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Microbiology in Clinical Practice - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780723614036, 9781483183695

Microbiology in Clinical Practice

2nd Edition

Author: D. C. Shanson
eBook ISBN: 9781483183695
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 31st December 1984
Page Count: 680
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Microbiology in Clinical Practice presents the infections and syndromes caused by micro-organisms. It discusses the management of infective diseases and aetiological agents. It addresses the latex agglutination, immunofluorescent, monoclonal antibody, and nucleic acid probe investigations. Some of the topics covered in the book are the classification and pathogenicity of microbes; classification of bacteria; classification of viruses; classification of fungi; general principles of antimicrobial chemotherapy; antibiotic sensitivity tests; procedures in the laboratory for microbiological diagnosis; and the mode of action of antimicrobial drugs. The resistance to antimicrobial drugs are covered. The microbiological investigations of septicaemia are discussed. The text describes the human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS in infants. A study of the congenital immunodeficiency and impaired resistance to infection is presented. A chapter is devoted to the predisposing factors for anaerobic infections. Another section focuses on the infections of the central nervous system. The book can provide useful information to doctors, pathologists, neurologists, students, and researchers.

Table of Contents

Foreword to First Edition

Preface to Second Edition

Preface to First Edition

'Priority' Reading


Acknowledgments for Illustrations

Section A: General Principles

1 Classification and Pathogenicity of Microbes

Classification of Bacteria

Classification of Viruses

Classification of Fungi

Pathogenesis: Factors Affecting 'Virulence' and Spread of Microbes

Appendix: Basic Characteristics of Some Important Bacterial Pathogens

2 Use of The Microbiology Laboratory—General Principles

Collection of Clinically Relevant Specimens

Provision of Essential Clinical Information

Prior Discussion with the Microbiologist

Collection of Good Quality Specimens

Transport of Specimens to the Laboratory

Procedures in the Laboratory for Microbiological Diagnosis

Antibiotic Sensitivity Tests

Appendix 1 : Some Microbiological Methods

Appendix 2: Basic Virological Investigations

3 Antimicrobial Chemotherapy—General Principles

Mode of Action of Antimicrobial Drugs

Spectrum Of Activity Of Antimicrobial Agents

General Principles of Use of Antimicrobial Drugs

Pharmacokinetic Factors

Use of Microbiological Investigations in The Management of Therapy

Antibiotic Assays

Causes of Failure of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Resistance to Antimicrobial Drugs

