Membrane Characterization - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444637765, 9780444637918

Membrane Characterization

1st Edition

Editors: Nidal Hilal Ahmad Ismail Takeshi Matsuura Darren Oatley-Radcliffe
eBook ISBN: 9780444637918
Paperback ISBN: 9780444637765
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 20th February 2017
Page Count: 458
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Membrane Characterization provides a valuable source of information on how membranes are characterized, an extremely limited field that is confined to only brief descriptions in various technical papers available online.

For the first time, readers will be able to understand the importance of membrane characterization, the techniques required, and the fundamental theory behind them. This book focuses on characterization techniques that are normally used for membranes prepared from polymeric, ceramic, and composite materials.

Key Features

  • Features specific details on many membrane characterization techniques for various membrane materials of industrial and academic interest
  • Contains examples of international best practice techniques for the evaluation of several membrane parameters, including pore size, charge, and fouling
  • Discusses various membrane models more suitable to a specific application
  • Provides examples of ab initio calculations for the design, optimization, and scale-up of processes based on characterization data


Membrane scientists involved in membrane preparation for various applications; chemical engineers and material scientists; students at the upper undergraduate and graduate levels; post-doctoral researchers; and professors; Membrane manufacturers

Table of Contents

Part 1. Spectroscopy Methods for Membrane Characterization

Chapter 1. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. FTIR Principle and Analysis Process
  • 3. Sample Preparation Methods
  • 4. Techniques of Sample Handling
  • 5. Membrane Surface Functionalization Monitoring by FTIR
  • 6. Stability and Durability Monitoring in Various Membrane Application by FTIR
  • 7. Conclusion

Chapter 2. Raman Spectroscopy

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Principle of Raman Spectroscopy
  • 3. Raman Spectroscopy for Polymer Characterization
  • 4. Raman Spectroscopy for Polymeric Membrane Characterization
  • 5. Conclusion
  • List of Abbreviation

Chapter 3. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Fundamentals of EPR
  • 3. EPR Applications for the Synthetic Polymeric Membranes
  • 4. Other Examples of EPR Applications
  • 5. Conclusions

Chapter 4. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Basics of NMR Spectroscopy
  • 3. Prediction of Molecular Structure, Blend Miscibility, Phase Morphology of the Polymers
  • 4. Determination of Pore Structure and Pore Radius of the Polymeric Membrane
  • 5. Determination of Stability and Degradation of Polymeric Membranes
  • 6. Conclusion
  • List of Abbreviations
  • List of Symbols

Chapter 5. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Basics of XPS
  • 3. Determination of Atomic Concentration in Polymer Membranes
  • 4. Prediction of Crosslinking and Hydrophilicity of the Polymer Membranes
  • 5. Conclusion

Chapter 6. Small-Angle Scattering Techniques (SAXS/SANS)

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Analysis of Small-Angle Scattering Profile
  • 3. Scattering Profile of Cross-Linked Polymer
  • 4. Study of the TFC Membrane
  • 5. Small-Angle Scattering From Dilute Polymer Solution or Colloidal Solution Systems
  • 6. Probing Polymer–Nanoparticle Interaction in Dilute Solution
  • 7. Structure of Polymer Nanocomposite Membrane
  • 8. Understanding Form and Structure Factor in Rubbery Polydimethylsiloxane Membrane
  • 9. Conclusions

Part 2. Microscopy Methods for Membrane Characterization

Chapter 7. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. AFM Imaging Modes
  • 3. Interaction Force Measurements
  • 4. Membrane Surface Imaging and Characterization
  • 5. Fouling Characterization of Filtration Membranes Using AFM
  • 6. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 8. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Basics of TEM
  • 3. Bright-Field and Dark-Field Images
  • 4. Specimen Preparation
  • 5. Characterization of Membrane Building Block
  • 6. Membrane Characterization
  • 7. Conclusion
  • List of Abbreviations
  • List of Symbols

Chapter 9. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) Spectroscopy

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Fundamentals of Electron Microscopy
  • 3. Applications in Membrane Characterization
  • 4. Conclusion

