Microencapsulation in the Food Industry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124045682, 9780124047358

Microencapsulation in the Food Industry

1st Edition

A Practical Implementation Guide

Editors: Anilkumar Gaonkar Niraj Vasisht Atul Khare Robert Sobel
eBook ISBN: 9780124047358
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124045682
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st July 2014
Page Count: 590
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Description

Microencapsulation is being used to deliver everything from improved nutrition to unique consumer sensory experiences. It’s rapidly becoming one of the most important opportunities for expanding brand potential. Microencapsulation in the Food Industry: A Practical Implementation Guide is written for those who see the potential benefit of using microencapsulation but need practical insight into using the technology. With coverage of the process technologies, materials, testing, regulatory and even economic insights, this book presents the key considerations for putting microencapsulation to work. Application examples as well as online access to published and issued patents provide information on freedom to operate, building an intellectual property portfolio, and leveraging ability into potential in licensing patents to create produce pipeline.
This book bridges the gap between fundamental research and application by combining the knowledge of new and novel processing techniques, materials and selection, regulatory concerns, testing and evaluation of materials, and application-specific uses of microencapsulation.

Key Features

  • Practical applications based on the authors’ more than 50 years combined industry experience
  • Focuses on application, rather than theory
  • Includes the latest in processes and methodologies
  • Provides multiple "starting point" options to jump-start encapsulation use

