivation of parameters for mine planning of base metal deposits at IIT Kharagpur (1979-80) leading to PhD Degree (1983).

(ii) DST project: HR/UR/22/2002 on “Exploration modeling for base / noble metals with special reference to sediment hosted Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag deposits in the northwestern Indian Shield” at Presidency College Kolkata (2003-06).

(iii) DST Project: HR/UR/29/2007 on “Geology of Platinum-Nickel-Chromium mineralization: Resource evaluation and future potential”, at Presidency College, Kolkata (2008-2010).

6. Examination conducted:

(i) Regular question papers for Mineral Exploration, Geo-statistics and Mining Geology for M. Sc Applies Geology of Sukharia University, Udaipur, Presidency University, Calcutta University, Indian School of Mines and Institution of Engineers.

(ii) Examined 4 M. Sc Thesis of Delhi and Calcutta University.

(iii) Examined including Viva of 5 PhD Thesis in Geostatistical Applications of Mineral Deposits at Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, IIT Mumbai and Kharagpur.

7. Current Assignments:

Since 2003, Emeritus Scientist, Post Graduate Applied Geology teaching of Mineral Exploration at Presidency and Calcutta University, Kolkata, and industry related teaching at Indian school of Mines, Dhanbad.

8. Recipient: Dr. J. Coggin Brown Memorial (Gold) Medal for Geological Sciences (1993-94) by Mining Geological and Metallurgical Institute of India.

9. Authored 3 books and 40 publications:

1. Haldar, SK. Exploration Modeling of Base Metal Deposits, Elsevier Publication; 2007, p. 227.

2. Haldar, SK, Mineral Exploration - Principles and Applications, Elsevier Publication; 2013, p. 374.

3. Haldar, SK and Josip Tišljar, Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology, Elsevier Publication; 2013, p. 356.

Dr Haldar has a unique professional blend of mineral exploration, evaluation and mineral economics with an essence of classroom teaching of postgraduate students of two celebrity Universities over the last 1 decade.

Annexure- I

1. Haldar, S. K., 2011, Platinum–Nickel-Chromium: Resource Evaluation and Future Potential Targets, IGC International Congress on New Paradigms of Exploration and Sustainable Mineral Development on Vision 2050, p. 67 - 82.

2. Haldar. S. K., 2010, Geostatistical Applications in Base Metal Deposits - A case Study, Science and Economics of Rocks - A Primer on Mineral geostatiscs, ed: Sarkar, B. C., pp. 95-109.

3. Haldar, S. K., 2009, The First Fifty Year’s Record and A New Beginning in Mineral Discovery in India with special Reference to Base Metals, in Shrivastava, K. L., eds., Economic Mineralization, Scientific Publisher (India), Jodhpur, pp. 442-450.

4. Haldar, S. K., 2008, Resource prediction model – Application of Zipf’s Law, National Seminar, Ore Body Modeling for Genesis, Predictive Metallogeny and Resource Analysis”, Udaipur, (Abstract), pp. 10-11

5. Haldar, S. K., 2008, Investment, Risk and Sensitivity Analyses in Exploration Regime, Executive Development Program, ISM University, Dhanbad.

6. Haldar, S. K., 2008, Base and noble metals in northwestern Indian Shield : Essence of stratigraphy and tectonics in mineral search, International conference on tectonics of the Indian Subcontinent (TOIS), Indian Association for Gondwana Research Conference Series 5, Institute of Technology, Mumbai, (Abstract Volume, pp 90-91.

7. Haldar, S. K., 2007, Exploration Optimisation Using Geostatistics - A Case Study of Sequential Evaluation, Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad, pp 88-94.

8. Haldar, S. K., 2007, Orebody Modelling : Geostatistical assessment of Mine sub-block and grade forecast system – A case study, Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad, pp.80-87,

9. Haldar, S. K., 2006, Concepts of deposit – orebody modelling with case study of Zn-Pb-Ag deposits, Rajasthan, (Abstract), National Seminar on “Evaluation of Mineral Resources of India”, 8th National Convention of Association of Economic Geologists, at Visakapatnam in March ’06, pp. 2.

10. Haldar, S. K., 2005c, Exploration Modeling for Base and Noble Metals with special reference to Sediment hosted lead-zinc-copper gold Deposits in the Northwestern Indian Shield, DST Project HR/ UR/2002,176p.