Part 3. Physical and Chemical Characterization Methods for Membrane Characterization

Chapter 10. Pore Size Measurements and Distribution for Ceramic Membranes

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Typical Method for Pore Size Measurements and Distribution
  • 3. Comparisons Between Measurements
  • 4. Conclusion
  • Notation
  • Greek Letters
  • Subscripts

Chapter 11. The Bubble Gas Transport Method

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Principle of Bubble Gas Transport Method
  • 3. Experimental Setup and Procedure
  • 4. Critical Aspects of Bubble Gas Transport Method
  • 5. Conclusion
  • Abbreviations and Symbols

Chapter 12. Contact Angle Measurements

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Theoretical Background
  • 3. Method of Contact Angle Measurement
  • 4. Factors Affecting Contact Angle Measurements
  • 5. Hydrophilicity/Hydrophobicity Analysis
  • 6. The Membrane Characterization by Contact Angle
  • 7. Conclusion
  • List of Symbols

Part 4. Mechanical Properties Characterization of Membranes

Chapter 13. Mechanical Characterization of Membranes

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Mechanical Characterization Techniques
  • 3. Mechanical Degradation of Polymeric Membranes
  • 4. Stress-State of Polymeric Membrane Under Actual Condition
  • 5. Advanced Techniques for Mechanical Properties Testing
  • 6. Conclusions
  • List of Abbreviations

Part 5. Mass Transport, Modeling and Feed Solution Characterization

Chapter 14. Gas and Vapor Transport in Membranes

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Gas and Vapor Transport in Membranes
  • 3. Application
  • 4. Conclusion
  • List of Abbreviations
  • List of Symbols

Chapter 15. Mass Transport in Porous Liquid Phase Membranes

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Mass Transfer From the Bulk Feed to the Membrane Surface
  • 3. Separation of Solutes at the Membrane Surface
  • 4. Transport of Solutes Through the Membrane
  • 5. Solute Transfer From the Membrane Interface to the Bulk Permeate
  • 6. Liquid Phase Membrane Applications
  • 7. Conclusions

Chapter 16. The Use of Modeling for Characterization of Membranes

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Background Information
  • 3. Simple Models for Basic Membrane Characterization
  • 4. Advanced Models for Structural and Electrical Properties Characterization
  • 5. Conclusions

Chapter 17. Feed Solution Characterization

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Particle Size and Shape
  • 3. Methods of Particle Size Measurement
  • 4. Particle Charge and Zeta Potential
  • 5. Viscosity
  • 6. Conclusions

Chapter 18. Electrokinetic Phenomena for Membrane Charge

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Electrophoresis
  • 3. Electro-Osmosis
  • 4. Sedimentation Potential
  • 5. Streaming Potential
  • 6. Conclusions


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About the Editor

Nidal Hilal

Professor Nidal Hilal holds a chair in Water Process Engineering. In addition to three years of industrial experience, he has worked continuously in academia since graduation in 1981. Over the years, he has made a major contribution becoming an internationally leading expert in the application of atomic force microscopy to chemical and process engineering, particularly in water resources development. His research interests lie broadly in the identification of innovative and cost-effective solutions to real world process engineering problems within the fields of nano-water, membrane technology, water treatment including desalination, colloid engineering and the nano-engineering applications of atomic force microscopy. Professor Hilal is internationally recognized as a world-leader in developing and applying the force measurement capability of AFM to the study of membrane separation and engineering processes at the nanoscale level. He was awarded the Kuwait Prize of Applied Science for Water Resources Development in 2005 by the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS). This prize is one of the highest scientific honours which are awarded in the Middle East for intellectual achievement. He has recently published a pioneering book on Atomic Force Microscopy and Nano-Process Engineering by Elsevier in 2009 and a book entitled Membrane Modification: Technology and Applications by CRC press in 2012. He has also published 4 textbooks, 27 book chapters and around 300 articles in the refereed scientific literature. Professor Hilal is the Editor-in-Chief for the international journal Desalination and on the editorial boards of a number of international journals, and is a member of the advisory boards of several multinational organizations. He is a registered European Engineer, a Chartered Engineer in the UK and a Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers. Professor Hilal has served on and has carried out extensive consultancy for industry, government departments, research councils and universities on an international basis.

