Metropolitan Sustainability

Metropolitan Sustainability

Understanding and Improving the Urban Environment

1st Edition - September 11, 2012

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  • Editor: F Zeman
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857096463
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857090461

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Global populations have grown rapidly in recent decades, leading to ever increasing demands for shelter, resources, energy and utilities. Coupled with the worldwide need to achieve lower impact buildings and conservation of resources, the need to achieve sustainability in urban environments has never been more acute. This book critically reviews the fundamental issues and applied science, engineering and technology that will enable all cities to achieve a greater level of metropolitan sustainability, and assist nations in meeting the needs of their growing urban populations.Part one introduces key issues related to metropolitan sustainability, including the use of both urban metabolism and benefit cost analysis. Part two focuses on urban land use and the environmental impact of the built environment. The urban heat island effect, redevelopment of brownfield sites and urban agriculture are discussed in depth, before part three goes on to explore urban air pollution and emissions control. Urban water resources, reuse and management are explored in part four, followed by a study of urban energy supply and management in part five. Solar, wind and bioenergy, the role of waste-to-energy systems in the urban infrastructure, and smart energy for cities are investigated. Finally, part six considers sustainable urban development, transport and planning.With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Metropolitan sustainability is an essential resource for low-impact building engineers, sustainability consultants and architects, town and city planners, local/municipal authorities, and national and non-governmental bodies, and provides a thorough overview for academics of all levels in this field.

Key Features

  • Critically reviews the fundamental issues and applied science, engineering and technology that will enable all cities to achieve a greater level of metropolitan sustainability
  • Will assist nations in meeting the needs of their growing urban populations
  • Chapters discuss urban land use, the environmental impact of the build environment, the urban heat island effect, urban air pollution and emissions control, among other topics


Low-impact building engineers, sustainability consultants and architects; Town and city planners, local/municipal authorities, national and non-governmental bodies; Academics in this field

Table of Contents

  • Contributor contact details

    Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy


    Part I: Metropolitan sustainability: an introduction

    Chapter 1: A living city: using urban metabolism analysis to view cities as life forms


    1.1 Introduction: urban metabolism (UM), or urban energy systems

    1.2 Divergent measuring approaches in UM analysis

    1.3 UM studies

    1.4 Understanding cities through UM

    1.5 Directions for planning and policy

    1.6 Future trends

    Chapter 2: Benefit cost analysis for environmental decision making: using discounting to compare benefits and costs that occur at different points in time


    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 The rationale for discounting

    2.3 A framework for intertemporal discounting

    2.4 Discounting for climate change

    2.5 Enhancing and improving net present value

    2.6 Acknowledgement

    Chapter 3: Quantifying sustainability: industrial ecology, materials flow and life cycle analysis


    3.1 Introduction to industrial ecology

    3.2 Materials flow analysis (MFA)

    3.3 Life cycle analysis (LCA)

    3.4 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 4: Separation of mixtures: fundamentals and technologies


    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Characterization of separation processes

    4.3 Balance equations

    4.4 Preliminary separation process calculations

    4.5 Multi-stage separations

    4.6 Filtration

    4.7 Conclusions and sources of further information

    4.8 Acknowledgement

    4.10 Appendix: Algorithm for solving equations 4.4, 4.9 and 4.10

    Part II: Earth: urban land use and the environmental impact of the built environment

    Chapter 5: The urban heat island effect: causes and potential solutions


    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Basic causes and remedies

    5.3 Solutions and benefit assessment

    5.4 The urban heat island mitigation impact screening tool (MIST)

    5.5 Conclusions

    Chapter 6: Redevelopment of brownfield sites


    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Management practices aimed at remediating and redeveloping brownfields

    6.3 Sustainability outcomes of brownfield redevelopment

    6.4 Case studies

    6.5 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 7: Urban agriculture: opportunities and constraints


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Site availability for urban agriculture

    7.3 Crops and yields

    7.4 Food security

    7.5 Demands on and benefits for urban water infrastructure

    7.6 Benefits for urban energy infrastructure

    7.7 Waste and composting

    Chapter 8: Redevelopment of brownfield sitesBuilding-integrated agriculture: a new approach to food production


    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Ecological performance of building-integrated agriculture (BIA)

    8.3 Community impact of BIA

    8.4 Other forms of urban agriculture

    8.5 Case studies

    8.6 Sustainability challenges and future trends

    8.7 Sources of further information and advice

    Part III: Wind: urban air pollution and emissions control

    Chapter 9: Metropolitan effects on atmospheric patterns: important scales


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over metropolitan areas

    9.3 Local-versus regional-scale effects of urbanization on atmospheric patterns

    9.4 Interplay between metropolitan and global climate effects

    9.5 Conclusions and future trends

    9.6 Sources of further information and advice

    9.7 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 10: The science of smog: a chemical understanding of ground level ozone and fine particulate matter


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Ground level ozone chemistry

    10.3 Fine particulate matter chemistry

    10.4 Challenges facing smog control

    10.5 Megacity smog: examples from Beijing and Mexico City

    10.6 Summary and future trends

    10.7 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 11: Air pollution in the urban atmosphere: sources and consequences


    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Categories of pollutants

    11.3 Sources of air pollution

    11.4 Environmental and human health effects

    11.5 Future trends and sustainability challenges

    11.6 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 12: Controlling emissions of pollutants in urban areas


    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Mobile sources of pollution

    12.3 Reducing pollution from mobile sources

    12.4 Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbon monoxide (CO) from stationary sources and their control