Antibiotic Prophylaxis

Appendix: Notes on Antimicrobial Drugs Including Some 'New' Antibiotics

Section B: Specific Clinical Topics

4 Pyrexia of Undetermined Origin (PUO)

Definition of PUO

Major Causes of PUO

Infective Causes of PUO

Investigation of PUO

Special Investigations

5 Septicaemia

Clinical Features

Causative Organisms

Microbiological Investigations of Septicaemia

Antibiotic Treatment of Septicaemia

Prevention of Septicaemia

Appendix: Instructions for the Collection of Conventional Blood Cultures

6 Opportunistic Infections

Opportunistic' Organisms

Opportunistic Conditions

Diagnosis of Opportunistic Infections

Treatment of Opportunistic Infections

Prevention of Opportunistic Infections

7 Obstetric, Perinatal and Neonatal Infections

Infections in Pregnancy

Perinatal Infections

Neonatal and Congenital Infections

Puerperal Sepsis and Post-Partum Pyrexia

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and AIDS in Infants

Gynecological Infections

8 Infections In Children

Respiratory Tract Infections

Specific Childhood Fevers

Some Other Infections in Childhood

Congenital Immunodeficiency and Impaired Resistance to Infection


Appendix: List of Infectious Diseases Notifiable in Britain

9 Anaerobic Infections

Definition of an Anaerobe

Classification of Anaerobes

Predisposing Factors for Anaerobic Infections

Non-Sporing Anaerobic Infections

Clostridial Infections

10 Infections of the Central Nervous System



Cerebral Abscesses

Extradural Spinal Abscess

Guillain-Barré Syndrome

Congenital Central Nervous System Infections

11 ENT and Eye Infections

Ear, Nose and Throat Infections

Eye Infections

12 Infections of the Lower Respiratory Tract

Normal Flora of the Lower Respiratory Tract

Acute Trachea-Bronchitis

Infective Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis




Legionnaires5 Disease

Aspergillus Broncho-Pulmonary Diseases

Farmer's Lung


Cystic Fibrosis

Lung Abscess


13 Mycobacterial and Actinomycete Infections

Mycobacterial Infections


Opportunist Mycobacteria


Actinomycete Infections

14 Infections of the Gastro-Intestinal Tract

Normal Flora of the Gastro-Intestinal Tract

Water as a Vehicle of Infection

Enteric Fever

Gastro-Enteritis and Food Poisoning

Acute Diarrhea in Childhood

Infantile Gastro-Enteritis




Winter Vomiting Disease

Traveller's Diarrhea

Tropical Sprue

Blind Loop Syndrome

Antibiotic-Induced Diarrhea

Pseudo-Membranous Colitis

More Recently Recognized Causes of Gastro-Intestinal Tract Infections

15 Hepatic Infections

Viral Hepatitis

Other Infective Causes of Jaundice

Liver Abscess

16 Skin Infections and Infestations

Normal Flora of Skin

Causative Organisms

Skin Lesions Associated with Bacterial Infection

Bacteriological Investigations


Skin Lesions Associated with Viral Infections

Skin Lesions Associated with Fungal Infections

Skin Lesions Associated with Protozoa

Skin Lesions Associated with Worm Infestations

Skin Lesions Associated with Insect Infestations

17 Bone And Joint Infections


Bone Infections

Joint Infections (Septic Arthritis) and 'Reactive' Arthritis

Treatment of Bone and Joint Infections (Non-Tuberculous)

Tuberculosis of Bones And Joints

18 Infections of The Heart

Infective Endocarditis

Infective Myocarditis and Pericarditis

19 Infections of the Urinary Tract

Normal Flora of the Urinary Tract

Definition of Urinary Tract Infection

Significant Bacteriuria

Clinical Pathological Categories


Predisposing Factors

Effects of Urinary Tract Infections

Causative Organisms

Investigation of Urinary Tract Infections

Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections

Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections

20 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Causative Organisms

Incidence of Some Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Bacterial Infections

Lymphogranuloma Venereum

Non-Specific Urethritis

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Viral Infections

Fungal Infection

Protozoal Infection


Arthropod Infestations

Summary of Diagnostic Microbiological Investigations for Patients with Suspected Sexually Transmitted Diseases

21 AIDS and Other Diseases Caused by Retroviruses

Molecular Genetics of HIV

Immunopathogenesis of AIDS and Latency of HIV Infection

Clinical-Pathological Definition of AIDS


Clinical Manifestations of HIV Infection

Revised 1987 Definition of AIDS 488

Opportunistic Infections Indicative of AIDS and Their Management

Microbiological Investigation of HIV Infection

Infection Control Precautions to Prevent Transmission of HIV to Patients and Staff

Drugs to Treat HIV Infection

Future Prospects

Appendix: The Full Definition of AIDS

22 Zoonoses


Modes of Transmission

Bacterial Zoonoses

Rickettsial Zoonoses

Viral Zoonoses

Chlamydial Zoonoses

Fungal Zoonoses

Protozoal Zoonoses

Worm Zoonoses

23 Arthropod-Borne Infections and Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

Arthropod Vectors of Infectious Diseases

Diseases Transmitted by Arthropod Vectors

Arthropod-Borne Infections Imported Into Britain

Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

24 Worms (Helminths)

Cestodes (Tapeworms)

Nematodes (Roundworms)

Filarial Nematodes

Trematodes (Flukes)

25 Hospital Infection 573

General Considerations

Different Types of Hospital-Acquired Infection

Organisms Causing Hospital-Acquired Infections

Hospital-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections

Surgical Wound Infections

Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

Intensive Care Units and Hospital-Acquired Infection

Infective Hazards of Intravenous Infusion Therapy

Tuberculosis, Viral Hepatitis and AIDS 601

Appendix: Typing of Organisms and Isolation Procedures

26 Disinfection and Sterilization

Definition of Terms






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© Butterworth-Heinemann 1984
31st December 1984
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

D. C. Shanson

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