Microclimate for Cultural Heritage

1st Edition

Authors: D. Camuffo D. Camuffo
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444829252
eBook ISBN: 9780080536538
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 9th April 1998
Page Count: 432
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Description

This is a useful microphysics handbook for conservators and specialists in physics, chemistry, architecture, engineering, geology and biology dealing with the environment and works of art. A rigourous treatment and a background familiarity with the underlying physics behind mathematics are covered, giving a detailed description and interpretation of the main microphysical phenomena, removing unsound popular beliefs. The basis are given for non-destructive diagnostics to evaluate causes of damage determined by atmoshpheric factors, as well as negative consequences of the unsound use of technology and mass tourism. To this aim, suggestions are given on the fundamental principles in designing heating, air conditioning, lighting and in reducing the deposition of pollutants on works of art. Theory and experience are coupled to describe the complex condensation mechanisms and the fundamental role played by water in the stone deterioration and the formation of crusts on monuments. Urban meteorology, air-surface interactions, atmospheric stability, dispersion and deposition of airborne pollutants are also key topics of this book, for which the main aim has been to make comprehensible to a wider audience a matter that is only familiar to a few specialists.

This book combines a theoretical background with many years of accurate laboratory research, field surveys and practice. The first part, devoted to applied theory, is a concise treatise on microphysics, which includes a survey on the basic ideas which are necessary for environmental diagnostic and conservation. The second part of the book focuses on the practical utilisation and shows in detail how field surveys should be performed, with many suggestions and examples and the indication of some common errors that should be avoided.

Table of Contents

Foreword by R.E. Munn. Preface. Acknowledgements. Part I. Atmospheric Physics Applied to Microclimate Analysis and Conservation. Chapter 1. Microclimate, Air and Temperature. The microclimate. Air, water vapour and perfect gases. Temperature. Mechanisms of temperature degradation. The temperature in a building, a room. The temperature in a showcase. Is it possible to combine people comfort, conservation needs and low cost? Monitoring air temperature to study air-surface interactions and for microclimate diagnostics. Drawing air temperature and other isolines. Chapter 2. Humidity. Partial pressure of the water vapour. Derivation of the latent heats for the phase changes. Mixing ratio of dry air and water vapour. Monitoring mixing ratio to study air-surface interactions and for environmental diagnostics. Specific humidity. Absolute humidity. Relative humidity. The equilibrium moisture content. Mechanisms of humidity degradation. What is the best type of microclimate for conservation? Keeping constant relative humidity in rooms and showcases. Dew point: the temperature of condensation. Frost point: the temperature of freezing. Wet bulb temperature: the temperature of evaporation. The psychrometric chart. Chapter 3. Parameters for Describing Air Masses and Vertical Motions. Equivalent temperature. Adiabatic gradient in the troposphere. Potential temperature. Equivalent-potential temperature. Virtual temperature. Chapter 4. Radiation and Light. The emission of radiation from bodies and the effects of the absorbed energy. Radiometric temperature. Angular distribution of radiant emission of bodies. Attenuation of light in the atmosphere. Daily and seasonal cycles of solar radiation on a surface. What is the colour of natural light? Artificial lighting, optical filters and optical fibres. Deterioration to works of art caused by light. Chapter 5. Physics of Drop Formation and Micropo

Details

No. of pages:
432
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 1998
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9780080536538
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444829252

About the Author

D. Camuffo

Physicist. From 1969 at the National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, where his last position was Research Director. He retired in 2008, he now continues research and teaching as emeritus Associate. Since 1979, he has been lecturer of Environmental Physics and Physics for Conservation at the University of Padua, the Cignaroli Academy of Fine Arts, Verona, the Polytechnic of Milan. For ten years, he was the Co- Director of the European Doctoral Course “Sciences and Materials of the Cultural Heritage”, of the European University Centre for Cultural Heritage, Ravello. His activities are mainly devoted to atmospheric physics applied to the conservation of the cultural heritage and to climate change. He has recovered and studied the earliest regular observations of the Medici Network (1654-1670) and a number of long-term instrumental series starting from the early 17th century. Similarly with written documentary proxies (e.g. chronicles, annals) over the last millennium: he reads fluent Latin, the official language of the Middle Ages and the language of scientific literature up to the French Revolution, Italian, French, English, Spanish, and ancient Greek. The possibility of reading original documents and books is very helpful in recovering data, but also in the interpretation of old recipes or scientific writings. He analyzed the sea level rise in Venice, over the last 500 years after the algae belt marked on the paintings by Canaletto, Bellotto and Veronese, who reproduced precise details with the help of a camera obscura. He was requested by the Holy Father John Paul II to improve the microclimate of Michelangelo's frescoes in the Sistine Chapel, and appointed by UNESCO for the Great Sphinx and Pyramid Plateau, Egypt, Thracian Tombs, the city of Nassebur and the Madara Rider, Bulgaria, all included in the World List of Cultural Heritage (WLCH). He also studied the Leonardo's Last Supper, Milan; the Uffizi Gallery, Florenc