    12.5 Nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction from stationary sources

    12.6 Sulfur oxides (SOx) and particulate matter (PM) removal from coal-fired power plants

    12.7 Sustainability challenges and future trends

    Chapter 13: Passive systems to improve air quality and reduce heat retention in the urban environment


    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Photocatalytic materials

    13.3 Current research into TiO2-based building materials

    13.4 Urban vegetation

    13.5 Sustainability challenges and future trends

    13.6 Sources of further information and advice

    Part IV: Water: urban water resources, reuse and managemen

    Chapter 14: Integrated urban water management: water use and reuse


    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Alternative urban water sources and water quality considerations

    14.3 Treatment and infrastructure considerations for harvested rainwater and stormwater runoff

    14.4 Treatment and infrastructure considerations for water reuse

    14.5 Sustainability challenges

    14.6 Future trends

    Chapter 15: Rainwater harvesting: using urban roof runoff for residential toilet flushing


    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Analysis of roof runoff harvesting systems for flushing toilets in different cities

    15.3 Results of the analysis

    15.4 Discussion of factors influencing rainwater harvesting system performance

    15.5 Conclusions

    Chapter 16: Urban water supply: modeling watersheds and treatment facilities


    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Systems analysis of urban water infrastructure

    16.3 Prospects for future urban water supply

    16.4 Energy use in the water industry

    Chapter 17: Water and wastewater treatment: chemical processes


    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Chemical treatment of water and wastewater

    17.3 Considerations in plant design

    17.4 Challenges and future trends

    17.5 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 18: Water and wastewater treatment: biological processes


    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Biological treatment options for wastewater

    18.3 Biological treatment options for water

    18.4 Issues with environmental residuals

    18.5 Sustainability challenges and future trends

    Part V: Fire: urban energy supply and management

    Chapter 19: Solar energy in the built environment: powering the sustainable city


    19.1 Introduction: the potential of solar energy

    19.2 Solar energy in metropolitan areas

    19.3 Solar energy on the building scale

    19.4 Photovoltaic solar systems

    19.5 Solar thermal systems

    19.6 Biological solar systems

    19.7 Incentives for solar energy projects

    Chapter 20: Wind energy in the built environment


    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Wind energy basics

    20.3 Wind flow in metropolitan areas

    20.4 Wind power technologies

    20.4.1 Horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs)

    20.4.2 Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs)

    20.4.3 Building-integrated wind turbines

    20.4.4 Large horizontal axis wind turbines

    20.4.5 State of the market for small urban wind turbines

    20.4.6 Rooftop wind turbine performance

    20.5 Important considerations for urban wind energy

    20.6 Conclusions and future trends

    20.7 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 21: The role of waste-to-energy in urban infrastructure


    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Characterization of urban wastes

    21.3 Hierarchy of waste management

    21.4 Effect of global waste management on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions

    21.5 Thermal treatment of post-recycling municipal solid wastes (MSW)

    21.6 Economic aspects of urban waste management

    21.7 Examples of cities approaching sustainable waste management

    Chapter 22: Smart energy for cities: decentralized supply resources and their link to the modern grid


    22.1 An introduction to decentralized energy

    22.2 Costs and benefits of decentralized energy supply systems

    22.3 Decentralized technologies for supplying power and thermal energy

    22.4 A smarter electric grid

    22.5 An alternative view for our future urban energy system

    22.6 Conclusions and future trends

    22.7 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 23: Bioenergy for the urban environment


    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Conversion technologies: biomass to heat, power and transportation fuels

    23.3 Tools for modelling biomass availability

    23.4 Ensuring bioenergy sustainability

    23.5 Future trends

    23.6 Acknowledgements

    Part VI: Sustainable urban development, transport and planning

    Chapter 24: Planning for more sustainable urban development


    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 The nature of urban planning

    24.3 Key aspects of urban sustainability planning

    24.4 The challenge of public participation

    24.5 Future trends

    24.6 Conclusions

    24.7 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 25: Sustainable urban transport planning


    25.1 Sustainable urban mobility and land use

    25.2 Transport choices in urban areas

    25.3 From car ownership to mobility services: new approaches in transportation

    25.4 Smart growth: linking land use planning and mobility

    25.5 Recommendations for urban transportation

    Chapter 26: The psychological needs of city dwellers: implications for sustainable urban planning


    26.1 Introduction

    26.2 Individual differences in city dwellers’ needs

    26.3 The need for quiet, unpolluted, natural and aesthetically pleasing areas

    26.4 The need for security

    26.5 The need for social interaction

    26.6 Conclusions

    Chapter 27: Possible futures for sustainable building design


    27.1 Introduction

    27.2 Reconsidering building systems relationships to facilitate sustainable building design

    27.3 Three approaches to sustainable design and corresponding case studies

    27.4 Conclusions

    Chapter 28: Moving toward urban sustainability: using lessons and legacies of the past


    28.1 Introduction

    28.2 Crisis, transition and transformation in urban development

    28.3 Environmental crises and transitions in New York City

    28.4 Conclusions

    Chapter 29: A vision of suburban sustainability: the Long Island Radically Rezoned project


    29.1 Introduction

    29.2 The inherent efficiency of cities

    29.3 The new model of sustainability

    29.4 Case study: Long Island Radically Rezoned – a regenerative vision for a living island


Product details

  • No. of pages: 776
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2012
  • Published: September 11, 2012
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857096463
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857090461

About the Editor

F Zeman

Frank Zeman is Assistant Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at the Royal Military College of Canada, and the former Director of the Center for Metropolitan Sustainability at the New York Institute of Technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Royal Military College of Canada, Canada

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