Metropolitan Sustainability - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857090461, 9780857096463

Metropolitan Sustainability

1st Edition

Understanding and Improving the Urban Environment

Editors: F Zeman
eBook ISBN: 9780857096463
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857090461
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 11th September 2012
Page Count: 776
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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy


Part I: Metropolitan sustainability: an introduction

Chapter 1: A living city: using urban metabolism analysis to view cities as life forms


1.1 Introduction: urban metabolism (UM), or urban energy systems

1.2 Divergent measuring approaches in UM analysis

1.3 UM studies

1.4 Understanding cities through UM

1.5 Directions for planning and policy

1.6 Future trends

Chapter 2: Benefit cost analysis for environmental decision making: using discounting to compare benefits and costs that occur at different points in time


2.1 Introduction

2.2 The rationale for discounting

2.3 A framework for intertemporal discounting

2.4 Discounting for climate change

2.5 Enhancing and improving net present value

2.6 Acknowledgement

Chapter 3: Quantifying sustainability: industrial ecology, materials flow and life cycle analysis


3.1 Introduction to industrial ecology

3.2 Materials flow analysis (MFA)

3.3 Life cycle analysis (LCA)

3.4 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 4: Separation of mixtures: fundamentals and technologies


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Characterization of separation processes

4.3 Balance equations

4.4 Preliminary separation process calculations

4.5 Multi-stage separations

4.6 Filtration

4.7 Conclusions and sources of further information

4.8 Acknowledgement

4.10 Appendix: Algorithm for solving equations 4.4, 4.9 and 4.10

Part II: Earth: urban land use and the environmental impact of the built environment

Chapter 5: The urban heat island effect: causes and potential solutions


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Basic causes and remedies

5.3 Solutions and benefit assessment

5.4 The urban heat island mitigation impact screening tool (MIST)

5.5 Conclusions

Chapter 6: Redevelopment of brownfield sites


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Management practices aimed at remediating and redeveloping brownfields

6.3 Sustainability outcomes of brownfield redevelopment

6.4 Case studies

6.5 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 7: Urban agriculture: opportunities and constraints


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Site availability for urban agriculture

7.3 Crops and yields

7.4 Food security

7.5 Demands on and benefits for urban water infrastructure

7.6 Benefits for urban energy infrastructure

7.7 Waste and composting

Chapter 8: Redevelopment of brownfield sitesBuilding-integrated agriculture: a new approach to food production


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Ecological performance of building-integrated agriculture (BIA)

8.3 Community impact of BIA

8.4 Other forms of urban agriculture

8.5 Case studies

8.6 Sustainability challenges and future trends

8.7 Sources of further information and advice

Part III: Wind: urban air pollution and emissions control

Chapter 9: Metropolitan effects on atmospheric patterns: important scales


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over metropolitan areas

9.3 Local-versus regional-scale effects of urbanization on atmospheric patterns

9.4 Interplay between metropolitan and global climate effects

9.5 Conclusions and future trends

9.6 Sources of further information and advice

9.7 Acknowledgements

Chapter 10: The science of smog: a chemical understanding of ground level ozone and fine particulate matter


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Ground level ozone chemistry

10.3 Fine particulate matter chemistry

10.4 Challenges facing smog control

10.5 Megacity smog: examples from Beijing and Mexico City

10.6 Summary and future trends

10.7 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 11: Air pollution in the urban atmosphere: sources and consequences


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Categories of pollutants

11.3 Sources of air pollution

11.4 Environmental and human health effects

11.5 Future trends and sustainability challenges

11.6 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 12: Controlling emissions of pollutants in urban areas


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Mobile sources of pollution

12.3 Reducing pollution from mobile sources

12.4 Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbon monoxide (CO) from stationary sources and their control

12.5 Nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction from stationary sources

12.6 Sulfur oxides (SOx) and particulate matter (PM) removal from coal-fired power plants

12.7 Sustainability challenges and future trends

Chapter 13: Passive systems to improve air quality and reduce heat retention in the urban environment


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Photocatalytic materials

13.3 Current research into TiO2-based building materials

13.4 Urban vegetation

13.5 Sustainability challenges and future trends

13.6 Sources of further information and advice

Part IV: Water: urban water resources, reuse and managemen

Chapter 14: Integrated urban water management: water use and reuse


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Alternative urban water sources and water quality considerations

14.3 Treatment and infrastructure considerations for harvested rainwater and stormwater runoff

14.4 Treatment and infrastructure considerations for water reuse

14.5 Sustainability challenges

14.6 Future trends

Chapter 15: Rainwater harvesting: using urban roof runoff for residential toilet flushing


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Analysis of roof runoff harvesting systems for flushing toilets in different cities

15.3 Results of the analysis

15.4 Discussion of factors influencing rainwater harvesting system performance

15.5 Conclusions

Chapter 16: Urban water supply: modeling watersheds and treatment facilities


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Systems analysis of urban water infrastructure

16.3 Prospects for future urban water supply

16.4 Energy use in the water industry

Chapter 17: Water and wastewater treatment: chemical processes


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Chemical treatment of water and wastewater

17.3 Considerations in plant design

17.4 Challenges and future trends

17.5 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 18: Water and wastewater treatment: biological processes


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Biological treatment options for wastewater

