Microclimate for Cultural Heritage

Microclimate for Cultural Heritage

1st Edition - April 9, 1998
  • Author: Dario Camuffo
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080536538

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This is a useful microphysics handbook for conservators and specialists in physics, chemistry, architecture, engineering, geology and biology dealing with the environment and works of art. A rigourous treatment and a background familiarity with the underlying physics behind mathematics are covered, giving a detailed description and interpretation of the main microphysical phenomena, removing unsound popular beliefs. The basis are given for non-destructive diagnostics to evaluate causes of damage determined by atmoshpheric factors, as well as negative consequences of the unsound use of technology and mass tourism. To this aim, suggestions are given on the fundamental principles in designing heating, air conditioning, lighting and in reducing the deposition of pollutants on works of art. Theory and experience are coupled to describe the complex condensation mechanisms and the fundamental role played by water in the stone deterioration and the formation of crusts on monuments. Urban meteorology, air-surface interactions, atmospheric stability, dispersion and deposition of airborne pollutants are also key topics of this book, for which the main aim has been to make comprehensible to a wider audience a matter that is only familiar to a few specialists.This book combines a theoretical background with many years of accurate laboratory research, field surveys and practice. The first part, devoted to applied theory, is a concise treatise on microphysics, which includes a survey on the basic ideas which are necessary for environmental diagnostic and conservation. The second part of the book focuses on the practical utilisation and shows in detail how field surveys should be performed, with many suggestions and examples and the indication of some common errors that should be avoided.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword by R.E. Munn. Preface. Acknowledgements. Part I. Atmospheric Physics Applied to Microclimate Analysis and Conservation. Chapter 1. Microclimate, Air and Temperature. The microclimate. Air, water vapour and perfect gases. Temperature. Mechanisms of temperature degradation. The temperature in a building, a room. The temperature in a showcase. Is it possible to combine people comfort, conservation needs and low cost? Monitoring air temperature to study air-surface interactions and for microclimate diagnostics. Drawing air temperature and other isolines. Chapter 2. Humidity. Partial pressure of the water vapour. Derivation of the latent heats for the phase changes. Mixing ratio of dry air and water vapour. Monitoring mixing ratio to study air-surface interactions and for environmental diagnostics. Specific humidity. Absolute humidity. Relative humidity. The equilibrium moisture content. Mechanisms of humidity degradation. What is the best type of microclimate for conservation? Keeping constant relative humidity in rooms and showcases. Dew point: the temperature of condensation. Frost point: the temperature of freezing. Wet bulb temperature: the temperature of evaporation. The psychrometric chart. Chapter 3. Parameters for Describing Air Masses and Vertical Motions. Equivalent temperature. Adiabatic gradient in the troposphere. Potential temperature. Equivalent-potential temperature. Virtual temperature. Chapter 4. Radiation and Light. The emission of radiation from bodies and the effects of the absorbed energy. Radiometric temperature. Angular distribution of radiant emission of bodies. Attenuation of light in the atmosphere. Daily and seasonal cycles of solar radiation on a surface. What is the colour of natural light? Artificial lighting, optical filters and optical fibres. Deterioration to works of art caused by light. Chapter 5. Physics of Drop Formation and Micropore Condensation. How a curved water meniscus changes the equilibrium vapour tension. Derivation of the Kelvin equation for droplets formation and micropore condensation. Derivation of the Kelvin equation from the Stevin and Laplace laws. Derivation of the Kelvin equation from the Gibbs potential. The formation of droplets in the atmosphere: homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. Bubbles. Micropore condensation and stone weathering. Adsorption isotherms. Freezing-thawing cycles. Chapter 6. Atmospheric Water and Stone Weathering. Acid rain, rainfall and crusts. Mechanisms of penetration of rainwater. Evaporation from a damp monument. Capillary suction. Lowering of the equilibrium vapour tension over a solution. Climate cycles, sea spray and salt damage. Some common errors that must be avoided. Condensation or evaporation? Not only rising dampness. Drying damp murals. Chapter 7. Atmospheric Stability and Pollutant Dispersion. Introduction. The vertical temperature gradient and plume behaviour. Effects due to topographic horizontal inhomogeneity. The urban climate: heat island and aerodynamic disturbance. Dispersion and transportation of pollutants in a city. Wind friction near a surface. The vertical fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum. Heat balance at the soil or the monument surface. Main parameters used in measuring atmospheric stability and turbulence. Plume dispersion. Stability categories to evaluate the atmospheric stability. Brookhaven. Pasquill. Successive extensions. Chapter 8. Dry Deposition of Airborne Particulate Matter: Mechanisms and Effects. Introduction. Random walk and Brownian diffusivity. Brownian deposition. Thermophoresis. Diffusiophoresis. Stefan flow. Gravitational settling. Electrophoresis. Photophoresis. Aerodynamic deposition: inertial impaction and interception. Adhesion of particles to paintings or other surfaces. Vertical distribution of particles in still air and their resuspension by turbulence. How soiling develops. What is the most appropriate heating and air conditioning system to avoid soiling? Inappropriate position of paintings. Uplifting of giant particles and wind erosion. Kinetic energy and sand blasting. Part II. Performing Microclimate Field Surveys. Chapter 9. Introduction to Field Measurements. Weather stations and observations for monument conservation. Statistical representation of the data. Frequency of observation. Length of the observation period. Response time of a sensor. Essential glossary. Chapter 10. Measuring Temperature. Measuring air temperature. Choice of the sensor. Response to the air temperature and infrared radiation. Thermometers. Screen. Instrument location. Measuring vertical profiles of air temperature and room atmospheric stability. Measuring surface temperature. Contact sensors. Radiometers and remote sensing. Chapter 11. Measuring Humidity. Measuring air humidity. Measuring principles. Hygrometers. Calibrating hygrometers. Measuring monument humidity and air-artefact interactions. Measuring heat and moisture exchanges between air and monuments. Measuring humidity inside walls. Measuring time of wetness. Chapter 12. Measuring Wind and Indoor Air Motions. Meteorological wind measurements. Anemometry. Installing anemometers. Measuring wind vector components. Averaging wind direction. Measuring wind variance. Measuring inside air motions. Hot wire anemometry. Sonic anemometry. Laser-Doppler anemometry. A simple analysis of atmospheric turbulence. Chapter 13. Measuring Rainfall and Windborne Droplets. Meteorological precipitation measurements. Precipitation on monuments. Wet and dry deposition samplers. References. References index. Subject index.