Readership

Food scientists including engineers, product research and development

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • About the Editors
  • List of Contributors
  • Part I: Introduction
    • Chapter 1. Introduction to Microencapsulation and Controlled Delivery in Foods
      • 1.1 Introduction
      • 1.2 Microencapsulation defined
      • 1.3 Reasons for microencapsulation
      • 1.4 Types of microcapsules
      • 1.5 Historical account of microencapsulation
      • 1.6 Materials used for microencapsulation purposes
      • 1.7 Microencapsulation techniques used within the food industry
      • 1.8 Trends in microencapsulation
      • 1.9 Challenges in microencapsulation of food ingredients
      • 1.10 The future of microencapsulation of food ingredients
      • References
  • Part II: Concept of Microencapsulation
    • Chapter 2. Factors and Mechanisms in Microencapsulation
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Structural design of the microcapsule
      • 2.3 Microcapsule or microsphere type
      • 2.4 Microcapsule size, shape, and payload
      • 2.5 Physicochemical factors
      • 2.6 Mechanism of diffusion
      • 2.7 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 3. Applications of Mass and Heat Transfer in Microencapsulation Processes
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Mechanism of diffusion
      • 3.3 Zero order or pseudo-zero order diffusion model
      • 3.4 Fickian diffusion model
      • 3.5 First order diffusion model
      • 3.6 Conclusion
      • References
  • Part III: Process Technologies in Microencapsulation
    • Chapter 4. Overview of Microencapsulation Process Technologies
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Process components
      • 4.3 Processes
      • 4.4 Comparisons
      • 4.5 Emerging processes and trends
      • 4.6 Process selection
      • References
    • Chapter 5. Atomization and Spray-Drying Processes
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Atomization
      • 5.3 Drying configurations
      • 5.4 Operational practice
      • 5.5 Feed preparation
      • 5.6 Recent advances in atomization and spray-drying processes
      • 5.7 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 6. New Advances in Spray-Drying Processes
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Technologies
      • 6.3 Computational optimization
      • 6.4 Analyzing the drying process of a droplet
      • 6.5 Drying kinetics as input for CFD
      • 6.6 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 7. Fluid Bed Coating-Based Microencapsulation
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 Wurster (bottom spray) fluid bed coating
      • 7.3 Top spray granulation
      • 7.4 Rotary tangential spray granulation
      • 7.5 Static tangential spray granulation
      • 7.6 Discussion
      • 7.7 Formulation considerations
      • 7.8 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 8. Extrusion-Based Microencapsulation for the Food Industry
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Evolution of extrusion technology
      • 8.3 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 9. Spheronization, Granulation, Pelletization, and Agglomeration Processes
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.2 Basic equipment
      • 9.3 Batch fluidized beds for drying, agglomeration, and coating
      • 9.4 Continuous fluidized beds for drying, agglomeration, spray granulation, and coating
      • 9.5 ProCell type of continuous spouted beds for drying, agglomeration, spray granulation, and coating
      • 9.6 Technical options for pelletization
      • 9.7 Technical options for high-shear granulation
      • 9.8 Technical options for extrusion
      • 9.9 Application case studies
      • 9.10 Formulation of enzymes
      • 9.11 Formulation of vitamins
      • 9.12 Encapsulation of volatile ingredients
      • 9.13 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 10. Annular Jet-Based Processes
      • 10.1 Introduction
      • 10.2 Process technologies
      • 10.3 Equipment
      • 10.4 Materials
      • 10.5 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 11. Monodispersed Microencapsulation Technology
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Monodisperse particle fabrication technologies
      • 11.3 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 12. Coacervation Processes
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 Selection of wall materials
      • 12.3 Coacervation encapsulation processes
      • 12.4 Parameters influencing the formation of coacervates
      • 12.5 Evaluation of coacervates
      • 12.6 Stability, controlled release, and bioavailability
      • 12.7 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 13. Application of Liposomes in the Food Industry
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 What are liposomes?
      • 13.3 Liposome stability
      • 13.4 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 14. Nanoencapsulation in the Food Industry: Technology of the Future
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 Technology advantages
      • 14.3 Classification of nanoencapsulated systems
      • 14.4 Liquid–liquid systems
      • 14.5 Microemulsions
      • 14.6 Nanoemulsions
      • 14.7 Liposomes
      • 14.8 Solid–Lipid nanoparticles
      • 14.9 Solid–Solid systems
      • 14.10 Nanofibers
      • 14.11 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 15. Aqueous Two-Phase Systems for Microencapsulation in Food Applications
      • 15.1 Introduction
      • 15.2 Encapsulation in films, gels, and dispersed gel particles
      • 15.3 Encapsulation in particulate systems
      • 15.4 Conclusion
      • References
  • Part IV: Materials Used in Microencapsulation