18.3 Biological treatment options for water

18.4 Issues with environmental residuals

18.5 Sustainability challenges and future trends

Part V: Fire: urban energy supply and management

Chapter 19: Solar energy in the built environment: powering the sustainable city


19.1 Introduction: the potential of solar energy

19.2 Solar energy in metropolitan areas

19.3 Solar energy on the building scale

19.4 Photovoltaic solar systems

19.5 Solar thermal systems

19.6 Biological solar systems

19.7 Incentives for solar energy projects

Chapter 20: Wind energy in the built environment


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Wind energy basics

20.3 Wind flow in metropolitan areas

20.4 Wind power technologies

20.4.1 Horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs)

20.4.2 Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs)

20.4.3 Building-integrated wind turbines

20.4.4 Large horizontal axis wind turbines

20.4.5 State of the market for small urban wind turbines

20.4.6 Rooftop wind turbine performance

20.5 Important considerations for urban wind energy

20.6 Conclusions and future trends

20.7 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 21: The role of waste-to-energy in urban infrastructure


21.1 Introduction

21.2 Characterization of urban wastes

21.3 Hierarchy of waste management

21.4 Effect of global waste management on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions

21.5 Thermal treatment of post-recycling municipal solid wastes (MSW)

21.6 Economic aspects of urban waste management

21.7 Examples of cities approaching sustainable waste management

Chapter 22: Smart energy for cities: decentralized supply resources and their link to the modern grid


22.1 An introduction to decentralized energy

22.2 Costs and benefits of decentralized energy supply systems

22.3 Decentralized technologies for supplying power and thermal energy

22.4 A smarter electric grid

22.5 An alternative view for our future urban energy system

22.6 Conclusions and future trends

22.7 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 23: Bioenergy for the urban environment


23.1 Introduction

23.2 Conversion technologies: biomass to heat, power and transportation fuels

23.3 Tools for modelling biomass availability

23.4 Ensuring bioenergy sustainability

23.5 Future trends

23.6 Acknowledgements

Part VI: Sustainable urban development, transport and planning

Chapter 24: Planning for more sustainable urban development


24.1 Introduction

24.2 The nature of urban planning

24.3 Key aspects of urban sustainability planning

24.4 The challenge of public participation

24.5 Future trends

24.6 Conclusions

24.7 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 25: Sustainable urban transport planning


25.1 Sustainable urban mobility and land use

25.2 Transport choices in urban areas

25.3 From car ownership to mobility services: new approaches in transportation

25.4 Smart growth: linking land use planning and mobility

25.5 Recommendations for urban transportation

Chapter 26: The psychological needs of city dwellers: implications for sustainable urban planning


26.1 Introduction

26.2 Individual differences in city dwellers’ needs

26.3 The need for quiet, unpolluted, natural and aesthetically pleasing areas

26.4 The need for security

26.5 The need for social interaction

26.6 Conclusions

Chapter 27: Possible futures for sustainable building design


27.1 Introduction

27.2 Reconsidering building systems relationships to facilitate sustainable building design

27.3 Three approaches to sustainable design and corresponding case studies

27.4 Conclusions

Chapter 28: Moving toward urban sustainability: using lessons and legacies of the past


28.1 Introduction

28.2 Crisis, transition and transformation in urban development

28.3 Environmental crises and transitions in New York City

28.4 Conclusions

Chapter 29: A vision of suburban sustainability: the Long Island Radically Rezoned project


29.1 Introduction

29.2 The inherent efficiency of cities

29.3 The new model of sustainability

29.4 Case study: Long Island Radically Rezoned – a regenerative vision for a living island



Global populations have grown rapidly in recent decades, leading to ever increasing demands for shelter, resources, energy and utilities. Coupled with the worldwide need to achieve lower impact buildings and conservation of resources, the need to achieve sustainability in urban environments has never been more acute. This book critically reviews the fundamental issues and applied science, engineering and technology that will enable all cities to achieve a greater level of metropolitan sustainability, and assist nations in meeting the needs of their growing urban populations.

Part one introduces key issues related to metropolitan sustainability, including the use of both urban metabolism and benefit cost analysis. Part two focuses on urban land use and the environmental impact of the built environment. The urban heat island effect, redevelopment of brownfield sites and urban agriculture are discussed in depth, before part three goes on to explore urban air pollution and emissions control. Urban water resources, reuse and management are explored in part four, followed by a study of urban energy supply and management in part five. Solar, wind and bioenergy, the role of waste-to-energy systems in the urban infrastructure, and smart energy for cities are investigated. Finally, part six considers sustainable urban development, transport and planning.

With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Metropolitan sustainability is an essential resource for low-impact building engineers, sustainability consultants and architects, town and city planners, local/municipal authorities, and national and non-governmental bodies, and provides a thorough overview for academics of all levels in this field.

Key Features

  • Critically reviews the fundamental issues and applied science, engineering and technology that will enable all cities to achieve a greater level of metropolitan sustainability
  • Will assist nations in meeting the needs of their growing urban populations
  • Chapters discuss urban land use, the environmental impact of the build environment, the urban heat island effect, urban air pollution and emissions control, among other topics


Low-impact building engineers, sustainability consultants and architects; Town and city planners, local/municipal authorities, national and non-governmental bodies; Academics in this field


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© Woodhead Publishing 2012
Woodhead Publishing
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About the Editors

F Zeman Editor

Frank Zeman is Assistant Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at the Royal Military College of Canada, and the former Director of the Center for Metropolitan Sustainability at the New York Institute of Technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Royal Military College of Canada, Canada