Affiliations and Expertise

Centre for Water Advanced Technologies and Environmental Research (CWATER,) Swansea University, UK

Ahmad Ismail

Professor Ahmad Fauzi Ismail holds a chair at the Petroleum and Renewable Energy Engineering and Advanced Membrane Technology Research Center (AMTEC) at the Universiti Teknologi, Malaysia. He received the Malaysian Young Scientist Award in 2000 and was the first Malaysian recipient for the ASEAN Young Scientist and Technologist Award in 2001. He has been the recipient of several other prestigious awards and most recently received the Merdeka Award for Outstanding Scholastic Achievement and the IChemE (Malaysia) Innovator of The Year Award (both 2014). His areas of expertise included the development of membrane technology for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, membrane contactors, gas separation and development of nanofibers and carbon nanostructured materials for energy related applications. He has been highly successful in attracting major funding in these areas and has several patents, more than 400 technical or scientific papers in well-established and high impact factor international refereed journals. His current H-index value is 40 with total citation number of over 6300.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Gas Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia

Takeshi Matsuura

Professor Takeshi Matsuura is a senior academic with a career spanning more than 50 years and has held several distinguished posts in many countries including the USA, Canada, Japan, Germany and Singapore. Most recently he joined the University of Ottawa (1992) as the British Gas/NSERC Industrial Research Chair. He served as professor of the Department of Chemical Engineering and the director of the Industrial Membrane Research Institute (IMRI) until he retired in 2002 and was appointed as professor emeritus in 2003. He received the Research Award of International Desalination and Environmental Association in 1983. He is a fellow of the Chemical Institute of Canada and a member of the North American Membrane Society. He has delivered plethora of invited lectures and presentations to many of the world’s foremost scientific events and conferences. He has published over 400 papers in refereed journals, authored and co-authored 6 books and edited 8 books. A special symposium was held at the Eighth Annual Meeting of the North American Membrane Society to honour Prof. Matsuura (together with Dr. S. Sourirajan) for life-long contributions to membrane research and a similarly the International Conference on Membrane Science and Technology 2013 was held in his honour. In addition, he has received the George S. Glinski Award for Excellence in Research and the occasion of his 75th birthday was marked with a special edition of the journal Desalination.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Faculty of Engineering, Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Ottawa, Ottawa ON, Canada

Darren Oatley-Radcliffe

Dr Darren Oatley-Radcliffe holds a degree in Chemical and Biological Process Engineering from the University of Wales in 2000, receiving a commendation in the IChemE PENCE prize and the BOC Shuftan memorial prize. Following graduation, he proceeded to read for a Ph.D within the same department under the supervision of Prof. W. Richard Bowen FREng FIChemE. He specialised in membrane separation processes, in particular the complex micro-hydrodynamics and interfacial phenomena associated with aqueous nanofiltration. In the fall of 2004, Darren accepted the post of Senior Process Engineer with GlaxoSmithKline R&D Ltd and developed expertise in cGMP batch production of pharmaceuticals and developed as an industrial process engineer. He received several awards and promotions and was asked to aid in the Innovative Manufacturing Initiative (IMI) (the development of the world’s first fully continuous primary pharmaceutical processing facility). Having successfully completed the inaugural campaigns in this landmark facility, he was awarded the title of ‘Vanguard’ at the GSK CEO Sustainability Awards 2009 and was further promoted to Investigator. In the spring of 2010, he returned to academia and joined Centre for Water Advanced Technologies and Environmental Research (CWATER) at Swansea University, UK. He has led several research projects and has published over 20 refereed papers in the fields of membrane technology, algal processing and pharmaceutical manufacture.

Affiliations and Expertise

College of Engineering, Swansea University, UK