    • Chapter 16. Selection of Materials for Microencapsulation
      • 16.1 Introduction
      • 16.2 Morphological design
      • 16.3 Material selection
      • 16.4 Hydrophilic materials
      • 16.5 Hydrophobic materials
      • 16.6 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 17. Cellulose Polymers in Microencapsulation of Food Additives
      • 17.1 Introduction
      • 17.2 Properties of cellulosic polymers
      • 17.3 Applications of cellulosic polymers in microencapsulation
      • 17.4 Process considerations using cellulosic polymers
      • References
    • Chapter 18. The Use of Starch-Based Materials for Microencapsulation
      • 18.1 Introduction
      • 18.2 Starch and starch modifications
      • 18.3 Characteristics of OSA starches
      • 18.4 Using modified starches for microencapsulation
      • 18.5 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 19. Use of Milk Proteins for Encapsulation of Food Ingredients
      • 19.1 Introduction
      • 19.2 Milk proteins and their function in encapsulation
      • 19.3 Encapsulation systems using caseins and whey proteins
      • 19.4 Milk proteins in combination with other materials as the encapsulating matrix
      • 19.5 Patent-based strategies
      • 19.6 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 20. Gelatin and Other Proteins for Microencapsulation
      • 20.1 Introduction
      • 20.2 Gelatin
      • 20.3 Soy protein
      • 20.4 Zein protein
      • 20.5 Pea protein
      • 20.6 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 21. Hydrocolloids and Gums as Encapsulating Agents
      • 21.1 Introduction
      • 21.2 Materials
      • 21.3 Applications
      • 21.4 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 22. Fats and Waxes in Microencapsulation of Food Ingredients
      • 22.1 Introduction
      • 22.2 Structural diversity in lipids
      • 22.3 Physicochemical properties of lipids
      • 22.4 Lipids in microencapsulation applications
      • 22.5 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 23. Yeast Cells and Yeast-Based Materials for Microencapsulation
      • 23.1 Introduction
      • 23.2 Description of the yeast cell as encapsulation material
      • 23.3 The yeast cell encapsulation process
      • 23.4 Parameters that affect yeast encapsulation performance
      • 23.5 Properties of yeast microcapsules
      • 23.6 Applications of yeast microcapsules in the food industry
      • 23.7 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 24. Pollen and Spore Shells—Nature’s Microcapsules
      • 24.1 Introduction
      • 24.2 Concept behind using pollen shells for microencapsulation
      • 24.3 Structural and chemical features of pollen shells useful for microcapsule formation
      • 24.4 Extraction of pollen shells
      • 24.5 Modifications to pollen shells
      • 24.6 Loading of actives
      • 24.7 Quality control of loaded shells
      • 24.8 Release of actives
      • 24.9 Applications of pollen shells for microencapsulation relevant to the food industry
      • 24.10 Perceived advantages of pollen shells for microencapsulation
      • Appendix
      • References
    • Chapter 25. Mesoporous Solid Carrier Particles in Controlled Delivery and Release
      • 25.1 Introduction
      • 25.2 Carrier particles
      • 25.3 Loading methods
      • 25.4 Characterization of unloaded and loaded particles
      • 25.5 Release measurements
      • 25.6 The effects of characteristics of the active on loading and release
      • 25.7 Effects of loading medium
      • 25.8 How can loading and release be controlled?
      • References
  • Part V: Testing and Quality Control
    • Chapter 26. Testing Tools and Physical, Chemical, and Microbiological Characterization of Microencapsulated Systems
      • 26.1 Introduction
      • 26.2 Physical characterization
      • 26.3 Chemical characterization
      • 26.4 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 27. Real-Time Analysis of Oxidative Barrier Properties of Encapsulation Systems
      • 27.1 Introduction
      • 27.2 Rapid methods to measure interaction of encapsulation systems with oxidizing agents
      • 27.3 Applications of rapid measurement techniques
      • 27.4 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 28. Stability Characterization and Sensory Testing in Food Products Containing Microencapsulants
      • 28.1 Introduction
      • 28.2 Measuring stability
      • 28.3 Factors affecting wall stability
      • 28.4 Factors affecting core stability
      • 28.5 Sensory impacts of microencapsulated ingredients in foods
      • 28.6 Conclusion
      • References
  • Part VI: Regulatory, Quality, Process Scale-Up, Packaging, and Economics
    • Chapter 29. Regulatory Considerations of Encapsulation Used in the Food Industry
      • 29.1 Introduction
      • 29.2 Animal derivatives
      • 29.3 Allergens
      • 29.4 Genetic modification and organic
      • 29.5 “Natural” claims
      • 29.6 Nutritional content
      • 29.7 Safe consumption
      • 29.8 Safe handling
      • 29.9 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 30. Process Scale-up Considerations for Microencapsulation Processes
      • 30.1 Definition of scale-up within the context of microencapsulation process technology
      • 30.2 Physical phenomena in controlled-release process technology
      • 30.3 Basic quality by design principles
      • 30.4 Tools for improved scaling of microencapsulation process technologies
      • 30.5 Troublesome assumptions
      • 30.6 Why there are often problems in scale-up
      • 30.7 Time and cost constraints
      • 30.8 Case study: spray drying and spray congealing
      • 30.9 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 31. Microencapsulation and Packaging—Value Added Solutions to Product Development