11. Haldar, S. K., 2005b, Exploration Modeling for sediment hosted Lead-Zinc Deposits in the Northwestern Indian shield – A logical dynamic approach, National seminar on “Mineral exploration, mining and mineral beneficiation : A road map to VISION 2020”, Mining Engineers’ Association of India, Tamilnadu Chapter, pp. 66–84.

12. Haldar, S. K., 2005a, Exploration Modeling of Proterozoic sediment hosted Zn-Pb-Ag mineralisation – logical dynamic approach with case study of Rampura Agucha deposit, Rajasthan, Journal of Economic Geology and Georesource Management, v. 2, no. 1 & 2, pp. 47-70.

13. Haldar, S. K., 2004, Grade and Tonnage Relationships in Sediment-hosted Lead-Zinc Suphide Deposits of Rajasthan, India, in Deb, M., and Goodfellow, W. D., eds., Sediment hosted Lead-Zinc Sulphide Deposits : attributes and models of some major deposits in India, Australia and Canada: Narosa Publishing House, N. Delhi, pp. 264–272.

14. Haldar, S.K., 2001, Grade Tonnage Model for Lead-Zinc Deposits of Rajasthan, India, International Workshop on Deposit Modeling Program by UNESCO-IUGS, New Delhi, December 2001, pp.153-160.

15. Haldar, S.K., & Dev,M., 2001, Geology and Mineralisation of Rajpura-Dariba-Lead-Zinc Belt, Rajasthan, International Workshop on Deposit Modeling Program by UNESCO-IUGS, New Delhi, December 2001, pp.177-188.

16. Choudhary, K.S, & Haldar, S.K., 2001, Sindesar Khurd- A New Mine in Rajpura Dariba Belt, HINDZINC TECH, January 2001, pp.3-11.

17. Haldar, S.K., 1999, Environmental Implications of Mineral Exploitations, Proceedings National Conference on Dimensions of Environmental Stress in India, M.S. University, VADODARA, pp. 227-228.

18. Haldar, S.K., 1998, Deposit Modelling – An Overview, IVth Refresher Course on Concepts in the Formation of Mineral Deposits and Prospect Targeting, GSI, 14 – 27th July ’98, 7p.

19. Haldar, S.K., 1996, Computer –Based Geostatistical Assessment for Exploration Data for Optimisation, Estimation of Mine Sub-Block and Grade Forecast System at Rampura Agucha Mine, India, International Course on “Modern Technologies for Mineral Resources Assessment and Management”, I.G.C., U.O.R., Roorkee, December ’95-January’96, 8p.

20. Haldar, S.K., 1995, Computer Based Technical Computing in Geology and Mine Planning – Hardware and Software Scenario in National and International Area, VIIIth National Convention of Mining Engineers, Ins. of Eng., 24-26th Nov.’95, pp.1-3.

21. Lahiri, D., Haldar, S.K., 1993, Technical Computing in Geology, Mining and Beneficiation at Hindustan Zinc Limited -An overview, Indian Conference on Computer Applications in Mineral Industry, ICCAMI-93, P.147-154.

22. Krishnamurty, G.R., Upmanyu, K.G., Haldar, S.K., 1992, Computer & Communication in Hindustan Zinc Limited- An overview, HINDZINC TECH, v. 4, no. 2, 20p.

23. Haldar, S.K., Paliwal, H.V., Bhatnagar, S.N., 1992, Computerised Geostatistical assessment of Exploration Data for Sample Optimisation and Estimation of Mine Subblock - A case study of Rampura-Agucha Lead-Zinc Deposit, India; in Sarkar, S. C., eds., Metallogeny Related to Tectonics of the Proterozoic Mobile Belts, Oxford & IBH Publishing Company Pvt. Ltd., pp. 339-360.

24. Haldar, Swapan K., Chaudhry Manoj, 1991, Computer Aided Orebody Modelling - An Integrated Approach for Mine Planning at Hindustan Zinc Limited, 1992, Computer society of India, National Conference, CAMPI-92, pp. B28-B35.

25. Haldar, S.K., 1991, Orebody modelling of Rampura-Agucha mine- A key note address, Regional Workshop on Mineral Deposit Modelling, ISM, Dhanbad, December 1991.