Affiliations and Expertise

National Research Council, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Padua, Italy

D. Camuffo

Physicist. From 1969 at the National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, where his last position was Research Director. He retired in 2008, he now continues research and teaching as emeritus Associate. Since 1979, he has been lecturer of Environmental Physics and Physics for Conservation at the University of Padua, the Cignaroli Academy of Fine Arts, Verona, the Polytechnic of Milan. For ten years, he was the Co- Director of the European Doctoral Course “Sciences and Materials of the Cultural Heritage”, of the European University Centre for Cultural Heritage, Ravello. His activities are mainly devoted to atmospheric physics applied to the conservation of the cultural heritage and to climate change. He has recovered and studied the earliest regular observations of the Medici Network (1654-1670) and a number of long-term instrumental series starting from the early 17th century. Similarly with written documentary proxies (e.g. chronicles, annals) over the last millennium: he reads fluent Latin, the official language of the Middle Ages and the language of scientific literature up to the French Revolution, Italian, French, English, Spanish, and ancient Greek. The possibility of reading original documents and books is very helpful in recovering data, but also in the interpretation of old recipes or scientific writings. He analyzed the sea level rise in Venice, over the last 500 years after the algae belt marked on the paintings by Canaletto, Bellotto and Veronese, who reproduced precise details with the help of a camera obscura. He was requested by the Holy Father John Paul II to improve the microclimate of Michelangelo's frescoes in the Sistine Chapel, and appointed by UNESCO for the Great Sphinx and Pyramid Plateau, Egypt, Thracian Tombs, the city of Nassebur and the Madara Rider, Bulgaria, all included in the World List of Cultural Heritage (WLCH). He also studied the Leonardo's Last Supper, Milan; the Uffizi Gallery, Florenc

Affiliations and Expertise

National Research Council, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Padua, Italy

Reviews

@from:A. Longhetto @qu:...highly recommended book. @source:Il Nuovo Cimento Vol. 22, no. 1 @from:N.S. Baer, Hagop Kevorkian Professor of Conservation, Institute of Fine Arts @qu:Even the most casual reader of the conservation literature will have encountered examples of the remarkable body of work by Dario Camuffo wherein he has applied fundamental principles of physics to the study of the microenvironment of such diverse systems as temperature and humidity gradients in the Sistine Chapel, acid deposition and biocorrosion on Trajan's column, and the aeolian erosion of the Great Sphinx.

The present work is no mere compilation or recapitulation of the author's previously published papers, but rather a publication of the fundamental principles and theoretical basis for the study of the microenvironments encountered by the most diverse forms of cultural property. It is appropriate that it finds its place in the series, 'Developments in Atmospheric Science' among such titles as Physical Principles of Micro-Meteorological Measurements, Man's Impact on Climate and Atmospheric Aerosols. Where rigor is called for, the treatment includes derivations and equations. Yet the author never allows rigor mortis to set in. Always, clear practical examples are provided. Indeed, the theoretical treatment is at the service of the discussions of the many case studies introduced.

It is perhaps useful to consider Camuffo's text in parallel to the widely read classic by Garry Thomson, The Museum Environment. In attempting to deal with the different levels of scientific appreciation brought by his prospective readers, Thomson covers the same material twice, offering, in effect, an introductory version and then a more advanced version for each topic. This solution always seemed rather artificial. It is much to the credit of Dr. Camuffo that he has written a book that may be the advanced-level version o