Product details

  • No. of pages: 432
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 1998
  • Published: April 9, 1998
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080536538

About the Author

Dario Camuffo

Dario Camuffo
Physicist. From 1969 at the National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, where his last position was Research Director. He retired in 2008, he now continues research and teaching as emeritus Associate. Since 1979, he has been lecturer of Environmental Physics and Physics for Conservation at the University of Padua, the Cignaroli Academy of Fine Arts, Verona, the Polytechnic of Milan. For ten years, he was the Co- Director of the European Doctoral Course “Sciences and Materials of the Cultural Heritage”, of the European University Centre for Cultural Heritage, Ravello. His activities are mainly devoted to atmospheric physics applied to the conservation of the cultural heritage and to climate change. He has recovered and studied the earliest regular observations of the Medici Network (1654-1670) and a number of long-term instrumental series starting from the early 17th century. Similarly with written documentary proxies (e.g. chronicles, annals) over the last millennium: he reads fluent Latin, the official language of the Middle Ages and the language of scientific literature up to the French Revolution, Italian, French, English, Spanish, and ancient Greek. The possibility of reading original documents and books is very helpful in recovering data, but also in the interpretation of old recipes or scientific writings. He analyzed the sea level rise in Venice, over the last 500 years after the algae belt marked on the paintings by Canaletto, Bellotto and Veronese, who reproduced precise details with the help of a camera obscura. He was requested by the Holy Father John Paul II to improve the microclimate of Michelangelo's frescoes in the Sistine Chapel, and appointed by UNESCO for the Great Sphinx and Pyramid Plateau, Egypt, Thracian Tombs, the city of Nassebur and the Madara Rider, Bulgaria, all included in the World List of Cultural Heritage (WLCH). He also studied the Leonardo's Last Supper, Milan; the Uffizi Gallery, Florence; the Louvre and the Orangerie Museum, Paris; the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna; the Orvieto Cathedral, and many other monuments. Active in standardization for cultural heritage, convenor of two working teams of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee for Cultural Heritage, and vice-president of UNI-Normal (Italian Standardization Body). Member of various international scientific committees (e.g. European Commission, UNESCO, U.S. NAPAP) on the conservation of works of art, environment and climate. He wrote over 300 scientific papers and some books. He leaded many research projects, some fifteen of them funded by the European Commission Directorate General Research and Innovation, and the European Science Foundation (COST).

Affiliations and Expertise

National Research Council, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Padua, Italy