      • 31.1 Smart packaging: sensors and heat management materials
      • 31.2 Bioactive packaging
      • 31.3 Innovative packaging technologies: printing, printed electronics, and scratch and sniff
      • 31.4 Conclusion and outlook
      • References
    • Chapter 32. The Economics of Microencapsulation in the Food Industry
      • 32.1 Introduction
      • 32.2 The process
      • 32.3 Criteria
      • 32.4 Processing costs
      • 32.5 Conclusion
      • References
  • Part VII: Microencapsulation Applications
    • Chapter 33. Novel Concepts and Challenges of Flavor Microencapsulation and Taste Modification
      • 33.1 Introduction
      • 33.2 Challenges of flavor encapsulation
      • 33.3 Summary of common flavor microencapsulation techniques
      • 33.4 Summary of flavor microencapsulation materials
      • 33.5 Applications of microencapsulated flavor
      • 33.6 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 34. Flavor Release and Application in Chewing Gum and Confections
      • 34.1 Introduction
      • 34.2 Why microencapsulate flavors?
      • 34.3 Microencapsulation forms
      • 34.4 Microencapsulation forms—other types
      • 34.5 Chewing gum applications—designing for customized performance
      • 34.6 Microencapsulated flavors—when to use them?
      • 34.7 To be effective, microencapsulated flavors also require sustained and long-lasting sweetness and sourness
      • 34.8 Where is microencapsulated flavor applied in chewing gum applications?
      • 34.9 Challenges in microencapsulating flavors
      • 34.10 Other confectionery applications
      • 34.11 Chewing gum patent review—main companies: Wrigley, Warner–Lambert, Cadbury–Adams/Kraft Foods Global, Nabisco/Hershey confectionery companies (1990–2013)
      • 34.12 Conclusion
      • Appendix
      • References
    • Chapter 35. Novel Microencapsulation System to Improve Controlled Delivery of Cup Aroma During Preparation of Hot Instant Coffee Beverages
      • 35.1 Introduction
      • 35.2 Novel microencapsulation system development
      • 35.3 Guide to related publications by the authors
      • 35.4 Volatile carrier liquids
      • 35.5 Model coffee aroma systems
      • 35.6 Coffee microcapsule properties
      • 35.7 Coffee-aromatized carriers
      • 35.8 Carrier-free coffee essences
      • 35.9 Discussion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 36. Protection and Delivery of Probiotics for Use in Foods
      • 36.1 Introduction
      • 36.2 Microencapsulation and delivery concepts for probiotics
      • 36.3 Drying methods
      • 36.4 Delivery forms
      • 36.5 Methods for estimating process loss and product shelf-life
      • 36.6 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 37. Protection and Masking of Omega-3 and -6 Oils via Microencapsulation
      • 37.1 Introduction
      • 37.2 Encapsulation technologies used for omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids
      • 37.3 Characterization methods
      • 37.4 Applications
      • References
    • Chapter 38. Microencapsulation of Vitamins, Minerals, and Nutraceuticals for Food Applications
      • 38.1 Microencapsulation as a tool for effective delivery of micronutrients and nutraceuticals
      • 38.2 Criteria for developing microencapsulated delivery systems for micronutrients and nutraceuticals
      • 38.3 Development of fortified and functional foods
      • 38.4 Case study: technical approaches to the fortification of staple foods
      • 38.5 Conclusion and perspectives
      • References
    • Chapter 39. Taste-Masking and Controlled Delivery of Functional Food Ingredients
      • 39.1 Introduction
      • 39.2 Why controlled delivery?
      • 39.3 Product application
      • 39.4 Matrix to core compatibility
      • 39.5 Process of microencapsulation
      • 39.6 Characterization of microparticles
      • 39.7 Summary
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 40. Microencapsulated Enzymes in Food Applications
      • 40.1 Introduction
      • 40.2 Food enzyme market
      • 40.3 Enzyme properties and challenges
      • 40.4 Encapsulation
      • 40.5 Food applications
      • 40.6 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 41. Commercial Applications of Microencapsulation and Controlled Delivery in Food and Beverage Products
      • 41.1 Introduction
      • 41.2 Flavor and taste
      • 41.3 Health and wellness
      • 41.4 Experiential and interactive effects
      • 41.5 Interactive packaging
      • 41.6 Trends and outlook
      • References
    • Chapter 42. Inventing and Using Controlled-Release Technologies
      • 42.1 Introduction
      • 42.2 A needs-based process
      • 42.3 Developmental principles
      • 42.4 Release profile
      • 42.5 Other issues
      • 42.6 Releasing the core
      • 42.7 Developing a new technology
      • 42.8 Public knowledge
      • 42.9 Conclusion
      • References
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
590
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124047358
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124045682

About the Editor

Anilkumar Gaonkar

Affiliations and Expertise

Kraft General Foods, Inc., Glenview, IL, USA

Niraj Vasisht

Affiliations and Expertise

BioDelivery Sciences International, Inc., Raleigh, NC, USA

Atul Khare

Affiliations and Expertise

FONA International, Inc., Geneva, IL, USA

Robert Sobel

Affiliations and Expertise

FONA International, Inc., Geneva, IL, USA

Reviews

"...meant to represent a summary of current knowledge available to date in the field of microencapsulation and gather in one volume practical aspects of matter." --Ingredienti Alimentari, November-December 2014