26. Bhatnagar, S.N., Mathur, S.B., Haldar, S.K., 1990, Exploration Practices at HZL, HINDZINC TECH, v. 2, no. 2, pp. 4-23.

27. Haldar, S.K., Bhatnagar, S.N., Paliwal, H.V., 1990, Application of geostatistics to exploration data for sample optimisation, mine sub-block estimation and grade forecast system at Rampura-Agucha lead-zinc mine, India, XXII APCOM-90, 11 P., Berlin, West Germany.

28. Bhatnagar, S.N., Haldar, S.K., Chaudhry, M., 1989, Computer based ore reserve system - mine sub-block geostatistics related to large tonnage mechanised lead-zinc mines of Hindustan Zinc Limited, International Conference on Base Metals Technology, February 1989, Jamshedpur, India, pp. 21-34.

29. Viswanath, U., Jani, S.R., Haldar, S.K., 1988, Exploration and exploitation problems of the cross folded lead deposit of Bandalamottu, Guntur district (AP), ILZIC Silver Jubilee Conference, New Delhi, pp. 341-348.

30. Bhatnagar, S.N., Haldar, S.K., 1988, Planning for base metal exploration - A case history of Rampura-Agucha Lead-Zinc Deposit, Diamond Jubilee National Symposium on Development of India's mineral and fuel resources: Geological and Environment Aspects, ISM Dhanbad.

31. Bhatnagar, S.N., Haldar, S.K., 1987, Sequential evaluation model of phased exploration data leading to sample optimisation - A case study of Rampura-Agucha Zinc-Lead Deposit, India, CIM Bulletin, v. 80, no. 906, pp. 56-60.

32. Paliwal, H.V., Bhatnagar, S.N., & Haldar, S.K., 1986, Lead-Zinc Resources Prediction in India-An application of Zipf's Law; Mathematical Geology, v.18, no.6, pp. 539-549

33. Bhatnagar, S.N., Khamesra, G.S., & Haldar, S.K., 1984, Lead-Zinc resources and development in India; Symposium on Significant Discoveries of Geology for Mineral Industries, Min. Geo. and Meta. Inst. of India, Calcutta, pp. II 42-59.

34. Haldar, S.K., Rao., N.V.R.S., 1983, Sequential evaluation of exploration data by statistical and geostatistical modelling leading to optimisation; Proceedings of Workshop on Geo-modelling, IIT, Bombay, pp. 222-231.

35. Haldar, S. K., 1982, A Study of the Balaria Base Metals Deposit, Zawar Group of Mines, Rajasthan, Using Numerical Procedures with Special Reference to Derivation of Parameters for Mine Planning, Unpublished PhD Thesis, IIT, Kharagpur, 641p.

36. Haldar, S.K., Roy, R.N., and Sen, R., 1981, Distinctive features in the geological set-up of the Indian base metal deposits; Frieb Orsch. - H.C. 364, Herg, Recter Der Bergakedemie Freiberg Leipzig: Veb Deutscher Verlag Fur Grundstoff Industrie 1981, Topical report of Iagod, v. X-1980, pp.25- 31.

37. Kala, P.P., & Haldar, S.K., 1981, Computer based ore reserve system at Zawar Mines, International Seminar on Lead, Zinc and Cadmium, Nov. 1981, Indian Lead Zinc Information Centre, New Delhi, pp. A17-A24.H

38. Haldar, S.K., 1980, Selection of cut-off during mine planning and its relation to techno- economic modeling; Indian Jour. of Earth Science, v. 7, no. 1, pp. 76-81.

39. Haldar, S.K., 1967, Geology of the chromite deposits occurring in the area around Sukarangi, Cuttack District, Orissa, Geol., Mining and Metallurgical Society of India, v.39, no.1, pp.59-61.

40. Haldar, S. K., 1965, Geology of the Area around Sukarangi, Cuttack District, Orissa, with Special Reference to its Economic Resources, Unpublished M. Sc Thesis, Calcutta University, 94p.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Scientist, Department of Applied Geology and Environmental System Management, Presidency College, Kolkata, India, and Exploration Consultant, Hindustan Zinc Limited, Hindustan Copper Limited, and ESSO Standard Eastern Inc.


"The book is technically skillful and a laudable effort to create a comprehensive practical survey text written by someone who knows the territory in more than an academic way. There are also many useful diagrams."--Reference and Research Book News, August 2013